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Full text of "The family topographer: being a compendious account of the antient and present state of the counties of England"

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:.5 



il 



THE 



FAMILY- TOPOGRAPHER: 



BEING 



A COMPENDIOUS ACCOUNT 



OF THE 



ANTIENT AND PRESENT STATE 



OF THE 



COUNTIES OF ENGLAND. 



By SAMUEL t¥^ 









t -J 

M «< ^i 






VOL. VL— NORTHERN CIRCUJ 









LONDON: 



3/^^VV^^ 



J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, 

25, Parliament Street. 

1837. 



Nichols nod Son, 85, ParliamcDt Street. 



A COAfPENDIOUS ACCOUNT 



OP THE 



ANTIENT AND PRESENT STATE 



OP THE 



NORTHERN CIRCUIT. 



By SAMUEL TYMMS. 



LONDON : 

J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, «5, PARtUMtNT Street. 

1837. 



TO 



NICHOLAS CARLISLE, Esq. K.H. 

SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES; 



AUTHOR Of 



VARIOUS TOPOGRAPHICAL AND ANTIQUARIAN WORKS; 



THIS VOLUME IS INSCRIBED 



IN TESTIMONY OF THB PLEASURE AND ADVANTAGE 



DERIVED FROM HIS LABOURS; 



AND IN GRATITUDE 



FOR HIS FRIENDSHIP AND KINDNESS I BT 



THE AUTHOR. 



NORTHERN CIRCUIT, 



CUMBERLAND. 

DURHAM. 

LANCASHIRE. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. 
WESTMORLAND. 
YORKSHIRE (thrbb ridings). 



I 



CUMBEKLAIfD. 




CUMBERLAND. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Boundaries. North, Solway Frith, the Esk, the Liddal, 

■ and the Kershope, which separate it from Scotland: 

East, Northumberland and Durham, nearly sixtj miles: 

South, Westmoreland for fifty miles, and Lancashire for 

twenty : West, the Irish Sea. 

Crreatest lengthy 80 : greatest breadth, 35 : circum/er' 
ence, 224: square 1523 miles; statute acres^ 974,720. 

Province^ York. Dioceses, Carlisle, excepting the Ward of 
Allerdale above Derwent, which is in Chester, and the 
parish of Alston Moor, which belongs to Durham. There 
is an Archdeaconry of Carlisle, and Deaneries of Carlisle, 
Penrith, and Wigton. The Deaneries of Allerdale and 
Copeland are in the diocese of Chester. 

Circuit, Northern. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Kimbri or Cumbri, a tribe of the Bri- 
gantes ; Volantii. Cities or Towns, Carlisle : Wales 
Castle, near Ravenglass. Roads, from the Eamont to 
Carlisle, with a branch to Castleover ; Maiden Way, 
from Kirby Thore to Bewcastle. Earthworks, Aspa- 
tria ; Dalston, tutnulus ; Great Salkeld, called the Dyke, 
and another Aikton Castle; Penrith, King Arthur's 
Round Table, an amphitheatre. Remains, Aspatria, in 
a kistvaen, arms, a spur, and gold ornaments; Millom, 
battle-axe, thirteen inches and a half long. 

Druidical Remains, Addingham, a circle about eighty yards 
in diameter, of seventy-two stones, called **Long Meg and 
her Daughters'' ; Annaside, circle of twelve stones ; 
Broadfield ; Carrock Fell ; Castle Rigg, near Keswick ; 
Cumwhittou, a circle of eighty-eight stones, called Grey 
Yauds, or King Harry Fell; Dalston, formerly a circle ; 
Egremont, circle of ten large stones ; Gutterby, the Kirk- 
stones, thirty in number, and standing alone ; Hall Poss, 
circle of eight frti^'iis; Keswick, a circle of thirty-eight 
stones, with ten inner ones ; Millom Castle^ imperfect ; 
Mother by, circle ; Souden or Solden Hill at High Head ; 
Sunkin Kirk, at Blackcomb, 50 large stones, and many 
small ones form a circle of 84 feet in diameter. Cairns 
at Castle Carrock ; Cumrew ; Gutterby, 15 yards in 
diameter ; Lazonby Fell ; Loaden How ; and Mo- 
therby. Tumuli at Egremont, one of loose stones, about 
forty yards in circumference ; Ellenborough; and Great 
Salkeld. 

Roman Province, Britannia Inferior. Stations, Aballaba, 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 3 

Watchcross; Amboglana, Burdoswald ; Apiatorium, 
Bewcastle ; Arbeia, Moresby or Irby; Axelodunum. 
Burgh-on-the-Sands ; Castra Exploratorum, Netherby- 
on the-Esk ; Congavata, Stanwix ; Derventio, Papcastle ; 
Gabrooentum, Drumburgh; LugubaHium, Carlisle; Die- 
nacum, Old Carlisle ; Petriana, Castlesteads in Irthington ; 
Tunnocelum, Bowness ; Virosidum, Ellenborough; Vo- 
reda. Old Penrith. Encampments, Brampton; Castle- 
steads and White Stones on Broadfield Common ; Cun- 
ningarth, near the Shavrkbeck quarries ; Dalston, three ; 
Elneburgh; Eskmeals, Bootle; Hardknot Hill, Mun- 
caster; Mawburgh or Malbray ; Moresby; Ponsonby 
Fell; Redstone, near Whitbarrow Fields; Watch- 
cross. Remains discovered. Of miscellaneous antiquities 
the principal collections are at Netherby, Nether Hall, Wal- 
ton House, and Wigton. No county in England, except 
Northumberland, produced so many altars and inscrip- 
tions, l^he antiquarian brothers Lysons have given a 
description of 142 altars and inscribed stones. The Roman 
wall, called the Pict's Wall, begun of earth in 121 by Ha- 
drian, and finished in stone eight feet thick and 12 high, 
by Severus, extending from the Irish Sea to the German 
Ocean, a course of 100 miles, passes through this county. 
At Alston Moor, altars; Bewcastle, buildings; near 
Brampton, inscription on a rock ; Burgh-on-the-Sands, 
altar, urns ; Burdoswald, inscriptions ; Carlisle, houses, 
coins, altars, &c. and two highly sculptured brass incense 
vases, in 1804, now in the British Museum; Castlesteads, 
altars, inscriptions, intaglios, sculptures, &c. ; Eagles- 
field, paved way; Ellenborough, houses, streets, mir- 
rors, glasses, &c. ; Irthington ; Moresby, altars, inscrip- 
tions; Muncaster, coins, arrow-heads, battle axes, &c. ; 
Naworth Castle, inscribed stones; Netherby, baths, altars, 
medals, inscriptions, coins, and utensils ; Old Carlisle, 
sacrificial instruments, altars, coins ; Papcastle, numerous 



4 COUNTY HISTORY-— CUMBBRLAITD. 

vessels, coins, &€. ; Old Penrith, monuments, altars, &c. ; 
Ravenglass, inscriptions ; Stanwix ; Tredennan, in- 
scriptions ; Watchcross, inscriptions. Roads^ from 
Carlisle, by Penrith, &c. into Lancashire; from the 
Eamont to Carlisle, with a branch firom Longtown to 
Netherby, and thence to Castleover ; from Maryport to 
Bowness, another to Papcastle near Cockermouth, and 
a third by Old Carlisle to Carlisle ; a road from Amble- 
side and Plumpton Wall ; Maiden Way, from Kirkby- 
thore, by Crossfell, to Whitley Castle in Northumberland 
and Caervoran ; from Bewcastle to Netherby. 

Saxon Octarchy, Northumbria. 

CathedraL Carlisle, created by Henry I. in 1 133, a fine old 
buildings of Norman and early pointed architecture. 

Abbeys, Calder, founded by Ranulph de Meschines in 1 134, 
completed by Thomas de Multon, remains of the square 
tower of the church with beautiful pointed arches and clus- 
tered columns, a picturesque ruin ; Holm Cultram, the 

' foundation variously assigned to Henry I. of England, to 
David of Scotland, and to Prince Henry, son of David, 
about U50. 

Priories, Carlisle, founded by Walter, a Norman, and 
endowed by Henry I. in 1101, afterwards the cathedral ; 
Dacre; Lanercost, founded in 1169, by Robert de Val- 
libus, lord of Gilsland, the church and some ruins of tbe 
cloisters and offices remain ; St. Bees, about 650, by Beg-a, 
a holy woman from Ireland, refounded by William de 
Meschines, Lord of Copeland, the Church remains ; 
Wetheral, by Ranulph de Meschines, Earl of Chester, m 
1088, a tower remains with a- fine arch. 



ANTIBNT STATE AND REMAINS. O 

Gunneries, Armathwaite, now called Nunnery, founded by 
William Rufus, in anno 2 ; Carlisle, two, one destroyed 
by the Danes, and the other founded by David of Scot- 
land ; Seaton, formerly Lekelay, by Gunild, daughter of 
Henry de Boyvill, fourth lord of Millom, a few fragments. 

Friaries. Carlisle, both black and grey, established in 1233. 
Penrith, grey, temp. Edward II. 

Preeepiory, Skirwith. 

Coileges Grevstock, founded in 13^ by Neville, Archbi- 
shop of York ; Kirkoswald, founded about 1623, by 
Thomas Threlkeld 

Hospitals, Caldbeck, built by the Prior of Carlisle, about 
1100^ Carlisle, St* Nicholas, of royal foundation ; Wig- 
ton, St. Leonard. 

Churches. Aspatria; Bridekirk, Bromefield, Dearham, 
Edenhall, Grinsdale, Irthington, Isell, and Kirk Bampton, 
have Norman doorways ; Burgh-on-the-Sands, Norman 
doorway and fortified tower; Caldbeck, built 1112; 
Great Salkeld, Norman doorway and fortified tower; 
Greystock, built in the time of Edward II. or III. ; 
Kirklinton, a very complete Norman church; Kirkos- 
wald, with a belfry distinct on the top of a hill ; Laner- 
cost, the priory church ; Newton Arlosh, now in ruins, 
built about 1303, has a fortified tower ; St. Bees, belonged 
to the Priory, highly ornamented pointed, with Norman 
tower; Torpenhow, good Norman specimens; War- 
wick, plain Saxon, with semicircular apsis. 

Chapei. Dalston, foundations. 



6 COUNTY HISTORY — crMBBRLAND. 

Fonts, Aspatria ; Bootle, octagonal, of black marble ; 
Bowness; Bridekirk, with a Runic inscription; Cross 
Canonbj ; Dearham, Saxon, curiously carved. 

Castles, Armatbwaite ; Askerton ; Bewcastle, built by 
Bueth, a Norman lord of Gisland ; Burgh-upon-Sands ; 
Carlisle, built by William Rufus, and is partly kept in re« 
pair, much of the old work remains, though much of it 
was taken down in 1835: Castel Carrock ; Castel 
Hewin, belonged to King Ewaine of Cumbria, temp. Ida ; 
Cockermouth, temp. William the Conqueror, by Waldeof 
first lord of Allerdale, many remains ; Cumrew or Dun- 
walloght; Dacre; Egremont, erected near the com- 
mencement of the twelfth century, by William de Mes- 
chines, the first Baron of Copeland, picturesque and im- 
portant ruins; Greystock, castellated 1353, by Wm. 
de Greystock; High Head, erected 1342, by William 
L'Angleys^ a gateway tower, &c. remains ; Kirkoswald, 
by Radulph Engaine, lord of Kirkoswald, or, according 
to Pennant by Hugh de Morrille, in the second year of 
John ; LiddelFs Strength, belonged to the Stotevilles ; 
Millom, fortified and embattled by Sir John Huddleatone 
in 1335, in ruins, part occupied as a fkrm-house; Ka- 
worth, castellated about 10 Edward HI. by Ralph Lord 
Dacre, two lofty towers connected by masses of masonry, 
enclosing a quadrangular court, remain ; Papcastle, of 
Roman origin ; Penrith, erected by the Nevills temp. 
Richard H. ; Rockcliff;' Rose, six miles from Carlisle, 
castellated 1336 ; Scaleby, built about 1307, by Robert 

de Tilliol ; Wulstey. erected by the Abbots of Holm 
Cultram. 

Mansions, Dacre Castle, now a farm-house; Dalston 
Hall, of the 14th century, now a farm-house ; Drum- 
burgh Castle ; Harby Brow ; Hardrigg Hall ; Hew- 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 7 

thwaite Hall ; How Hall, on the Ennerdale Water, built 
1566 ; Irton Hall, the tower very old ; Isell Hall, one 
of the old towers remains ; Kirk-Andrews-upon-Eske ; 
Lamplugh Hall, date 1595 ; Muncaster ; Netherby ; 
Nether Hall; Warthel Hall, profusely carved, now a 
farm-house. 

Crosses, Bewcasile; Croglin; Dalston; Dearham; 
Gosforth; Irton; Muncaster; Nunnery; Rockliffe. 

Obelisk*, Aspatria; Bewcastle^ in the churchyard, with 
Runic inscriptions, sciilptures, &c. ; Penrith, in the 
churchyard, called the Giant's Thumb, and near the sin- 
gular obeliscal monument the Giant's Tomb, which will 
be hereafter noticed ; St. Bride's, 



8 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers. Aine ; Bleng, rises near Ponsonby Fell, and fidb 
into the Irt near Santon ; Bruscath ; Calder, rises by 
Ennerdale Water, falls into the sea at Calder Foot ; Cal- 
dew, rises on Caldbeck Fell, joins the Eden at Carlisle, its 
course 13 miles ; Cambeck ; Cocker, rises out of Butter- 
mere Water, joins the Derwent at Cockermouth ; Crog- 
lin, rises on Thackthom Fell, and fidls into the Eden at 
Nunnery ; Derwent, rises in Borrowdale, and falls into 
the sea at Workington, a course of 20 miles ; Duddon, 
rises near Hardknot, and falls into the sea near the Isle 
of Walney ; Eamont, from Ulleswater, joins the Lowther 
near Penrith ; Eden, enters at Edenhall, and fidls into 
the sea near Rowcliffe, its course 35 miles, one of the 
most considerable in the north of England ; Ellen, rises 
upon Cald Fell, and falls into the sea at Maryport ; Ehen 
or Enn, from Ennerdale Water, by Egremont, to the sea 
at Ennfoot, a course of eleven miles; Esk, rises in 
the head of Eskdale in Scotland, is joined by the Leven, 
and fiills into the sea near Rockliffe Marsh, a course 
of thirty miles; another Esk, formed by some small 
streams rising near Bow Fell, proceeds to the sea at Ra- 
venglass, a course of 13 miles ; Gelt, from Croglin Fell 
to the Irthing near Bridgwood Foot, 10 miles ; Greta, 
issues out of Thirle Mere, and after seven miles joins the 
Derwent ; Irt, from Wast Water to the sea at Raven- 
glass, eight miles ; Irthing, enters at Gilsland Spa, and 
falls into the Eden after 13 miles ; Kershope, from Dove 
Craggs to the Liddal ; Kingwater, rising near Side Com- 
mon, falls into Irthing at Kelwood, its course 10 miles ; 
Line, formed by the union of Black Line and White line, 
the former rising at Dove Craggs and the latter from 



PftBSBNT STATB AND APPBAEAHCB. » 

Chmtenbury Craggs; liddd. joins the Kewhope aid 
theEsk; liza; Mite, from BununoorTwii, to flieie*** 
IUTenglas8.«eTeniiiaes; Went, rises in Abton, and hw » 
coane of six mUes ; Ny te ; P*tteril. from Oreystock to Ae 
Eden at Rickerby,20 miles; Pultrop; Tees, rises on Cross 
Fell ; Tyne, rises in Alston, and after nine miles enters 
NorUinmberland ; Vent; Wampool, from Oitt in Dal- 
iton to the sea at Kiricbride, twelve nrifcs ; Waver, from 
Cadand FeU to the sea at Holm Cultram, 12 mUes ; Wwa, 
rises at Bosley, and joins the Wampool at Docbrray. 

Laket Bassentiiwidte Water, or Broad Water, three miles 
nordi of Keswick Lake, four miles long and one mUe at 
its greatest breadth, beautiful scenery ; Blea Tarn ; 
Bray Tarn ; Burumoor Tarn, among wild mountwns. 
neJlMitre Dale, of 250 ««s ; Butter Mere, about o« 
mile south of Crummock. from which i* " ••P"****^''^ * 
luxuriant vaUey. fe about one mUe and a half long and half 
.mile broad, and into it numerous tornmte pour down 
from the mountains, one of the cataracte M.ng between 
400 or 500 yards ; Crummock Water, expands itself 
beneath lofty mountains, and extends nearly four mdes in 
length, and half a mile in breadth ; Derock Water^ong 
the hills near Ravenglass. half a mile in length; Derwent 
Water or Keswick Lake, of an irregular but raUier oval 
ftrure,' three miles long and one and a half broad^ewa. 
wied, interesting, and compUcated ; Ennerdale Water, 
near Whitehaven, guarded by craggy and almost impassable 
heights on all sides but the west, two mil« long )md tiiree 
q„^ broad; Lowes Water, above MeUbreak, about 
one mile long and aquarter broad ; Marfan Tarn ; Over 
Water half a mile long and a quarter broad, barrenly 
dtaat^i; Rowcliffe Lough; SeUafield Tarn; Stark; 

* A Tarn is a smdlUke elevated among the rocks. 



10 COUNTY HISTORT-HSUIIBBRLAND. 

Sty Head Tarn ; Talidii Tarn, of 50 acres ; Thirle 
Mere, or Wythuru Water, or Leathes Water, a narrow 
irregular sheet, about three miles in length, skirting the 
bay of Helrellyn, and divided into two parts by a bridge ; 
Tindale Tarn, of 50 acres ; Tamwadling, at Arma- 
thwaite, of 100 acres ; Ulk Water, nine miles in length, 
and nearly three quarters in hreadth, and the most gene* 
rally admired of English lakes ; Wast Water, three miles 
long, three quarters broad, and 45 fathows de^ never 
been known to freeze* 

Inkmd ^avigaH^n, Derwent and Eden rivers; White- 
haven firook; Canal from Solway Frith to Carlisle, 
opened in 1823 for vessels of 100 tons, eleven milj^ in 
length, cost £90,000. 

Eminences and Fietes. Airey Force, celebrated cawaade ; 
Baron Wood and Catglsnt ; Blackcomb, near Bootle, 
1919 feet above the level of the sea, commands a view of 
seven English counties, some mountains in North Wales, 
seven Scotch counties, and the Isle of Man ; Bootl^ Bea- 
con ; Borrowdale, affords a variety of wild, romantic, 
grand, and picturesque scenes ; Bow Fei^l, 29 1 1 ft. above 
the sea ; Brampton Castle Hill, very extensive views ; 
Carrock Fell, 500 yards high; Carlisle Castle; Cattle 
Cragg Hill ; Cbristenbury Craggs ; Corby Castle, has a 
fine view of the well wooded and rocky banks of the 
Eden; Cross F«ll, 2901 feet ab^ive the sea, and 
twenty miles in circumference at the base ; Crosthwaite, 
Ouse Bridge, que of the most beautiful prospects on the 
Broad Water near Keswick; Cumrew Fell; Dale 
Houghton; Dent Hill, 1115 feet above the sea ; Eden- 
hall, picturesque scenery ; Forcemill, a romantic cascade 
at Great Salkeld ; Grasmerb Fell, 2756ft. above the 
sea ;' Hardknot ; Hartside Fell, extensive view ; Hel- 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 11 

VBLLYN, 3055 feet above the sea; High Pike, 2101 feet 
high ; High Stile ; Honister Cragg, the most striliing 
and picturesque rock in the count j ; Keswick Vale, one 
of the finest scenes in the country; King Harry Fell; 
Lianercost Prior j in a romantic vale ; Lingyclose Head ; 
Lorton, most beautiful, pleasant, and fertile vale ; Loir- 
dore cascade; Maryport, remarkably fine views; Mun- 
caster Fell ; Naddle Fell ; the walks at Nunaery upon 
the banks of the little river Croglin exhibit much romantic 
and beautiful scenery ; Pillar, 2893 feet above the sea ; 
Penrith Beacon, extensive and beautiful views over nearly 
the whole county ; Ponsonby Hall, a number of beauti* 
ful and extensive prospects, particularly over the sea; 
Red Pike ; Saddleback, 2787 feet high ; St. Bees Head, 
222 feet, with a lighthouse, exceeding fine views ; Sandala 
Top ; Scarrow Hill ; Sca Fell, 3166 feet high at the 
High Point, and 3092 at the Low Point ; Sdlly Bank, 
500 feet above the sea; Skidd aw, 3022 feet above tiie 
Derwent Water, to the north of which it stands, grand and 
extensive proqjects ; SouterFell; Spade- Adam Top ; Sty 
Head, extensive prospect down Borrowdale, and the Vale 
of Keswick, terminated by Skiddaw; UUs Water, re- 
markably beautiful and picturesque; Walton House, 
Tiews exceedingly diversified ; Wa«tdale, extremely pictu- 
resque ; Workington Hill ; Wrynose. 

Natural Curiosities. Aikton, sulphur spring, discovered 
about 1775 ; Airey Force, in Gowbarrow Park ; Bewcastle, 
Brampton (three). Great Salkeld, Iron Gill in Sebergham, 
chalybeate springs ; Biglands and Bewcastle sulphureous 
springs; Borrowdale Pass; the Bowder Stone, in Bor- 
rowdale, 30 yards long and 8 high, computed to weigh 
near 1800 tons, and to contain 23,000 feet of stone; Cros- 
thwaite (two), Drig, Gilcrux, Stanger, &c. saline springs ; 
Gilderdale Fell, near Alston, the scum of which is used to 



12 COUNTY BISTORT — CUMBBRLA.MD. 

paint yellow and red; Oilsland Spa, near Lanercost, 
similar to that at Harrog^ate in Yorkshire ; Holywell, at 
LaDerco8t, medicinal waters ; Howke cascade ; Low- 
dore waterfall, at Derwent Water, a series of cascades 
falling over an enormous pile of projecting crags, and the 
height of the fall 200 feet ; Kirkland in Wigton, medici- 
nal water ; Melmerby, sulphureous and chalybeate springs ; 
Rockcliff, mineral spring, tints paper a beautiful gold 
colour ; Scale Force, near Buttermere, exceeding in extent 
of fall the renowned Niagara; Sebergham, petrifying 
spring ; Ulls Water, grand and varied echoes. 

Public Edifices. Brampton, town hall, erected in 1817 by 
the Earl of Carlisle. Carlisle, academy of arts, established 
in 1823 : assize court, architect Rob. Smirke, jun., 1810 : 
castle magazine and armoury : bridge, over the Eden, in 

1812, of five elliptic arches, each 65 feet span, architect 
Robert Smirke, junior, cost £70,000: central school, 
erected 1812: county gaol and house of correction, erected 
1827, cost £40,000: grammar school: girrs charity 
school: guildhall: house of recovery, founded 1820: St. 
Patrick's school, for the education of 400 children of all 
religious denominations, founded 1825: and town-hall. 
Cockermouth, bridge over the Cocker, rebuilt 1828, 160 
feet long, cost £2,600 : bridge over the Derwent, 270 ft. 
in length, of two arches : town hall. Dovenby, hospital 
And schools. Egremont, bridge over the Ehen. Garis- 
town, iron bridge of three arches over the Esk. Keswick, 
school and market house, built 1813: town hall, erected 

1813. Longtown, stone bridge, over the Esk, of five 
arches : hospital. Penrith, house of correction, erected 
1826: school. Plumbland school. St. Bees, free school » 
founded by Archbishop Orindal in 1.587* Warwick, bridge 
of stone, four arches over the Eden. Whitehaven, custom 
house, erected 1811: dispensary, instituted 1783: poor- 



SEATS. 13 

house, erected 1743 ; quays and harbour, with ligfhthouses, 
pier, and fort and half-moon battery: several schools: 
theatre. Wilton, hospital, founded by Dr. Thomlinson 
in 1725: Brookfield school, estabUshed 1826. Working, 
ton, bridge, erected 1763: assembly rooms: schools: 
theatre. 

Caves* Baron Wood, in Lazonby, called Sampson's Cave and 
the Giant's Chamber : Isis Parlis, or Giant's Caves, near 
Penrith, on the north bank of the river Eamon t, in the rock ; 
Tutman Hole, in Gilderdale Fell, more than a mile vk 
length ; Wetheral, three remarkable cells, called Con- 
stantine's cells, in the rock, 40 feet above the level of thr 
river. 

j&a^«, Whitehaven Castle, Earl of Lonsdale, 
Lord Lieutenant of the County, 

Acre Walls House, near Whitehaven, Joseph Steely esq. 
Ann's Hill, near Cockermouth, Arthur M'Kenzie, esq. 
Armathwaite Castle, Major George lliomas Colomb. 

Hall. Sir Frederick Fletcher Vane, Bart. 

Arthuret, Rev. Fergus Graham, 

Barrock Lodge, Low Hesket, William James, esq. 

Barrow House, Derwent Water, Joseph Pocklington, esq. 

Bishop Yards, Penrith, John de Whelpdale, esq. 

Bowscarr, near Penrith, Colonel William Youngson. 

Bravton Hall, Wilfred Lawson, esq. 

Bridekirk, Henry Tashmaker Thompson, esq, 

Brigham Hill, John Wilson, esq. 

Broadfield House, Henry Oliphant, esq, 

Caldbeck, Captain Thomas Backhouse. 

Calder Abbey, Thomas Hewin, esq. 

Cammerton HaU, Ralph Cook, esq. 

Carleton Hall, near Ravenglass, Joseph Burrough, esq. 

near Penrith, John Cowper, esq. 

Castletown House, Rockliffe, Robert Mounsey, esq. 
Clifton House, Richard Watts, esq. 
Cockermouth, Major Humphrey Senhouse. 
Corby Castle, Henry Howard, esq. 



14 GOUNTT HIST(mT-M)UHBBRLAND. 

Crofton Place, Sir Wastel firisco, Bart. 

Crosby House, Rev. Dr. Thomas Luwry. 

Cumrew, John Gill, esq. 

Dale Head, Thirle Mere, Thomas Stanger Leathes, esq. 

Dalemain, Edward Williams Haskell, esq, 

Dcrwent Bay, near Keswick, Lady William Gordon. 

Lodge, Sir Frederick IVeise Morshead, Bart. 

Dovecote, near Keswick, James Stanger, esq. 
Dovenby Hall, Joseph D. Ballantine Dykes, esq. 
Duddon Grove, Richard Towers, esq. 
Edenhall, Rev, Sir Christopher John Musgrave, Bart. 
Edmond Castle, Thomas Henry Graham, esq. 
Ennom Bank, George Troutbeck, esq. 
Gill Foot, near Eo^reraont, Thomas Hartley, esq. 
Gillgarron, Captam James Walker, R.N. 
Gowbarrow Park, Duke of Norfolk. 
Greta Bank, William Calvert, esq. 
Greta Hall, Dr. Robert Southey. 
Greystock Castle, Hon. Henry Howard. 
Greysouthen, Joseph Harris, esq. 
Halsteads, John Marshall, esq. 
Harker Lodge, Richard Ferguson, esq. 
Hawkrigg House, John Jefferson, esq. 
Hay Close, Joseph Lowden, esq. 
Hensingham Hall, Sir Joseph Senhouse, Bart. 
High (The), Thomas A. Hoskins, esq. 
High Crosby, Hon. Robert Leeson. 
- High Moor House, Wigton, Joseph Hodge, esq. 
Holm Rook Hall, Major Skeffington Lutwidge. 
Holme Hill, Sebergham Bridge, JoM'pli Salkeld, esq. 
Houghton Hall, Mrs. Anne I^erguson. 

House, William Hodgson, esq. 

Hutton John, William Bateman, esq. 

Hall, Francis Vane, esq. 

Ingwell, Joseph Gunton, esq. 
Irton Hall, Samuel Irton, esq. 
Isell Hall, William Wybergh, esq. 
Justice Town, Thomas Irwin, esq. 
Kingfield Hall, James Mounsey, esq. 
Kirklinfon Hall, Henry Farrer, esq. 

Park, Hugh Patrickson, esq. 

Knells, near Carlisle, John Dixon, esq. 
Knorron, Miss Elizabeth Blackburn. 



6EATS. 15 



Langrigg Hall, Mrs. Jane Barwise. 
Linethwaite, John Lamplugh Raper, esq. 
Lorton Hall, Raisbeck Luccock Bragg, esq. 
Lyulph's Tower, Hon. Henry Howard. 
Melmerby Hall, Robert Hodgson, esq. 
Mirehouse, Crosthwaite, John Spedding, esq. 
Moorhouse Hall, Richard Hodgson, esq. 
Mrs. Blacker Hamlin. 



Hill, Isaac Parker, esq. 



Moresby House, Milham Hartley, esq. 
Muncaster Castle, Lord Muncaster. 
Natirorth Castle, Earl of Carlisle. 
Nether Hall, Humphrey Senhouse, esq. 
Netherby, Sir James Graham, Bart. M.P. 
Nunnery, Francis Aglionby, esq. 
Ormathwaite Hall, Captain Joseph Dover. 
Papcastle, Major Henry Skelton. 
Park Nook, Charles Parker, esq. 
Penton, John Hodgson, esq. 

Thomas Knight, esq. 

Petteril Green, Christopher Parker, esq. 

Ponsonby Hall, Edward Stanley, esq. 

Rampsbeck Lodge, Bethel Eamshaw Stagof, esq. 

Rickerby, Captain James Reginald Torin Graham. 

— — William Richardson, esq. 

Rose Castle, Bishop of Carlisle. 

Rose Hill, Moresby, Milham Hartley, esq. 

St. Helen's, near Cockermouth, Rev. J. Bensour. 

Salkeld Lodge, Lieut.-Col. Samuel Lacy. 

Scaleby Castle, Rowland Fawcett, esq. 

Scarbank, Miss Francis Mowett. 

Skirsgill House, Hugh Parkin, esq. 

Skirwith Abbey, William Parker, esq. 

Snittle Garth, Roger Williamson, esq. 

Springfield, John Ponsonby, esq. 

Steel Bank, James Steel, esq. 

Stonehouse, Mrs. Richard Graham. 

— — Sir Hew Dalrymple Ross, K.C.B. 

Tallantire Hall, William Browne, esq. 

Tarn Lodge, Captain Wm. Mounscy, R.N. 

Thackwoodnock. William Blamire, esq. 

Vicar's Island, Derwent Water, General Wm. Peachey. 

Walton House, Wm. Ponsonby Johnson, esq. 



16 COUMTT HISTORY — CUMBERLAND. 

Warwick Hall, near Carlisle, Mrs. Parker. 

Warwick Bridge, Peter Dixon, jun. esq. 

Water Foot House, Col. James Salmond, 

Whitefield House, Joseph Gilbank, esq. 

Wigton Hall, Rev. Richard Matthews. 

W(M)dhall, Cockermouth, John Sanderson Fisher, esq. 

Woodside, the Misses Losh. 

Workington Hall, Henry C. Curwen, esq. 

Peerage, Cumberland, dukedom (1799) to Ernest Augus- 
tus son of George III. and brother of his present Majesty : 
Carlisle, earldom (1661) to Howard : Dacrc barony (1819) 
to Brand ; Egremont, earldom (1749) and Cockermouth, 
barony (1749) to Seymour with remainder to Wyndham : 
EUenborough, barony (1802) to Law: Gilsland, 
Dacre of, barony (1661) to Howard Earl of CarUsle: 
Muncaster, barony (1783) to Pennington : Whitehaven, 
Lowther of, viscounty and barony (1797) to Lowther 
Earl of Lonsdale. 

Baronetage, Brayton House, Lawson, 1831 : Clea Hall, 
Fletcher, 1782 : Crofton Hall, Brisco, 1782: Edenhall, 
Musgrave, 1611: Esk, Graham, 1629: Hutton Hall, 
Fletcher- Vane, 1786: Netherby, Graham, 1788: Orma- 
thwaite, Benn- Walsh, 1804 : Sowerby, Elphinstone, 1816. 

Representatives returned to Parliament^ for the Eastern 
IHvision, 2 ; Western Division, 2 ; Carlisle, 2 ; Cock- 
ermouth, 2; Whitehaven, 1 ; — total 9. The Reform Act, 
1^ adding two to the County, and enfranchising the town 
of WMtehaven, increased the number of Representatives 
by three. 

Produce, Coals, at Whitehaven the mines are the de^>e8t 
and most extraordinary in the world, and upwards of 
90,000 chaldrons have been annually raised from them : 
silver, at Alston Moor, tlie ton of lead ore yielding 13oz. ; 



PRESENT STATE* l7 

iron, at Crowgarth in Egremont, unrivalled for produc* 
tiveness in Great Britain, upwards of 20,000 tons havings 
lieen supplied in one year: Copper, near Caldbeck, at 
Hesket Newmarket, in Borrowdale, and at Newlands in 
the neighbourhood of Keswick : zinc : cobalt, at Cowdale 
near Crosthwaite: antimony, near Bassenthwaite : free- 
stone, white and red, in abundance : a black stone called 
cat-scalps at Branthwaite: limestone, at Dean and in the 
eastern mountains : iron*stone, near Harrington : wad, or 
black lead, at Seatallor Fell in Castlerigg, for richness 
and quality unrivalled in the world: alabaster or gyp- 
sum, near Hesket; lead ore, principally obtained at Alston 
Moor, Ousby, Cross Fell, &c. : slate, the blue kind in 
Borrowdale and neighbourhood: manganese: garnets 
are found imbedded at Castlerigg Fell. Corn: oats: pota- 
toes: cranberries, in great profusion. Cattle, small with 
long horns, and known as Cumberland steers: sheep, 
small, coarse in wool but fine in flesh. Salmon: char, 
excellent in the Eden : trout, and the red trout in Devock 
Water: cod: herrings. Eagles and other birds of prey, 
on the lofty summit of Skiddaw and other mountains. 

Manufactures. Many of the large villages have cotton or 
woollen manufactories. Brampton, checks, ginghams, &c. 
Caldbeck, blankets, dufifels, flannels, stocking yam : paper. 
Carlble and neighbouring villages, cotton in all its 
branches, but particularly ginghams and checks : linen : 
woollen : leather : hardware : hats : iron and bross foun- 
dories. Cockermouth, woollens : cotton checks : thread r 
tanned leather : hats : paper. Dearham, coarse pottery. 
DistingtoD, edge tools, hats, and linen thread. Egremont, 
checks, linen, canvas, sailcloth, paper, and leather. Har- 
rington, ships, ropes, vitriol, and copperas. Hensing- 
ham, linen thread and check. Keswick, carpets: blan- 
kets : kerseys : black lead pencils : edge tools. Kirkos- 



18 COUNTY HISTORY — CUMBERLAND. 

wald, paper. Maiyport, ships : checks : linen : tickings. 
Longtovrn, weaving of checks for the Carlisle manufac- 
turers. Penrith, checks: hats: and fancy waistcoat pieces. 
Whitehaven, cotton goods: cordage: sailcloths: twine: 
anchors: nails: copperas: earthenware: worsted. Wig- 
ton, cotton goods, calico printing, leather, silk hats, and 
nails. Workington, sailcloth and cordage: ships: straw 
hats in imitation of Leghorn. 



POPULATION IN 183L 

IFardSyb; CtVy, Carlisle ; BoroughSy2\ Market Toumi^ 

17 ; Parishes, 104. 
Houses, Inhabited, 31,017; Building, 213; Uninhabited, 

1,512. 
Inhabitants.MaleB, 81,971 ; Females, 87i7 10; total. 169,681. 
Families, Employed in agriculture, 10,630 ; in trade, 

12,026; in neither, 12,164; total, 34,820. 
Baptisms tn 1830. Males, 2,428; Females, 2,248; total, 

4,676. Jnnuai average o/ 1821 to 1830, 4,662. 
Marriages, 1,047; annual average, 27^' 
Burials. Males, 1,528; Females, 1,526; total, 3,054. 

Annual average, 2,962. 

Places having not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 

Houses. iDliab. 

Carlule 2.696 20,006 Maryport 

Whitehaven S,220 11,398 Bramptun 

Workingtun 1.498 6,415 Keswick 

Penrith 1,193 6,059 Harrington 

Aldstone 1,006 5,244 Longtottn 

Preston Quaner 881 4,328 Egremont 

Wigtun 972 4,885 Garragill 

Cockermouth 967 4,536 Dal&ton 

Annual Value of Real Property, as assessed in April, \ 
1815, £469,259. i 



ises. 


Inhab. 


711 


8.877 


488 


2,842 


436 


2 159 


431 


1,758 


381 


2,049 


352 


1,741 


279 


1,614 


164 


1,109 



19 



HISTORY. 

A.D. 

About 60. Carlisle burnt by the Scots daring the absence 

of the Romans. 
120. Cumberland ravaged by MogalKing of the Scots, and 

Uniparus King of the Picts. 
425. Fei^us King of Scotland defeated by Maximian 

the Roman general. 
875. Carlisle destroyed by the Danish invasion under 

Halfden. 
8S0. At Carlisle, an assembly of nobles held by Gregory 

King of Scotland, to whom Cumberland had been ceded 

for his services against the Danes. 
930. At Dacre, Constantine King of Scotland, with his 

son Engenius, did homage to Athelstan. 
937. Cumberland occupied by Athelstan after his victory 

at Brunanburgh. 
940. Cumberland granted by Edmund f. to Indulph, son 

and heir-apparent of Malcolm King of Scotland, on his 

doing homage for the same. 
945. Cumberland having rebelled against Indulph, and 

elected a king of the name of Dunmaile, Edmund I. laid 

waste the county, put out the eyes of Dunmaile's two 

sons, and reinstated Indulph. 
1001. Cumberland laid waste by Ethelred, because Malcolm 

its prince assisted the Danes. 
1016. Near Burgh-upon-Sands, Uchtred Earl of Northum- 
berland and the Danes defeated by Malcolm King of 

Scotland. 
1053. Cumberland granted by Edward the Confessor to 



90 COUNTY H18T0RT — CUMBERLAND. 

A. D. 

Siirard Earl of Northumberland, who afterwards defeated 
Macbeth, and placed Malcolm Prince of Cumberland, son 
of Duncan, on the throne of Scotlaitd. 

1069. Cumberland g^ranted bj William the Conqueror to 
Ranulph de Meschines, afterwards Earl of Chester ; Mal- 
colm King of Scotland being dispossessed of this princi- 
pality for granting an asylum to the English refugees. 

1092. Carlisle rebuilt, and its castle erected, by William 
Rufus. 

1094. William IT., returning from his intended attack on 
Malcolm, visited Carlisle. 

1122. Henry I. at Carlisle. 

1135. Carlisle seized by David King of Scotland on Ste- 
phen's usurpation of the throne of England. 

1137* Walter Esp^e and other nobles repaired to Carlisle 
to aid David of Scotland against Malcolm a traitor. 

1 138. At Carlisle, September 25, Alberia the Pope's legate, 
in a conference with David of Scotland, accompanied by 
his nobles and prelates, obtiuned the release of all female 
prisoners, and the restoration of Adulph to this bishopric. 

1 139. To Carlisle David of Scotland fled after his defeat at 
the battle of the Standard, and was there joined by his 
son Prince Henry. 

1150. At Carlisle, King David, Henry Fitz- Empress (after- 
wards Henry II. of England), and Ralph Earl of Chester, 
entered into a league against King Stephen, and Henry. 
was knighted by David. 

1 152. At Carlisle, John the Pope's legate met by the Scotch 
King and his son Prince Henry. 

1153. King David died at Carlisle. 

1157* Cumberland ceded by Malcolm IV. of Scotland to 
Henry II., who confirmed to Malcolm the possession of 
the earldom of Huntingdon. 

1158. At Carlisle, a conference between Henry II. aiid 
Malcolm IV. 



HISTORY. 21 

A. D. 

1173. Carlisle besieged by William tbe Lion King' of Scot- 
land, who was compelled to raise tbe siege on tbe ap- 
proach of Richard de Lucy, Chief Justiciary and Regent 
during the absence of Henry II. 

1174. Carlisle, under Robert de Vaux, again besieged by 
William the Lion. During the siege, which lasted some 
months, but was at length raised on the capture of Wil- 
liam at Alnwick in Northumberland, the Scots took Liddal 
Castle, Burgh-upon-Sands Castle, and several other for- 
tresses. 

1186. At Carlisle, Henry IL assembled an army to assist 
William King of Scots against Roland, a rebellious baron, 
who being taken prisoner, was brought by the Scotch 
king and his brother David to the Englidi monarch im 
that town. 

1216. Holm Cultram abbey pillaged, and Carlisle, August 
8, taken by Alexander King of Scotland. Returning 
from the abbey, 1900 Scots were drowned in the Eden. 

1217* Carlisle retaken by Walter de Gray, Archbishop of 
York. 

1237. Cumberland finally annexed to the throne of England 
by cession of Alexander King of Scotland to Henry III. 

1296. Robert de Clifford appointed the first Lord Warden 
of the Marches.— Carlisle successfully defended by the 
inhabitants against the Scots under John Comyn Earl of 
Buchan, and six other earls, who burnt the suburbs of 
the city, and on tbe retreat set fire to Lanercost priory. 

1297* AUerdale, as far as Cockermouth, laid waste, and 
Carlisle unsuccessfully besieged by the Scots under Wal~ 
lace in October. 

1298. At Carlisle, September 15, after his victory at Fal- 
kirk, a parliament held by Edward I. 

1300. At Holm Cultram abbey, in October, Edward I. 
released the Bishop of Glasgow from his imprisonment. 



22 COUNTY HI8T0BT— <;UMBBRLAND. 

A. D. 

and received his allegiance with great solemnity. — In the 
previous month Edward was at Rose Castle* 
1904. In June, half the city of Carlisle burnt down. 

1306. Edward and his Queen were at Carlisle from August 
28 till September 10. They went to Lanercost priory on 
the firat of October, and staid there till the end of the 
fiiUowing February* 

1307. From Lanercost priory, March 1, Edward and his 
Queen Margaret removed to Kirk Cambock ; thence on 
the 4th to Linstock castle, where they were entertained 
for six days by John Halton Bishop of Carlisle ; on the 
1 2th the Court proceeded to Carlisle, where the parliament 
was sitting ; here in the Easter week John Wallace was 
iHrought before the King, and thence sent to London for 
execution ; and on June 28, Edward, very weak and ill, 
left the city on his march to Scotland ; halted that night 
at CaldecQte ; reached Burgh-upon-Sands July 5, and 
^osed fais glorious reign there July 7- An obelisk com- 
memorating this event was erected on Burgh Marsh by 
Henry Duke of Norfolk in 1685, and repaired by William 
Viscount Lowtherinl803. — A general rendezvous ordered 
July 8, to accompany the King against Robert Bruce. — 
July 11, Edward II. arrived at Carlisle; went to Burgh 
on the 12th ; and on the 13th received the homage of his 
barons. — On his return from Scotland in September, he 
restored Anthony Bee to the Bishopric of Durham^ of 
which he had been dispossessed by Edward I. 

1311. Robert Bruce twice made inroads into Cumberland, 

and ravaged Gilsland. The second time he staid three 

days at Lanercost with his army. 
1314 Kirkoswald burnt, and Lanercost pillaged, by the 

Scots under Edward Bruce. They ravaged Gilsland about 

Christmas. 
1315. Carlisle successfully defended against Robert Bruce 

by Andrew de Hercla, created for this service Earl of Car- 



flnTORT. 23 

A D. 

lisle. DuriDg the siege, the monastery of St. Bees, with 
the manor-houses of Cleator and Stainbum, destroyed by 
the Scots. 
1319. Gilsland laid waste hw the Soots under James Douglas 
and Thomas Randolph. 

1322. Rose Castle and Wigton town burnt, and Holm 
Cultram abbey, where his father was buried, destroyed 
by Robert Bruce King of Scotland, who devastated the 
western side of the county to Duddon Sands. 

1323. At Carlisle, Andrew de Hercla Earl of Carlisle^ and 
Lord Warden of the Marches, accused of a treasonable 
correspondence with the Scots, arrested by Lord Lucy, 
and beheaded. 

1327. Earl of Murray and Lord Douglas, with a large 
army, entered England near Carlisle, and laid waste Cum- 
berland in their way to Durham. 

1332. At Carlisle, Edward Baliol, the fugitive King of 
Scotland, entertained by Lord Dacre, the Governor. — 
March 22, the Scots plundered the country round Carlisle^ 
but were driven back by Lord Lucy, who devastated 
twelve miles of the Scotch territory. On his return, he 
was attacked near Damock by Sir Humphrey de Boys, 
&C but gallantly repulsed them. 

1334. Edward Baliol, with the Earls of Warwick and 
Oxford sent by Edward IH. to defend Cumberland from 
the Scots. 

1335. Edward lU. marched with his army from Carlisle 

on July 11. 

1337. At Arthuret, the Scots entered England, destroyed 
twenty villages, and carried off a great booty. In another 
incursion, they burnt Rose Castle, the hospital of St. Ni- 
cholas, and the suburbs of Carlisle. 

1342. Penrith and several neighbouring villages burnt by 
the Scots. 

1345. Penrith burnt by the Scots under Sir William Dou 



24 COUNTY HISTORY— CUM BBRL AND. 

A. D. 

glaa, who beneged Carlisle and set fire to the suburbs $ 
but on his retreat to Scotland, was overtaken and defeated 
by Kirbj Bishop of Carlisle and Sir Robert Ogle. 

1346. Liddal castle taken by assault, its Governor Sir 
Walter Selby beheaded, and Lanercost priory plundered, 
by David Bruce King of Scotland. 

1380. Penrith, during a truce, treacherously surprised by 
the Scots, who slew many of the inhabitants, and carried 
off numerous prisoners and a great booty, as it was a fidr 
day. The plunder introduced the pestilence into Scot- 
land, which was very destructive. They also fired one of 
the streets in Carlisle. 

1383. Holm Cultram abbey saved from fire by payinjg 
£200 to the Earl of Douglas, commander of the Scots. 

1385. Carlisle unsuccessfully besieged by the French and 
Scots. 

1387- Cockermouth surprised, and Peter Tilliol, Sheriff of 
the County, taken by the Scots under the Earls of Douglas 
and Fife. The suburbs of Carlisle burnt by the Scots, 
among whom Sir William Douglas, a natural son of Ar- 
chibald Lord Douglas, particularly distinguished himself. 
Overcoming three armed citizens on a drawbridge of the 
outworks. Shortly afterwards the Scots were defeated, 
with the loss of 11,000 men. 

1388. In Oilsland, on Lord Dacre's demesne, 200 decrepid 
persons, women, and children, shut up in houses and 
burnt by the Scots. 

1461. Carlisle unsuccessfully besieged, and the suburbs 
burnt, by an army of Scots in the interest of Henry VL 

1524 The Scots, 4,000 in number, under Lord Maxwdl 
and Sir Alexander Jordan, advanced into Cumberland by 
Carlisle, and were defeated by 2,000 English, who took 
Sir A. Jordan and 300 others prisoners ; but the removal 
of the prisoners under guard so weakened the English 



HISTORY. 225 

A. D. 

that the Scots retook the prisoners, and routed their 
opponents. 

1537. Carlisle besieged by Nicholas Musgrave, Hiomai 
Tilbj, and other favourers of Aske's rebellion agunst 
Henry VIII., with 8,000 men, but were repulsed by the 
artizans, and shortly afterwards defeated by the Duke of 
Norfolk, when 74 of the officers were hanged on the walls 
of Carlisle, but Musgrave escaped. 

1542. At Sol way Moss, the Scots under Sir Oliver Sinclair, 
favourite of James V., routed, and their principal nobles 
taken, by Sir Thomas Dacre and Sir John Musgrave* 

1568. May 16, Mary Queen of Scots hospitably entertained 
cm her landing, at Workington Hall, by S> Henry Cur- 
wsn, till required by Queen £lizabeth to resign his royal 
guest, who was removed first to Cockermouth Castle, and 
afterwards to that at Carlisle. 

1569. At Naworth, in December, the insurgent Earls of 
Northumberland and Westmorland disbanded their forces. 

1570. From Naworth Castle, Leonard Dacre, claiming the 
baronies of Gikland and Greystock, sallying out to attack 
I^ord Hunsdon, was defeated and compelled to fly to 
Scotland. — Rocliffe Castle taken February 21. 

1596. William Armstrong, a noted borderer, celebrated in 
ballads by the name of " Kinmont Willie,** having been 
taken prisoner on a day of truce and carried to Carlisle, 
his release was demanded without effect, on which William 
Scott, lord of Buccleuch, came with a party of 200 horse 
before break of day, made a breach in the castle, and car- 
ried off the prisoner before the garrison was prepared for 
defence. 

1639. Bewcastle garrisoned by 100 men on account of the 
unsettled state of Scottish affairs: and 500 Irish placed 
in garrison at Carlisle. 

1641. Bewcastle destroyed by the Parliamentarians. 

J6i4. In Carlisle Castle, the Marquis of Montrose unsue* 



26 COUNTY HISTORY — CUMBERLAND. 

A. D. 

oessfullj besieged by the Earl of Callendar. — In Jane, 
Sir Thomas Glemham, after the capture of Newcastle, 
threw himself into Carlisle, where, in October, he was 
besieged by General Lesley and the Scots for some months. 
— Near Great Salkeld, in September, Sir Philip Mas- 
grave and Sir Henry Fletcher defeated by General Lesley 
and the Scots. 

1645. In February, Scaleby Castle taken from the King.— 
June 25, Carlisle, after a noble defence, surrendered to 
the Scottish army under General Leslie* — ^In October, on 
Carlisle Sands, Lord Digby and Sir Marmaduke Langdale 
defeated, and forced to fly to the Isle of Man, by the Par- 
liamentarians under Sir John Brown, Governor of Carlisle. 

1648. April 28, Carlisle surprised by the Royalists under 
Sir Thomas Glenham and Sir Philip Musgrave. — June 
15, Penrith taken by the Parliamentarians under General 
Lambert, and detachments from his army about the same 
time took Greystock, Hose, and Scaleby Castles, and de- 
feated a body of Royalists at Warwick Bridge. — Cocker, 
mouth Castle, under Lieutenant Bird, besieged by the 
Royalists from August to September 29, when the siege 
was raised by a detachment of Parliamentarians from Lan- 
cashire under Colonel Ashton. — October 1, Carlisle sur- 
rendered by its Royalist Governor Sir William Leving- 
ton to Oliver CromwelL 

1715. Brampton and Penrith entered in November, and 
James III. proclaimed by the friends of the Stuarts under 
General Foster. 

1745. Near Longton, Nov. 8, the advanced guaid of Prince 
Charles Stuart's army entered Cumberland. Nonember 
11, the army was at Brampton; the siege of Carlisle com- 
menced on the 13th, and the garrison under Colonel Du- 
rand surrendered on the 15th, when James was proclaimed 
King, and his son Regent, by the Corporation in thdr 
robes. The city gates were then destroyed. On the 21st» 



HISTORY. 27 

the van of the army marched into Penrith, which Charles 
with the main body entered on the following^ day. On 
their retreat from Derby the army entered Penritb De- 
cember 17. On the 18th» at Clifton, a skirmish between 
the rear of the Prince's army and the van of the Duke of 
Cumberland's. They retreated from Carlisle into Scot- 
land on the 20th, and the city was invested by the Duke 
of Cumberland on the 21st, and surrendered to him at 
discretion on the 30th. 

1771* November 13, an eruption of mud, &c. occurred 
front the Solway Moss, covering and destroying every 
thing within a space of 500 acres. 

1778. Whitehaven unsuccessfully attempted by the pirate 
Paul Jones and thirty armed men from the American pri- 
vateer Ranger. He set fire to three ships, but was obliged 
to retreat through the treachery of one of his men. 



28 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Agplionbj, John, one of the translators of the New Testa- 
meot, about 1565 (died 1609). 

ADnesley, Dr. Samuel, nonconformist divine and author, 
1619 (died 1696).* 

Armstrong', Archibald, fool or jester to James 1. and Chariet 
I.Arthuret(diedl672>. 

Banks, Sir John, chief justice of the Common Pleas» bene- 
factor to his native town, Keswick, about 1590. 

Batf, Richard, divine and author, Arthuret (died 1758). 

Belly John, divine and author, Dovenby, 1715 (died 1793). 

Benn. William, nonconformist divine and author, Egremont, 
1600 (died 1680). 

Benson, Dr. George, dissenting divine, teacher, biblical critic, 
Great Salkeld, 1699 (died 1763). 

Boucher, Jonathan, divine, Saxon scholar, and philologist, 



Blencogo, 1738 (died 1804). 

cph ' 
berini. Water Millock, 1700 (died 1767). 



icogo, 
I, Dr. 



Brown, Dr. Joseph, biographer and editor of Cardinal Bar- 



Canon, John, schoolman, Canonsby (flourished 1320). 

Carleton, Guy, Bishop of Chichester (died 1685). 

Carlyle, Joseph Dacre, divine, traveller in the east, Arabic 
scholar, ana poet, Carlisle, 1759 (died 1804). 

Clarke, Ewan,jpoet» Wigton. 

Crakenthorp, Dr. Richard, chaplain to James I., logician 
and author. 

Crosthwaite, Peter, ingenious mechanic, Crosthwaite. 

D^lton, Dr. John, divine and poet, Deane, 1709 (died 1763). 

— Richard, brother of preceding, eastern traveller, libra- 
rian and keeper of drawings and medals to Geo. III. 
(died 1791). 

Denton, Thomas, divine and author, Sebergham (died 1777)* 

Eaglesfield, Robert, founder of Queen's College Oxfoiti 
(died about 1370). 

Egremont, William, schoolman, Egremont (flourished 1390). 

* Also claimed by Warwickshire. 



BMirCBNT NATIVES. ^ 

Ellis, Clement, divine, poet, and author of ^'Scripture Cate- 

diist,*' &c. 1630 (died 1700). 
Fell, John, dissenting divine, author of " Demoniacs,'^ kt. 

Cockermouth, 1735 (died 1797). 
Fletcher, Ahraham, tohaccco-pipe maker, self-taug^ht mathe* . 

matician and botanist, and author, bom at Little firough- 

ton, 1714, and died there in 1793. 
Foster, Elizabeth, martyr, Greystock (burnt in Smithfield 

1556). 
Gilpin, Dr. Richard, physician, nonconformist divine, and 

author of " Satan's Temptations,'' (died 1657). 
Sawrey, artist, superior psdnter of animals, and engra- 
ver, Carlisle, 1733 (died 1807). 
— — William, brother of preceding, divine and tourist, 

author on divinity, biography, and picturesque scenery, 

Scaleby Castle, 1724 (died 1804). 
Graham, George, mathematical instrument maker, author, 

and the most accurate artist of his day, Horsgill in Kirk- 

Unton, 1675 (died 1751). * 
Richard, third baronet, created Viscount Preston, Se« 

cretary of State to James II. Arthuret (died 1795). 
Giindal, Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, one of the 

preparers of the liturgy, a prelate of learning, piety, and 

moderation, Hensingham, 1519 (died 1583). 
Hall, Dr. Anthony, editor of Trivet's " Annales" and Le- 

land's «' Scriptores," Kirkbride, 1679 (died 1723). 
Harvey, Thomas, learned divine and stenographist, Dovenby, 

1740 (died 1806). 
Herebert, St. friend of St. Cuthbert (died 688). 
HobBon, Thomas, divine and poet, near Penrith (died 1777). 
Huddart, Captain Joseph, hydrographer and navigator, 

AUenby, 1741 (died 1816). 
Hnddleston, John, catholic priest, preserver of Charles II. 

Greystock, 1608. 

Sir Richard, knight banneret at Agincourt, Millom. 

William, recovered the royal standard at Edge Hill, 

Millom. 
Hudson, John, learned divine and philologist, editor of Jo- 

sephus, Widehope, 1662 (died 1719). 
Hatton, Sir Richard, called by Charles I. the honest judge, 

Penrith (died 1638). 
Irton, Ralph, Bishop of Carlisle in 1280. 



30 COUNTY HISTORY— CUMBERLAND. 

Lavburn, Roger, Bishop of CarHsle, near Carlisle (died 

Law, Edward, Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough, Great 
Salkeld, 1750 (died 1818). 

John, Bishop of Elphin, friend of Paiey, Greystock 

(died 1810). 

Leake, John, physician, founder of the Westminster lying-ia 
hospital, Ainstable, 1729 (died 1792). 

Milbume, Richard, Bishop of Carlisle, Utterbank in Gib- 
land (died 1G24). 

Moravile, Sir Hugh de, one of the four murderers of Arch- 
bishop Becket in 1170. 

Morris, Captain Thomas, song writer and biographer, Car- 
lisle, 1732. 

Musgrave, Sir William, sixth . baronet, antiquary and col- 
lector. Hay ton Castle, 1735. 

Nicholson, Isaac, dissenting divine, Nether Wastdale, 1761 
(died 1807). 

Nicolson, William, Bishop of Carlisle, afterwards Archbishop 
of Cashel, learned and erudite prelate, and antiquary, 
Orton. 1655 (died 1727). 

Porter, George, civilian. Weary Hall (died abrut 1635). 

Reay, William, Bishop of Glasgow, the Gill in Alienby 
parish. 

William, divine, authorof" Sermons,'' Nether Denton 

(died 1756). 

Relph, Rev. Josiah, "Cumberland poet,'' Sebergham, 1712 
(died 1743). 

Ritson, Isaac, poet and miscellaneous writer, translator of 
Homer's Hymn to Venus, near Penrith, 1761 (died 1789). 

Robinson, George, bookseller, Dalston (died 1801). 

Anthony, author on religious persecution, &c. Wigton, 

18th century. 

Henry, Bishop of Carlisle, Carlisle, about 1556 (died 

1616). 



Salkeld, John, divine, traveller, styled by James L "the 

irby Castle, 1576 (died 
Seed, Jeremiah, divine, able scholar, and ingenious writer, 



learned,' Corby Castle, 1576 (died 1659). 



Clifton near Penrith, 1605 (died 1747). 
Senhouse, Humphrey, founder of Maryport, Netherhall 

(died 1770). 
John, antiquary and collector, father of the Bishop, 

Netherhall. 



EMINENT NATIVES. 31 

SenhouBe, Richard, learned and eloquent Bishop of Carlisle, 
author, Netherhall (died 1626). 

Simpson, Dr. Bolton, editor of Xenophon, Redmain, 1717- 

Dr. Joseph, editor of Epictetus and Theopbrastus, 

Redmain, 1710. 

Skelton, John, divine, satirical poet, laureate to Henry VIII. 
Annathwaite (ob. 1529). 

Soverby, Joseph, self-taught mathematician, Murray in 
Grejrstock, 1721 (died 1749). 

Story, Thomas, quaker, traveller and botanist, Kirklinton, 
1670 (died 1742). 

Strong, Joseph, blind mechanic, Carlisle (died 1798). 

Taylor, John, lived to the age of 135, Garragill, 1638. 

Tickell, Thomas, writer in prose and verse, and friend of 
Addison, Bridekirk, 1686 (died 1740). 

Todd, Dr. Hugh, learned divine, antiquary, and miscella- 
neous writer, Blencowe, about 1658 (died 1728). 

Tallv, Thomas, learned divine and controversialist, Carlisle, 
l&O (died 1675-6). 

Wallace, James, attorney general, Brampton. 

Watson, Daniel, divine, friend of Sterne and Warburton, 
Sebergham, 1698. 

Whelpdale, Roger, Bishop of Carlisle, logician and mathe- 
matician (died 1822). 

Williamson, Sir Joseph, secretary of state to Charles II. 
Bridekirk, 1633. 

Wise, Joseph, divine and poet. Holm Cultram (died 1810). 



32 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

In Cumberland there are about 8,000 acres of Lakes and 
Waters. — This county is remarkable for the longevity of its 
inhabitants. Lysons has a list of 144 persons of not less 
than 100 years of age who were buried between the yean 
1663 and 1814. The most aged are, Robert Brown, aged 
110, buried at Arthuret in 1666 ; Richard Green, 114, at 
Dacre in 1680; Thomas Fearon, 112, Bridekirk in 1701 ; 
Jane Hodgson, 114, Harrington in 1717; Thomas Dicken- 
son, 112, Bootle in 1745; Mary Singleton, 110, Dearham; 
Rer. George Braithwaite, 110, Carlisle in 1/53; Matk 
Noble, 113, Corney in 1768; and James Bell, 113, Penrith 
1772. John Taylor, who died in 1772, aged 135, was no- 
ticed in a communication of Bishop Lyttelton*s to the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries* The obituary of the Gentleman's 
Magazine also records Ann Wilson, 110, Aston 1765 ; John 
Noble, 114, Corney, 1772; and John Maxwell, 132, Kes- 
wick Lake, 1785.— Adam Bell, Clym o' th' Clough, and 
Wyliam of Cloudeslee, three Cumberland archers and out- 
laws, are but little inferior in ballad celebrity to Robin 
Hood and Little John. 

Addinoham was the Vicarage of Dr. Paley, author of 
the "Evidences of Christianity," from 1792 to 1795. 

In Arthuret Churchyard was buried on the first of 
April its native Archibald Armstrong, fool or jester to 
James L and Charles L 

In Asp ATRIA Church, among the monuments of theMus- 
graves, is a cenotaph for Sir William, the sixth baronet, 
benefactor to the British Museum, who was buried in St 
Jameses Church, Westminster, 1800. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 33 

At Beckermet is a romantic hill called JVotohank, the 
traditionary etymology of which furnished Mrs. Cowley with 
the subject for her poem of **Edwina." A lord of Beck- 
ermet with his lady hunting the wolf, parted company, and 
after a painful search the body of the fair was found on this 
bank mangled by a wolf* The sorrow of the lord was ex- 
pressed in the exclamation of *' Wo to this bank.'' 

In BooTLE Church is the monument of Sir Hugh Askew, 
knighted at Musselburgh 1547, and died 1562. 

Carlisle was the only episcopal chapter in England of 
the order of St Austin: the others were all of St. Benedict. 
In the Cathedral are curious monuments of its Bishops 
William Barrow, 1429 ; Richard Bell, 1496 ; and handsome 
ones of Bishops Sir John Fleming, bart. 1747 ; and the 
learned Edmund Law (by Banks) 1787* Its excellent Arch- 
deacon Paley has no inscription, but a gravestone records 
the death of his wife Jane, who died in 1791. His " llorse 
Paulinse," "Evidences of Christianity,'' "Sermons," and 
" Moral and Political Philosophy," were composed at Car- 
lisle. — In St. Cuthbert's Church was buried Joseph Dacre 
Carlyle, Chancellor of the diocese and Professor of Arabic 
at Cambridge, 1804. — The Quakers have had a congregation 
in this city almost from the time of their first establishment. 
George Fox, their founder, was imprisoned in the dungeon 
and suffered great hardships here in 1653. — Robert Milne, 
author of " Physico-Theological Lectures," was pastor nf a 
Presbyterian congregation in this town: he died in 1800. — 
— In the Castle, is a deep well, traditionally said to have 
been sunk by the Romans. — On May 19, 1292, this city 
with its priory, house of grey friars, and churches, was con- 
sumed by a fire raised by an incendiary, who was executed 
for the fact. In 1390, another fire consumed 1500 houses. 
In 1597 and 1598 about 1196 persons died of the plague. — 
lliere are but three rings of bells in this county: one at 
Carlisle Cathedral, one at Crosthwaite, and one at Bingham* 

d 



34 COUNTY HISTORY — CUMBERLAND. 

Corby Castle, about 1750, was visited, and tin scenerj 

much admired hj David Hume, the historian, who upon a 

pane of glass at the Old Bush Inn, Carlisle, left the following; 

commemorative verses, communicated to the present owner 

of Corby by the late Sir Walter Scott : 

^' Here chicks, in eggs for breakfast, sprawl ; 
Here godless boys God's glories squall ; 
While Scotsmen's heads adorn the wall ; 
But Corby's Walks atone for aU.** 

At Corby are, the grace cup of St. Thomas k Becket ; a gold 

chain worn by Mary Queen of Scots ; and the claymore of 

Major Macdonald, the Fergus M'lvor of ** Waverley." 

In Dacre Churchyard are four remarkable monuments, 
representing bears, about five feet in height, sitting on their 
haunches, and grasping a ragged staff, on which two of them 
rest their heads. On the back of each of the others is a 
lynx. Their history is quite unknown. 

D ALSTON was the Vicarage of Dr. Paley from 1774 to 
1793. — In the Churchyard was buried Dr. Edward Rainbow, 
Bishop of Carlisle, 1684. 

At Edenhall is preserved with the greatest care an old 
drinking glass, enamelled with colours, called The Luck of 
Edenhall. It is engraved in Lysons's Cumberland^ The 
letters t'|^*c denote its sacred use; but tradition affirms 
it to have been stolen from a company of fairies, who said : 

If that glass either break or fall, 
Farewell the luck of Edenhall. 

Great Salkeld Rectory is attached to the Archdea- 
conry of Carlisle, and as such, was held by the learned 
Edmund Law (afterwards Bishop of this diocese and father 
of the late Lord Chief Justice EUenborough) from 1743 to 
1756. He resided and composed most of his works at this 
place. Dr Paley held the living with his Archdeaconry 
from 1782 till his death in 1805. 

Greystock was the Rectory of Dr. Richard Gilpin, non- 
conformist divine, author of ^' Satan*s Temptations."" — In 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 35 

the Castle are several valaable portraits, and a erucifixion 
executed in needlework by Mary Queen of Scots. The 
park, which contains 3000 acres, is surrounded by a wall 
9 feet high. 

At High Hesket, yearly, on St. Barnabas' day, under a 
thorn by the highway side, is kept in the open air the court 
for the whole forest of Englewood ; a relic of the antient 
Forest Courts. 

In Holm Cultram Abbey was buried Robert Bruce, 
father of the Scottish king of that name. The Abbot, 
though not mitred, was occasionally summoned to Parlia- 
ment. The wizard Michael Scott, whose deeds have acquired 
a more extended renown by (he romance, under that title, 
from the pen of the poet Allan Cunningham, was a monk 
here about 1290, and here were long preserved his magic 
books. 

In Kirk OSWALD Church, among the memorials of his 
family, is the monument of the loyal Sir Timothy Feather- 
stonhaugh, who was beheaded at Chester October 22, 1651. 
— In the Castle was preserved by Hugh de Morevile, the 
weapon with which he aided in the murder of Becket. 

Lanbrcost Priory often visited by Edward I. with his 
Queens Eleanor and Margaret. 

Martport was founded by Humphrey Senhouse, esq. 
who died in 1770, and was buried in the chapel of that town. 
It was so named in honour of his wife. At Ellenfoot, the 
site of the present town, till the year 1750, there was only 
one house. 

At MiLLUM or MiLCOM, on the midnight preceding the 
Nativity, the bees are said to sing, and the labouring ox to 
kneel. 

At Mdnc ASTER is preserved a *Muck,'* similar to Eden- 
hall, which is said to have been presented to Sir John Pen- 
nington by Henry VI. who was secreted at Muncaster for 
some time. 



3(5 COUNTY MI8T0RY->€UMBERLAND. 

At Naworth Castle are shewn the apartments and fur- 
niture, together with the library, oratory, and armoury of 
Lord William Howard, celebrated in the ** Lay of the Last 
Minstrer* as " Belted Will/' 

Ormathwaitb was the seat of Dr. William Brownrigg, 
an eminent physician, chemist, and mineralogist, author on 
the making of salt, and on the prevention of pestilential 
contagion, who died here in 1800, aged 68. 

OusBY was the Rectory, from 1672 till his death in 1719, 
of Thomas Robinson, author of an *' Essay towards a Natu- 
ral History of Cumberland and Westmoreland,'' &c. &c. 

Penrith Castle was enlarged and repaired by Richard 
Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard IIL who made it 
his principal residence for five years. — In 1598, 583 persons 
died of the plague,' according to the register, but the number 
is incorrectly stated on a brass plate in the church as amount- 
ing to 2260.— The Vicarage was held, from 1699 till his 
death In 1728, by Dr. Hugh Todd, who made considerable 
topographical collections for this county, and wrote a brief 
account of Carlisle. — In the old Church was an inscription 
to the celebrated border hero Richard Cordall, or Dick o' 
th' Cow.— -In the Churchyard is the tomb of Ewain King of 
Cumbria, called the Giant's Grave, and consisting of two 
stone pillars standing at the opposite ends of the grave, 
about 15 feet asunder, lift. 6 in. high, and 7ft. in their 
greatest circumference. 

Plumpton Park, according to Ritson, was a favourite 
haunt of Robin Hood. 

At PoNSONBY Hall is a curious carved bedstead, made 
about 1345, brought from Dalegarth, and having the arms 
of the Awsthwaites quartered with the Stanleys. 

St. Bees derives its name from Bega, an Irish saint, who 
founded a monastery here about 650. 

On Birkby Fell, near Ravenglass are ruins, nearly three 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 37 

miles ia circumference, of *'the city of Bumscar," as it is 
named. It was probably a British town. 

In Sebergham Church is a monument to its native poet 
Josiah Relph, who was Curate here from 1733 till his death 
in 1743, His poems were published by his successor in the 
curacy, the Rev. Thomas Denton, who was himself a native 
of the place, was author of some poems, and compiled the 
supplemental volume to the first edition of the Biographical 
Dictionary, He died in 1777. 

Of the SoLWAY Moss eruption in 1771 not a trace is to 
be seen, the ground having been gradually cleared at a great 
expense, and brought again into cultivation by Dr. Graham, 
the proprietor of the whole inundated tract. 

Of Stainton was Mr. John Bristow, who published a 
"Survey of the Lakes'' after attaining his 94th year. He 
never employed a surgeon or physician, nor gave a fee to a 
lawyer: his clothes were spun in his house, and made of the 
wool of his own sheep. 

Staplbton was the Rectory, from 1771 till his death in 
1796, of William Graham, translator of Virgil's Eclogues 
and author of Sermons. 

Tarn Wadling and Castle Hewin are the scene of a 
ballad in Percy's collection, entitled " Sir Gawaine's Mar< 
riage," 

The accident at Thirl Mere, in 1805, to a young adven- 
turous gentleman, who lost his way in the mountains, and 
perished beneath the ** dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn,'' 
has been perpetuated by the pens of Sir Walter Scott, in his 
poem of " Helvellyn,'' and by the author of the " Excursion,'' 
in a piece entitled ** Fidelity." 

In Wetheral Church is a monument, by Nollekins, of 
Maria, daughter of Lord Archer, and wife of Henry Howard, 
esquire, who died in 1789, and pronounced by the late Mr. 
Payne Knight the finest modern piece of sculpture in the 
kingdom. 



38 



COUNTY HI8T0ET — COMBBELAND. 



Whitbhavbn, in the rei|pi of Elizabeth, contained onlj 
•ix houses ; in 1633 it had only nine thatched cottages; ia 
1693| under the patronage of Sir John Lowther, it was inha- 
bited by 2,222 persons, mostlj occupied in Sir John's col* 
lieries. — ^In the Castle, the seat of the Earl H)f Lonsdale, are 
some fine paintings and family portnuts. — ^The pirate Paul 
Jones served an apprenticeship to a mariner here. 

At WiOTON Grammar School was educated the Rev. Dr. 
John Brown, author of the tragedy of " Barbarossa,"' who 
died in 1766. 

At WuLSTBT Castle were preserved the magic works of 
Michael Scott, who was a monk at Holm Cultram abbey. 



39 



List of Ff^orks eonsuitedm 

1. The history and antiquitiet of the Counties of Westmoreland 
and Cumberland. By Joseph Nicolsouy esquire, and Richard 
Burn, LL.D. — 2 vols. 4to, 1777. 

3. Beauties of England and Wales, vol. iii.-— 8vo, 1802. 

3. Lysoos's Magna Britannia, vol. iv.— 4to, 1816. 

4. History of the County of Cumberland. By William Hutchin- 
son, F.A.S.~3 vols. 4to, 1794. 

5. Topographical description of Cumberland, Westmorland, he. 

By John Houseman. — 8vo, 1800. 

6. Jollie's, Cumberland Guide.— 8vo, 1811. 

7. History, directory, and gazetteer of Cumberland and Westmor- 
land. By William Parson and William White.'— large 18mo, 
1829. 

8. JoUie's sketch of Cumberland manners acid customs. — 8vo» 1811. 

9. A guide to the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lan- 
cashire. By Thomas West. — 8vo, 1793. 

10. An excursion to the Lakes. By W. Hutchinson. — 8vo, 1776. 

1 1 . >A survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, &c. By James Clarke, 
folio, 1787. 

13. Descriptive tour to the Lakes. By Benjamin Travers.— 12mo, 
1806. 

13. A fortnight's ramble to the Lakes. By Joseph Bndworth [af. 
t^rvards Palmer], esq. F.S.A. — 8vo, 1810. 

14. Westmorland, Cumberland, &c. By Thomas Rose«-—4to } now 
publishing in numbers with beautiful illustrations. 



DURHAM. 



SITUATION AND EXTKNT. 

Boundaries, exclusive of the detached members of Norham- 
shire^ Jslandshire, BedliDg^tonshirc, and Crake* North, 
Northumberland, separated by the Tyne and Derwent ; 
JSast, the German Ocean, from the mouth of the Tees to 
Tjnemouth ; South, Yorkshire, separated by the Tees ; 
West, Cumberland and Westmorland, divided by the 
Crookbum and the Tees. 

Greatest length, 45; breadth, 36; circumference, 178; 
square, 1097 luiles ; statute acres, 702,080. 

Prtmnce, York. Diocese, Durham. There is an Arch- 
deaconry of Durham, with Deaneries of Chester*le-Street, 
Darlington, Easington, and Stockton. 

Circuit, Northern. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Brigantes. Encampment, East Ord, 
near Tweedmoutb. Remains discovered. Castle Eden, 
vase of glass ; East Ord, near Tweedmouth, fragments 
of arms. Druidical Remains, at Duddoe, in North 
Durham, a circle of four stones remain standing, and one 
lying down, an unopened barrow, and sepulchral urns in 
the neighbourhood. 

Roman Province, Maxima Caesariensis. Stations, Gabro- 
sentum, Gateshead ; Glannibanta or Glanoventa, Lan- 
chester ; Magse, Piersbrldge ; Ad Tinam, South Shields ; 
Vindomara, Ebchester; Vinovia, Binchester. Encamp- 
ments, Maiden Castle, Old Durham ; Hersbridge, parts 
of the vallum conspicuous ; Stanley Hill, Tanfield. Re- 
mains discovered, Binchester, altars, coins, pottery, seulp- 
tures, &c. Chester-le-Street, coins; Coniscliffe, altar; 
Ebchester, altars, &c. ; Fulwell Hills, Monkwearmovth, 
skeletons, coins, and urns; Jarrow, monuments, pave- 
ments; Lanchester, coins, baths, altars; Lawe Hill, 
South Shields, altars, hypocausts, coins ; Afaiden Castle, 
near Durham, altars ; Piersbridge, foundations of aque- 
duct, bronze Mercury, coins, inscriptions to Belenus, &c; 
South Shields, altar, coins, inscriptions, and remains of a 
hypocaust; Stankope, altar; Stockton, coins; lliom- 
ton, urn of coins ; Whitburn Lizard, copper coins ; 
Wolsingham, altar. Roads, from Chester-le-Street to 
Newcastle, visible on Gateshead Fell ; from Binchester to 
Chester-le-Street ; Gateshead to Stanley; Hersbridge 
to Ebchester. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 3 

Saxon Octarchy, Deira, afterwards Northumbria. Encamp^ 
ment, Bishopton ; Gornhill, large and spacious. Earth* 
workty Cheswick, barrow opened 1826, and amongst the 
bones was found a bronze spear-head highly polished, and 
weighing two 'ounces and a half. Thrislington, sepul- 
chral remains found 1822. Remains discovered, Heworth, 
stycas of Egfrith King of Northumbria. 

Cathedrals. Chester-le-Street, removed hither from Lindis- 
fame in 883, and here it continued for 113 years, being 
then removed to Durham. Durham, dedicated in 999 by 
Bishop Aldhune, rebuilt by Bishop William de Carileph 
in 1093 or 1094, the church exhibiting all the massive 
grandeur of the Norman style ; Lindisfame, by Oswald 
King of Northumbria in 635. 

Abbeys. Hartlepool, founded by St. Bega, about 640; 
Jarrow, by Benedict Biscop, 681 , very considerable remains ; 
Monkwearmouth, by the founder of Jarrow, about 674. 

Priories, Finchale, founded in 1 196, by Henry son of Bishop 
Pudsey, cell to Durham, the remains very extensive; 
Gateshead, ante 653; Holy Island or Lindisfame, in 

^093, a beautiful and perfect model of Durham Cathe- 
dral, now in great decay, but exhibiting many interesting 
Norman specimens. 

JVunneries. Ebchester, founded by St. Ebba about 660, 
destroyed by the Danes ; Gateshead, cell to Newcastle > 
Nesham, by one of the Dacres Barons of Greystock ante 
Henry II. 

Friaries. Hartlepool, Grey, founded ante 1258, by Robert 
de Brose, founder of Gisburn, some ruins near the church 



4 COUNTY HISTORY — DURHAM. 

Colleges. Chester-le Street, established by Anthony Bee, 
Bishop of Durham, in 1286 ; Darlington, made so by 
Bishop Hugh Pudsey ; Lanchester, by Bishop Bee, in 
1283 ; Norton, by Bishop William de Carileph ; St. 
Andrew Auckland, by Bishop Bee ; Staindrop, by Ralph 
Neville, Earl of Westmorland, temp. Henry IV. 

Hospitals, Barnard Castle, founded by John Baliol, King 
of Scotland ; Gateshead, St. Edmund, in 1247, by Bishop 
Farnham, and one to the Trinity, ante Henry HI. ; 
Greatham, about 1270, by Robert de Stichill, Bishop of 
Durham ; Kepyer, near Durham, in 1 112, by Bishop Flam- 
bard, gateway remains; Sherburne, by Bishop Hugh 
Pudsey, about 1180, for lepers, the old castellated man- 
sion of the master swept away in 1833 for a modem house ; 
Tweed mouth, or spital, for lepers. 

Churches* Aycliffe, pointed arches with Norman ornaments 
and cylindrical columns ; Brancepeth ; Chester-le-Street, 
aspire of 156 feet; Darlingtun, early pointed, erected 
by Bishop Pudsey in 1160, a spire of 180 feet; Durham, 
St. Giles, built by Bishop Flambard: the two St. Mary's: 
St. Margaret, by Bishop Pudsey : St. Nicholas, by Bishop 
Flambard, Norman remains; Elton, circular; Hart, 
heavy columns and circular arches ; Hartlepool, beautiful 
Norman arch at the south entrance; Heighington, Nor- 
man ; Holy Island, mixture of circular and pointed ; 
Lanchester, pointed arches tvith zig-zag mouldings aod 
round pillars; Marwood, part converted into a barn: 
Merrington, Norman; Middleham, extremely simple, 
ascribed to Bishop Bee; Monkwearmouth, Norman; 
Norham, some few Norman arches remain amidst wretched 
workmanship of 1617 ; Pittington, interesting specimen 
of Norman : Redmarshall ; Seaham ; Sedgefield, mixed 
Norman and pointed ; Washington. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 5 

Chapels. Ancroft, in Islandshire, Norman; Gateshead, 
St. Edmund's, in ruins ; Haggerston, in ruins ; St. 
Cuthbert-in-the-Sea, some walls remain; Tillmouth, in 
ruins. 

Stone Pulpit. Tweedmouth. 

Fonts. Hart, beautiful ; Hartlepool. 

Crosses. A}xliffe, in the churchyard, two, one replaced 
in 1823, and since wantonly destroyed; Durham, 
Neville's Cross, erected by Ralph Lord Neville, to com- 
memorate the defeat of the Scots in 1346 ; and numerous 
fragments of Saxon crosses. 

Castles, Barnard, built by Barnard Baliol, grandfather 
of John Baliol King of Scotland, very extensive remains 
of walls, towers, &c. standing on the verge of a cliff ; 
Brancepeth, erected by the Bulmers, temp. Stephen^ mo- 
dernized a few years ago by an ignorant architect; Dur- 
ham, one belonging to the early Saxon Bishops was burnt 
down in 1069, rebuilt 1072 by William I. and a great 
portion, after another fire, was rebuilt by Bishop Pudsey, 
much of which and of subsequent erections remain ; 
Haggerston, ante 1311; Heton, a vaulted apartment 
Holy Island, erected 1534 ; Hilton ; Lumley, by Ralph 
Lord Lumley, temp. Richard II.; Middleham; Nor- 
ham, on a rock, by Bishop Flambard 1121, the great 
tower, a portion of which still remains, is the work of 
Bishop Pudsey; Raby, by John de Nevill, Earl of 
Westmorland, in 1380, the great hall is 120 feet long and 
36 broad ; Ravensworth ; Stockton ; Streatlam, in 
13th century, by Sir John Trayne, and rebuilt in the 
15th century, by Sir William Bowes; Witton, about 
1410. 






6 COUNTT HISTORY — DURHAM. 

Tower*. Buckton ; Cheswick, built about 1400, no traces ; 
Duddoe, iu ruins ; Kyloe, ante 1450^ in ruins ; Sere- 
merston, foundations traceable ; Tweedraoutb, not a ves- 
tige ; Twisell, inclosed in a modern building. 

Mantion*. Bradley Hall, embattled temp. Henry VI. and 
altered temp. James I.; Dalden; Gainford, tbe Old 
Hall; Goswick, now used as farm offices, erected 1560; 
Hougbton, built between 1589 and 1623; Langley Hall, 
ruins of the Tudor age ; aud tbe Prior of Durham^s coun- 
try houses at Beaurepaire and Pittington, in ruins. 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Ri9er$. Denrenty rises in the Moors, and falls into the 
Tyne near Swalwell ; Done ; Gaunless ; Lune, enters 
from the county of Westmorland, and falls into the Tees 
beloir Longton ; Skern, runs into the Tees at Croftbridge ; 
Tees, rises in the Moors, where the five counties of York, 
Cumberland, Westmorland, Durham, and Northumber- 
land unite, flows through Teesdale for nearly thirty miles, 
and falls into the German Ocean near Stockton ; Till ; 
Tweed ; Tyne ; Wear, rises in the Moors, and joins 
the sea at Sunderland. 

Lake* Hardwick, of 40 acres, artifidaL 

JnUmd Navigatiofu Tees, Tweedy Tyne and Wear Rivers, 
the latter to Lambton Castle. 

RaUroadi. Clarence; Hartlepool; Seaham; Stanhope 
and Shielda; Stockton and Darlington; and numerous 
others of less extent and importance. 

Eminences and Views. Auckland Castle Park, beautiful 
and interesting views; Barnard Castle, the neighbour- 
ing country very beautiful; Beacon, Billy, and Bail 
Hills ; Butterby, beautiful rural scene ; Brandon Hill, 
975 feet high, commands a view of eight castles and a vast 
range of country ; Caldron Snout, the scenery more wild 
and romantic than any other part of Durham ; Castle 



8 COUNTY HISTORY — DURHAM. 

£den Dene, for wood and rock unequalled in the north of 
England ; Cockfield Fell ; Collier Law, 1678 feet high ; 
Croxdale Scar, rich and extensive prospect ; Durham, 
from the castle terraces extensive and delightful prospects, 
and also from St. Giles's church ; Gateshead Fell ; Gibside, 
magnificent woodland scenery ; Hamsterley, rich scenery ; 
Hart, from the church, grand and extensive views ; Har- 
tlepool, from the churchyard, peculiarly grand and inte- 
resting views ; Kilhofe Law, 2196 feet high ; Kyloe, 
from the churchyard, extensive and interesting ; Lum- 
ley Castle, from the platform, varied, extensive, and pic- 
turesque view ; Medomsley, extensive view over the vale 
of Derwent and the hills beyond the Tyne ; Merrington 
Church, wonderfully extensive and beautiful view ; Pontop 
Pike, 1018 feet high; Sadberge, extensive view ; South 
Shields, from the Lawe House, one of the grandest sea 
views in the kingdom ; The Tees is one of the most ro- 
mantic rivers in England ; Teesdale Forest Hills ; Tun- 
stall Hill ; Whickham village commands an extensive 
prospect ; Wardenlaw Hill, 632 feet high. 

Natural Curiosities, Barnard Castle, sulphureous springs 
from a rock in the Tees ; Birtley, salt spring, four times 
stronger than any sea water; Black Hall Rocks, near 
Hartlepool ; Butterby, mineral and salt springs ; Cal^ 
dron Snout, on the Tees, wild and romantic cataract; J 
Dinsdale, sulphur well, discovered in 1789 ; Hartlepool, 
promontory, chalybeate spa, and one like the water of 
Harrogate ; High Force, a sublime cataract on the Tees, 
over a huge rock of black marble 70 feet high ; Marsdon 
Rock ; Oxenhall, several cavities in the earth called Hell 
Kettles, three of the largest measuring twenty-four feet in 
diameter, and in depth from 17 to 37 feet (seep. 27); 
Spittal in Tweedmouth, chalybeate spring. 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 9 

Public Edifices. Darlington, town hall, erected 1808. 
Durham, new bridge, erected between 1772 and 1777, 
at the expense of the Dean and Chapter of Durham: 
Elyet bridge, built by Bishop Pudsey about the year 
1170 : Framwellgate bridge, erected about 1120, by Bishop 
Flambard, arches 90 feet span : county courts and gover- 
nor's house: county infirmary, established 1799: guild- 
hall, of the date 1555: house of correction: new gaol: 
university, fojunded by Act of Parliament passed in 1832, 
opened October 28, 1833. Ebchester, arch over Causey 
Burne, erected 1729, span 103 feet. Gateshead, bridge, 
connecting it with Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Greatham, 
hospital. Hartlepool, fortifications: town hall. Monk* 
wearmouth, pier and lighthouse. Newton Cap, bridge, 
erected by Bishop Skirlaw about 1390. Norham, suspen- 
sion bridge over the Tweed, opened 19 July 1820, built 
by Captain Brown, R.N. cost £6,449. Sherburne, hospi* 
tsd. South Shields, guard house and battery : town hall, 
erected 1768. Stockton, bridge over the Tees, of five 
arches of stone, foundation laid August 23, 1764, com* 
pleted April 1771* span of centre arch 72 ft. breadth 21, 
and height from low water 23, cost £8,000. Sunderland, 
barracks, erected 1794, capable of accommodating 1,000 
men: bridge of iron, of one arch 236 feet span, foundation 
laid September 24, 1793, opened August 9, 1796, cost 
£33»000, the weight of iron 260 tons, capable of allowing 
vessels of 300 tons to pass under with only striking their 
top gallant masts : custom house, erected as a private house 
in 1727: exchange, very noble edifice, opened May 26, 
1814: excise office: harbourpiers,battery, and octangular 
lighthouse : theatre, opened 1778. Ushaw, near Durham, 
catholic college, a spacious quadrangle, opened 1808. 
Whorltpn, chain bridge over the Tees, opened 1831, 
span 180 feet. Winston, bridge, of one arch 111 feet 
span, erected 1764, designed by Sir Thomas Robinson. 

6 



10 COUNTY HI8T0RT— DURHAM* 



Seat*. Rabt Castle, Duke of Cleveland, 
Lord Lieutenant of the Countjf, 
Arlaw Banks, Mrs. Lonsdale. 
Axwell Park, Sir Thomas Clavering, Bart. 
Ajcliffe Heads, Frauds Johnson, esq. 
Beamish Hall, M. J. Davison, esq. 
Billing^ham Grange, William Chilton, esq. 
Bishop Auckland Palace, Bishop of Durham. 
Bishopoak, Robert Curry, esq. 
Blackwell Orange Hall, William Allan, esq. 
Bradley Hall, Tnomas Bowes, esq. 
Brancepeth Castle, William Russell, esq. 
Burnhall, B. J. Salvin, esq. 
Castle Eden, Rowland Burden, esq. 
Chilton, Great, Christopher Mason, esq. 
Cleadon House, Bryan Abbs, esq. 
Coatham Hall, Garth Smith, esq. 
Cornhill, Henry Collingfwood, esq. 
Coxhoe, Anthony Wilkinson, esq. 
Crook Hall, Rev. R. Williamson. 
Croxdale, W. T. Salvin, esq. 
Es^gleston Hall, Mrs. Hutchinson. 
Elemore Hall, George Baker, esq. 
Elton Hall, George William Sutton, esq. 
Eppleton, Great, Francis Mascall, esq. 
Fawnlees, George Wooler, esq. 
Ford, Bishopwearmouth, George Fenwick, esq. 
Gibside, Countess of Strathmore. 
Grange, Bishopwearmouth, Mrs. Allan. 
Greencrofb Park, Sir Thomas John Clavering, Bart. 
Greenwell Hill, Wolsingham, T. Greenwell, esq. 

Ford, Lanchester, William lliomas Greenwell, esq. 

Hagfferston, Sir Camaby Haggerston, Bart. 

Hardwicke Hall, W. Russell,' esq. 

Harperley Park, George Hutton Wilkinson, esq. 

Hebbum Hall, Cuthbert Ellison, esq. 

Helmington Hall, Rev. Robert Spencer. 

Hermitage, Chester-le-Street, Thomas Cookson, esq. 

Hetton HaJ], the late John Lyon, esq. 

High Bams, Bishopwearmouth, Rev. William Ettrick* 



SEATS. II 

Hilton Castle, John Bowes, esq. M.P. 

Place, Robert Reah, esq. 

Hoppiland House, George Thomas Leaton Blenkinsop, esq. 

Howlish Hall, J. Walker, esq. ^ * 

Ketton House, Frederick Hardinge, esq, 

LambtQu Castle, Earl Durham. 

Laufi^ton Grange, Duke of Cleveland. 

Little Eppleton, the late Captain Hon. A. Cochrane. 

Low Bams, Richard Pemberton, esq. 

Lumley Castle, Earl of Scarborough. 

Mainstorth, Mrs. Surtees. 

Medomsley House, the late General Hunter. 

Moor House, Hartlepool, 

Murton House, R. J. Lambton, esq. 
Newton Hall, near Durham, William Russell, esq. 
Old Park, near Bishop Auckland, Mrs. Middletou. 
Ord House, the late William Grieve, esq. 
Oswald House, Durham, Rev. P. Wilkinson, 
Pallion House, Addison Fenwick, esq. 
I^lmore House, Thomas Surtees Raine, esq. 
Ravensworth Castle, Lord Ravensworth. 
Red Heugh, near Gateshead, Adam Askew, esq. 
Redgate House, George Emerson, esq. 
Redworth House, Robert Surtees, esq. 
Seaham, Marquis of Londonderry. 
Selaby Hall, Duke of Cleveland. 
Sherburn Hall, John Pemberton, esq. 
Shincliffe Hall, J. Prince, esq. 

Shotlej Hall, Walker, esq. 

Sniperley House, Robert Burrell, esq . 

Snow Hall, I^ersbridge, Miss Sherwood. 

Sockbame Hall, H. C. Blackett, esq. 

South Biddick, William Hedworth Lambton, esq. 

South End, Darlington, Joseph Pease, M.P. 

Stanhope Castle, Cuthbert Rippon, esq. M.P. 

Stella Hall, Bladon, M. Dunn, esq. 

Streatlam Castle, John Bowes, esq. 

Stubb House, T. Harrison, esq. 

Thomhill, Shakspeare Reed, esq. 

Tilmouth, Sir Francis Blake, Bart. 

Truir, Sir William fiden, Bart. 

"Walworth Castle, J. H. Aylmer, esq. 

Whitburn Hall, Sir Hedworth Williamson, Bart. 



12 COUNTY HISTORT-^DURHAM. 

Whitehill Hall, Cookson, esq. 

Whitworth Park, Robert Eden Duncombe Shafto, esq. 
Windlestou Hall, Sir Robert Johnson Eden, Bart. 
Witton Castle, Sir William Chaytor, Bart. 

Hall, Newby Lowson, esa. 

Wynyard, Marquis of Londonaerry. 

Caves, Blackball Rocks, near Hartlepool, produced by the 
action of the sea : Fairies Kettle, in Marsden Rocks, 100 
yards in length and 30 in breadth : Hetherburn caves, 
at Stanhope, open for nearly a mile in length, very curious 
and wonderful. 

Peerage. Barnard Castle, Barnard of, viscounty (1754) 
and Barony (1699) to Vane Duke of Cleveland ; Dar- 
lington, earldom (1754) to Vane Duke of Cleveland ; 
Durham City and Lambton Castle, barony (1828) and 
earldom (1833) to Lambton : Eldon, earldom (1 821 ) and 
barony (1799) to Scott ; Sunderland, earldom (1643) to 
Churchill Duke of Marlborough ; West Auckland, 
Auckland of, barony (1793) to Eden. 

Baronetage, Axwell, Clavering, 1661; Eshe, Smythe, 
1660; Hart, Pocock, 1821 ; Truir, Eden, 1776 ; Twi- 
sell Castle, Blake, 1774 ; West Auckland, Eden, 1672 ; 
Witton Castle, Chaytor, 1831. 

Representatives returned to Parliament. For the Northern 
Division of the County, 2 : Southern Division, 2: Dur- 
ham, 2 : Gateshead, 1 : South Shields, 1 : Sunderland, 2 : 
total, 10. — The Reform Act, by adding two to ttie County, 
and enfranchising Sunderland, Gateshead, and South 
Shields, increased the Representation by six. 

produce. Coals, at Felling, Great Lumley, Hetton>le- 
Hole, South Shields, South Hetton, Coxhoe, and many 



PRESENT STATE. 13 

other places : lead, at Stanhope, where it gives employment 
to 1626 labourers, and at Middleton in Teesdale: stone : 
limestone, black spotted, at Wolsingham, and in the bed 
of the Tees : millstone : grindstones, at Gateshead Fell : 
firestone, at Heworth: slate: iron ore, at Lindisfarn, 
where the entrochi, or St. Cuthbert's beads, alluded to in 
Sir Walter Scott's "Marmion," are found. Cattle, in 
great repute for form, weight, quickness in fattening, 
and value to the dairy (the celebrated Durham os, 
slaughtered in 1807, and for which £2,000 was refused, 
weighed 220 stone): sheep, the improved Tees Water 
breed. 5^mon, at Stockton, &c. : and all other sea fish 
in abundance : the cockles between Ross and Elswick are 
large, and called Budle cockles. 

Manufactures. Barnard Castle, stockings, stuffs, and 
carpeting. Bedlington, anchors, chains, nails, agricultural 
implements. Bishopwear mouth, glass bottles. Darlington, 
linen and worsted jarn : optical glasses* Durham, stuffs, 
carpets, &c. Gateshead, chain cables, glass bottles, ropes, 
iron. Heworth, sail cloth, glass bottles, pottery, prussian 
blue. Hilton Ferry, copperas. Hurworth, weaving linen, 
and flax dressing. Sedgefield, shoes and agricultural im- 
plements. Shotley Bridge, sword blades, and edged tools. 
South Shields, glass bottles, extensive : ropes, salt, and 
beer. Southwick, pottery. Stockton, ships, ropes, sail- 
cloths, glass, weaving linen, and flax dressing. Sunder- 
land, ships, ropes, engines, moulds and patterns, glass 
bottles, and pottery. Swalwell, anchors of the largest 
size, mooring chains, and other articles in iron. Wol- 
singham, scythes and edge tools. 



14 



POPULATION IN laSl. 



fFards,4; DivmonSy 10; ShireSf2; City, Durham; 
Boroughs, 3; Market Towns^ 9; Parishes^ 113; 
Parts of Parishes, 3» 

Houses. Inhabited, 40,740 ; Uninhabited, 1,570 ; Buildings, 
345. 

Inhabitants. Males, 121,748; Females, 132,162; total, 
253,910. 

Families. Employed in Agriculture, 8,408; in Trade, 
18,511; in neither, 27,817; total, 54,736. 

Baptisms in 1830. Males, 3,961 ; Females, 3,698 ; total, 
7,659. Jnnuai average of 1821 to 1830, 7,207» 

Marriages, 1,808. Annual Average, 1,7^1. 

Burials. Males, 2,586: Females, 2,495 : total, 5,081* 
Annual Average, 4,655* 

Annual Value of Real Property, as assessed in Aprils 
1815, £791,359. 



FOPULATIOK. 



15 



Placet having 

Hoases. 
Sunderland 1744 

Gateshead 8817 

Buhopwearmouth 3326 



not less 

Inhab. 
17,060 
15,177 
14,463 
10,135 
9,683 
9,074 
8,674 



1848 7,763 



Durham 1388 

Westoe* 1665 

South Shields* 1353 

Darlinfi^n 1193 
Stockton-upon- 

Tees 
Monkwearmouth 

Shore 670 6.051 

Hetton-le-Hole 1053 5,887 

Heworth 969 5,434 

Tweedmouth 714 4,971 

Foren Qoarterf 784 4,741 

Barnard G^tle 513 4 ,430 

Winlatnn 620 3,951 
Houghton*le- 

Spring 687 3,917 

Monkton & Jarrow 700 3,598 

Bishop Auckland 467 3,859 

Painshaw 462 3,539 

Great Lumley 411 3,301 

Wolsingham 439 3,339 

Newbottle 390 3,198 

Harraton 404 3,171 

Bedlington 368 3»130 

Stanhope Quarterf 333 8,080 



than 1,000 Inhabitants. 

Houses. 
Chester-Ie-Street 833 

Lamesley 393 
Park Quarterf 904 

Beamish 333 
Midd|etOD-in- 

Teesdale 
Hall Garth, In Pit- 

tiugton 396 

East Hainton 395 

Birtley 969 

West Auckland 308 

Monkwearmouth 334 

Norton 317 

Staindrop 360 
Usworth and North 

Biddick 983 

Sedgefield 309 

Ancroft 353 

Swalwell 193 

Hartlepool 375 

South wick 831 

Lowside 820 

West Rainton 397 

Washington 339 
DawdonI 96 

Barony & £ veiiwood 83 1 

Hurworth 811 
Whitburn 183 



Inhab. 

1,910 
1,910 
1,873 
1,848 



871 1,834 



1,63d 
1,600 
1,530 
1,539 
1,498 
1,486 
1,478 

1,477 
1,439 
1,384 
1,378 
1,830 
1,301 
1,184 
1,184 
1>133 
1,039 
1,019 
1,017 
1,001 



• At Westoe there are 1087 seamen, and at South Shields there 
are 1080 seamen, not included In the numbers given above. 

f Parts of Stanhope parish. The entire parish contains 1,357 
houses and 9,54 1 inhabitants. 

^ The construction of a new harbour accounts for the extent of 
inhabitants* 



16 



HISTORY. 

A. D. 

560. The Saxons, under ^lla, expelled the Britons from 
Durham, then called Deira. iEUa hecame the first King 
of Deira. 

685. Egfrid King of Northumbria granted all the land 
between the Wear and Tyne to St. Cuthbert, to hold in 
as full and ample a manner as the King himself held the 
same. This was the origin of the Palatine rights of the 
Bishops of Durham. 

782. A synod held at Aycliffe ; and again in 789. 

792. At Sedgefield and neighbourhood a very destructive 
ice storm occurred, filling the streets to the depth of two 
feet with pieces of ice, varying from the size of a marble 
to that of a man*s head.— A synod held at Finchale. 

792. A synod held at Finchale Priory ; another in 798 ; 
and a third in 810. 

793. The Danes burnt and plundered Monkwearmouth, 
and went into Islandshire. 

800. The Danes destroyed Hertness and Hartlepool. 
870. Jarrow plundered and burnt by a fleet of the Baltic 

pirates. 
876. Halfden with a re-inforcement of the Danes ravaged 

the county. 
1040. Durham successfully defended by the inhabitants 

agunst Duncan King of Scots. 

1068. On Gateshead Fell, Edgar Atheling and Malcolm 
King of Scots defeated by William I. 

1069. At Durham, Robert Comyn, Earl of Northumber* 



HISTORY. 17 

A. D. 

land, and 700 Norman attendants, put to death bj the 
inhabitants ; in revenge of which William I. laid waste all 
the country between York and Durham. The ecclesias- 
tics fled to Lindisfarne. Durham was plundered and 
Jarrow Abbey burnt. 

1070. The Scots under King Malcolm destroyed the monas- 
tery of Monkwearmouth. 

108O. May 14, at Gateshead, Walcher Bishop of Durham 
and Earl of Northumberland murdered by the populace ; 
and in return Odo Bishop of Baieux ravaged the province* 

1139. Norham Castle nearly destroyed by David King of 
Soots, and the town reduced to ashes. He had previously, 
In 1136, taken possession of the Castle in the cause of the 
Empress Matilda, but it was soon restored in consequence 
of a treaty. — In April, at Durham, Maud Queen of 
England and H^enry son of David met and concluded peace. 

1140. The see of Durham usurped by William Cumin, 
who maintained a refractory and terrible war against the 
monks and their appointed Bishop for some years. 

1171 or 1174. Hugh Count of Bar landed at Hartlepool 
with a body of Flemings, consisting of 40 knights and 
500 foot soldiers, to assist William of Scotland in his in- 
vasion of England. 

1202. King John, wishing to gain Berwick, began to 
strengthen Tweedmouth tower, but William the Lion twice 
baffled him, and twice levelled it to the ground. 

1209. King John for a few days at Norham Castle ; and 
here he met William the Lion, and agreed to a treaty 
which was confirmed by them here in 1211. 

1213. King John at Norham castle and Durham. 

1214. King John at Stockton in February. 

1215. Norham Castle unsuccessfully besieged for forty days 
by Alexander King of Scotland. 

1219. At Norham Castle, Alexander King of Scotland, 
Stephen de Segrave, procurator on behalf of England, 



18 COUNTY HISTORY— DURHAM. 

A.D. 

and the Pope's legate, met to settle the disputes between 
the two kingdoms. 

1291. Edward at Darlington, whence he summoned his 
nobles to meet him at Norham, where he decided the 
claim for the crown of Scotland in favour of the Baliols. 

1297. Ryton burnt by Wallace, who then occupied Hex- 
ham in Northumberland. 

1311. At Haggerston Castle, Edward II. received the ho- 
mage of Thomas Earl of Lancaster for the earldom of 
Lincoln. 

1312. Bruce surprised the inhabitants of Durham in their 
beds, and laid the suburbs in ashes. — A party under Sir 
James Douglas fired and plundered Hartlepool. 

1313. Norham besieged by the Scots, but preserved by the 
bravery of the governor. Sir Thomas Grey, and the timely 
aid of the Lords Percy and Nevill. 

1314. After the inglorious defeat at Bannockbum, the Scots 
pursued Edward into the palatinate. 

1315. The Scotch destroyed almost the whole stock of 
game and cattle at fieaurepaire, with the Prior's house. 

1316. The Scots laid the eastern district of the county in 
ashes. 

1317. Lewis Beaumont, the new Bishop of Durham, 
attacked at Rushyford by the freebooter Middleton, and 
detained till the convent gave security for a heavy ransom. 

1322. The Scots again laid the eastern side of the county 
in ashes. Norham retaken by Edward II. 

1325. Stockton destroyed by Uie Scots. 

1327. Archibald Douglas entered Durham, and plundered 
the country. At Darlington he had an encounter with a 
party of English, many of whom he killed. — ^Edward came 
to Durham on the 13th of July from Topcliff, and rested 
there till the 18th, when in pursuit of the Scotb. He re- 
turned to Beaurepaire August 8, and to Durham on the 
10th.— Norham taken by the Scots. 



Ht8T0R7. 19 

A.D. 

1333. Edward and his Queen, Baliol King^of Scotland, 
and the northern nobility, entertained at Durham with 
magnificent hospitality by Bishop Bury. 

1346. David King of Scotland was at Ryton when he re- 
oeired the yisit of St. Cuthbert in a vision. — David lay at 
Beaurepaire before the battle of Neville^s Cross. — October 
17, on Red Hills, David was defeated and taken prisoner 
by Ralph Lord Neville, who erected a cross in com- 
memoration of the victory, whence it is generally called 
" the Battle of Neville's Cross ;" but there was a cross 
there before, bearing that name. The Scots lost from 15 
to 20,000 men. David surrendered himself to John 
Copeland, a Northumbrian esquire. 

1424. James King of Scotland and his newly-married 
Queen, Jane Beaufort, entertained at Durham for a 
month by Cardinal Langley. 

1448. Henry VI. visited the shrine of St. Cuthbert, and 
was entertained in the castle of Durham by Bishop N-e- 

• ville. 

1497. James of Scotland besieged Norham Castle; but, on 
the appearance of the gallant Earl of Surrey, was com- 
pelled to retreat. 

1504. Princess Margaret, affianced to James IV. of Scot- 
land, entertained at Darlington and Durham on her pro- 
gress northward. 

1549. The French auxiliaries to the Scots took Cornhill. 

1551. A treaty between the kingdoms of England and 
Scotland signed within the walls of Norham church. 

1558. A party of about 1,000 horse from Scotland entered 
the county, burning and plundering. At Grendon they 
were forced to retire with loss, by the Earl of Northum- 
berland and his brother Sir Henry Percy. 

1569. The Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland 

■ raised a body of insurgents, with the design of restoring 
the antient religion and of delivering Uie Queen of Scots, 



90 COUNTT HlflTORT^-DURHAM. 

A. D. 

and marched agaipst Durham, where they bttmt the 
English bibles and common prayer books, and cele- 
brated mass in the cathedral. A party occupied Hartle- 
pool, and a body of them to the amount of 4,000 foot and 
1,200 horse mustered at Clifford Moor near Wetherby. 
Barnard Castle surrendered to them from want of provi- 
sions ; but on the approach of the Queen^s army under 
Sussex at Northallerton, they fled to Auckland, Hexham, 
&c. decreasing every step. 

1590. In this and several subsequent years, many Roman 
Catholic priests were executed for their religious opinions 
at Durham, Darlington, Gateshead, &c. 

1603. At Fenham, near Holy Island, James I. on his first 
progress into England, visited Sir William Reade, a vete* 
ran border soldier, at that time in a state of blindness. 
On his entrance into the county from Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, in Northumberland, the king was met by the Sheriff 
at Gateshead, and thence conducted to Durham April 13, 
admiring Lumley Castle by the way. On the 14th he was 
entertained at Walworth, and on the following day went 
into Yorkshire. 

1608. At Norham, in April, King James was entertained 
by Sir Robert Carey. 

1617* King James entertained at Bishop Auckland palace 
by Bishop James, April 17, going thence on the 19th to 
Durham, and on the 23d to Newcastle. 

1633. Charles I. entertained at Raby castle by Sir Henry 
Vane ; and at Auckland and Durham castles by Bishop 
Morton, with great splendour. 

1639. Charles again at Raby and Durham April 30. 

1640. After the victory of the Scots at Newbum in North- 
umberland, the Bishop of Durham fled to Stockton castle. 
— On the 30th of August the Soots entered Durham. 

1644. The Scots, with a view to the assistance of the Par- 
liament, were, to the number of 18,000 foot and 3,000 



HISTORY. 21 

A. D. 

horse, on March 1, at €hester-le-Street ; on the 2d, 
they crossed the river Wear at the new bridge near 
Lumlej ; rested on the 3d at Herrington ; and entered 
Sunderland on the 4th. On the 6th, the Marquii of 
Newcastle appeared before them, and, after a skirmish on 
the 8th, marched to Durham. The Scots attacked South 
Shields on the 15th and were beaten off, but carried it on 
the 20th. On the 23d, the Marquis of Newcastle marched 
from Durham to Chester, but soon returned again. 
April 13, the Marquis marched from Durham to Auck- 
land, and thence to Barnard Castle and Piersbridge. On 
the 14th General Leslie at Darlington. — In August, the 
Scots took Hartlepool and Stockton for the Parliament. 

1646. When the Scots had determined to give the King up 
to the Parliament, he was brought to Durham on the 3d, 
and to Auckland on the 4th. — Holy Island castle seized 
for the Parliament. 

1648. Raby castle besieged by the Royalists in August. — 
Oliver Cromwell was at Barnard Castle and Durham in 
October. 

1650. The prisoners, to the number of 3,000, taken by 
Oliver Cromwell at the battle of Dunbar in Scotland, 
were confined in Durham cathedral, which they much 
damaged. 

1657' May 15, Durham made an university by Oliver 
Cromwell, but it was abolished at the restoration. 

1715. Holy Island castle obtained possession of by strata- 
gem for the Pretender, by Launcelot Errington, who was 
obliged to make his escape thence over the walls. 

1806. At Raby Castle, the Prince of Wales and Duke of 
Clarence entertained by the Earl of Darlington with great 
splendour. 

1812. May 25, an exploeioa at the Felling colliery killed 
ninety-two persons. 

1832. The Universitv of Durham founded. 



22 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Buley, John, agriculturist, Cockfield (died 1819, aged 67)« 
Baker, Sir George, grand&ther of the antiquary* Durham 

(died 1667). 
Thomas, antiquary, author of the hutorj of St John's 

Cambridge, CrooKor Lanchester, 1656 (died 1740). 
Baliol, John, founder of Baliol college, Oxford, Barnard 

Castle (died 1269). 
Beda, Venerabilis, ecclesiastical historian, Monkton, 672 

((^ed 735). 
Carleton, George, Bishop of Chichester, bio^apher of Ba^ 

nard Gilpin, and miscellaneous author, rl^orham, 1559 

(died 1628). 
Clavering, Robert, Bishop of Peterborough, Tillmouth (died 

1747). 
Cosin, John, civilian, defender of episcopacy, Hartlepool. 
Craggs, James, Secretary of State and Postmaster-general 

temp. George I. Holbeck. 
Crosby, Brass, lawyer, patriot, Lord Mayor of London, 



Stockton-upon-Tees, 1725.6 (died 1793). 

jp of 
Henry III. Darlington (died 1284). 



i-up 



Darlington, John of, Archbishop of Dublin, confessor to 



Durham, Nicholas, carmelite friar, opponent of Wlckliffe 

(flourished 1370). 
Eden, William, first Lord Auckland, statesman, Durham 

(died 1814). 
Edwards, George, physician, writer on political economy, 

Barnard Castie, 1751 (died 1823). 
Emerson, Willium, matiiematician, Hurworth, 1701 (died 

1782). 
Emery, John, actor, eminent as a pourtrajer of rough na- 
ture, fine simplicity, and strong passion, Sunderland, 

1777 (died 1822). 
Garth, Sir Samuel, poet and physician, Bolam in Gainsfortb 

(died 1718).* 

* Claimed also by Yorkshire. 



BMINBNT KATIVES. 23 

Grey, Ricbard, divine and scholar, author of ^'Memoria 
Technica," Durham, 1693 (died 1771).* 

Hall, John, poet and translator, author of ''Hone Vaciv»/^ 
Durham, 1627 (died 1656). 

Heggfe, Robert, divine and author, Durham, 1599 (died in 
r629). 

Horn, Robert, Bishop of Winchester and Dean of Durham 
(died 1579). 

HuUock, Sir John, Baron of Exchequer, and author, Bar- 
nard Castle, 1764 (died 1829). 

Hunter, Christopher, physician and antiquary, Medomsley, 
1675 (died 1757). 

Hutchinson, William, author of the " History and antiqui- 
ties of Durham,^' Barnard Castle, 1732 (died there 1814). 

Insula, Robert de, or de Halieland, Bishop of Durham in 
1274, Holy Island. 

Jackson, Thomas, Dean of Peterborough, commentator on 
the creed, Witton le Wear, 1579 (died 1640). 

Kendrew, John, ingenious mechanic, Darlington. 

Lambe, Robert, divine, philologist, historian of the game of 
chess, &c Durham (died 179S, aged 84). 

Lilbum, John, << free-bom John,'' star chamber sufferer, 
lieutenant-colonel in the republican army, opponent of 
Cromwell, and voluminous writer, East Thickley, 1618 
(died 1657). 

Neville, Alexander, Archbishop of York, temp. Richard II. 
Raby. 

Cicely, mother of Edward IV. and Richard III. Raby 

(died 1495). 

George, Archbishop of York, Bishop Middleham (died 

1476). 

' Ralph, Bishop of Chichester, Chancellor to Henry III. 

Raby (died 1244). 

■ Robert, Bishop of Durham, Raby (died 1457). 

Place, Francis, painter and engraver, Dinsdale (died 1728, 
aged 81). 

Hanson, Thomas Fryer, engraver, Sunderland, 1784 (died 
1828). 

Reed, Joseph, dramatic writer, Stockton-upon-Tees, 1723 
(died 1787). 

Ritson, Joseph, lawyer, poetical antiquary and critic, Stock- 
to n-upon-Tees, 1752 (died 1803;. 

* Claimed also by Newcastle in Northamberland. 



24 COUNTT HISTORY — DURHAM. 

Romaine, William, calvinistic divine and author, Hartle- 
pool, 1714 (died 1795). 

Sanderson, Robert, antiquary, EggleBton Hall, 1660 (died 
1741). 

Sharp, Granville, philanthropist, Durham, 1735 (died 1813). 

Sherwood, Ralph, mimic and comedian of talent, altered his 
name to Sherwin, Bishop Auckland, 1799 (di«i 1830). 

Sherwood, William, Archbishop of Rouen, Durham (died 
1249). 

Shield, William, musical composer, Swalwell or Whickham, 
1749 (died 1829). 

Smith, Elizabeth, amiable and learned, linguist, and transla- 
tor of the book of Job, Bumhall, 1776 (died 1806). 

Smith, George, Saxon scholar, editor of Bede, Durham, 
1603. 

Surtees, Robert, poet, topographer, and antiquary, author 
of a foHo history of the county left uncompleted, Dur- 
ham, 1779 (died 1834). 

Syveyer, William, Bishop of Durham. Shuckliffe (died 1505). 

Ward, Samuel, divine, Bishop Middleham (died 1643). 



25 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

Barnard and Norham Castles have become classic 
ground through the muse of Scott. At the former Richard 
Duke of Gloucester (afterwards Richard. IIL) resided for 
manj years as Lieutenant of the northern parts of the king- 
dom during the reign of his brother Edward IV. 

The Palace of Bishop Auckland, with courts and offices, 
extends over a space of about five acres. In the Chapel was 
interred Bishop Cosins, its founder, and here is a handsome 
monument, bj NoUekins, to Bishop Trevor, and a fine pic- 
ture of the Resurrection by Sir Joshua Reynolds. In the 
lining Parlour are the Comaro family by Titian, and 
Jacob and the twelve Patriarchs by Spagnoletto* 

Of BisHOPWEARMOUTH were Rectors, Dr. Robert Grey, 
brother to the first Lord Grey of Warke, a man eminent for 
his piety and great charities; Paley the philosopher, who 
died here in 1805 ; and a second Dr. Robert Gray, author 
of the ** Key to the Old Testament,'' who succeeded the 
AfcMs^CQn, held the rectory till 1827, and died Bishop of 
Bristol in 1834. 

At Cabtle £dbn is preserved the cup of the last Abbot 
of Bury, a ^acious goblet of Dutch glass, handsomely 
moHntjed in silver. 

In the Churck of CHBaTER-i4S-STREBT is a singular and 
iaterestii^ series of mpnuments bearing effigies of the ances- 
try of the Lumleys, from Liulphus in the time of Edward 
the ConfesAor to the time of Elizabeth, when they were 
formed by John Lord Lumley. In 1612 we find that pews 
in this church were only allowed to " brydgrumes, bryds, 

f 



26 COUNTT HISTOBT — DURHAM. 

and gike wjves to sit in/* In the register of the date 1603 
is this item, *' Payd to a traveller with a pass, being a mar« 
chante in seekingehis servante, the 19 day of December, Is J*" 

At the Grange near Darlington died, in 1800, the anti- 
quary and topographer George Allan. 

In Durham Cathedral lie the remains df St Cuthbert, 
brought hither from Lindisfame, and for many centuries 
asserted to be incorruptible ; of Venerable Bede, removed 
from Jarrow ; and of Ralph Lord Neville, general at the 
battle of Neville*s Cross, who was the first layman permitted 
to be interred within its walls. The shrine of St. Cuthbert 
was at one time the richest in England. A particular and 
interesting account^ with many illustrative engravings, of 
the appearances on opening his grave in 1827, is given in 
the Reverend Mr, Raine's Life of St. Cuthbert, and an 
abridged description in the same gentleman*s Brief Account 
of the cathedral. The very antient and curious* vestments, 
and other relics, are now preserved in the Cathedral library* 
This examination rendered manifest the contrivances used te 
give the appearance of incorruptibility to the body of the 
saint. St. Cuthbert's dislike to women was so great that the 
spirit of the saint invariably became disturbed whenever any 
of the fair ventured beyond the prescribed limits ; and so 
rigid were the monks, that when Philippa, Queen of Edward 
III., in the year 1333, during a visit to the priory (now the 
deanery) attempted to sleep with her husband, the monk« 
compelled her to quit his side, and to make for the castle 
with all haste, clad only in her nether garments; she de- 
voutly praying that the saint would not punish a fault com- 
mitted in error. In the Library is a copy of the vulgate 
New Testament written before the year 700 ; another in 
the hand-writing of the Venerable Bede ; and a Latin ritual 
by Aldred, monk of Lindisfarne. In the Churchyard is a 
monument to Dodsley the bookseller, who died at the Rev. 
Mr. Spence's in this city. — ^^Fhe Bishop is perpetual Justice 



MISGBLLANBOUS OBSERVATIONS. 27 

of the P^ace within his territories ; he also acts as Lord Lieu- 
tenant of the county, and appoints the High Sheriff. If he 
comes to any court of judicature within the palatinate he sits 
there as chief. — Durham described by an author in the 17th 
century as the English Zion, for '' he that hath scene the situ- 
ation of this citty, hath scene the map of Sion, and may save 
a journey to Jerusalem."'— In the registers of the Church of 
St. Nicholas is this item, '<1592. Simson, Arington, Fether- 
stone, Fenwicke, and Lancaster, Egyptiacij suspensi fuerunt 
anno supradicto August 8."' — At the Grove near Durham, 
died, in 1822, Stephen George Kemhle, celebrated comedian, 
declaimer, and poet. He was buried in the cathedral. 

At Gateshead Daniel De Foe composed his *' Adven- 
tures of Robinson Crusoe."' — Here died Nov. 8, 1825, aged 
75, Thomas Bewick, celebrated engraver on wood. — Some 
remarkable instances of longevity deserve notice: in 1782, 
died Mary Cramer, aged 120; 1783, Mrs. Mary Tate, 116; 
1812, Isabella Sharp, 114. 

Hartlepool. Few places conveyed till recently so perfect 
an idea of an antient fortified town, with its walls, bastions, 
sallyports, &c. as Hartlepool ; but they have almost all disap- 
peared to make way for docks, &c. connected with the rail- 
road. — In the registers occur the following instances of lon- 
gevity: 1719, June 13, Richard Ward, aged 105; 1749, 
December 10, Ruth Nicholson, 103; 1778, May 10, Susan- 
nah Comer, 106 ; and 1794, June 5, Dorothy Ransom, 105. 

In Hurworth lived, and died May 21, 1782, the self* 
taught mathematician William Emerson. 

Houohton^le-Sprino was the Rectory, residence, and 
burial-place in 1583, of Barnard Gilpin, *' the Apostle of the 
North.*' Lindsell Bishop of Hereford, Dr. Peter Heylin, 
Archbishops Sancroft and Seeker, Sir George Wheler, and 
John Rotherham, were also Rectors of this place. Bishop 
Carleton of Chichester was educated here under Barnard 
Oilpin, whose biographer he became. 



26 COUNTy HI8TOET-*-irURHAM. * 

At Jarrow, in the vestry-room, is preserved a large unA 
antient chair of oak said to have belonged to Venerabk 
Bede. 

Lambton is celebrated for its romaDce of the " Worm of 
Lambton/' which, fished out of the Wear on a Sunday, by 
a Lambton, was thrown into a wdl, and increased so large 
that it got out and wound itself round a cragg in the Wear, 
and levied daily a contribution of the milk of nine cows, till 
the young Lambton, who fished it out, cut it up and des- 
troyed it. The well into which it was thrown, and the hill 
round which the worm wound itself, are still shewn. The 
sibyl under whose directions the hero went to the conflict, 
imposed upon him the duty in return of slaying the first 
living thing that greeted him, or else the lords of Lambton 
for nine descents would not die in their beds. The eager 
approach of the hero's father rendered a compliance impos- 
sible, but tradition testifies to the fulfilment of the alterna- 
tive. At the Castle two stone figures, evidently of consi- 
derable antiquity, are still preserved, one of which represents 
an armed knight drawing his sword out of the mouth of a 
monstrous eft ; the other, a female figure, may be intended 
for the sibyl. 

Of the Monastery of Lindisparnb the renowned Saint 
Cuthbert was prior for twelve years, and subsequently, and 
against his wishes, elevated to the bishopric of Hexham, 
which he resigned for the see of LindiHfarne. This he held 
only two years, retiring to his cell at Farne Ihland, and 
dying soon after in 683. 

LuMLBY Castle hall is ninety feet lon)^, and has a gallery 
for minstrels, and other vestiges of olden time. 

Mainsforth was the residence of the late Robert Sur- 
lees, esq. the historian of this county, ''one not more distin- 
guished for his talents and attainments, than for his exalted 
character as an English gentleman.'' In his memory has 
been established The Surtbbs Society, founded on his 



MISCELLAKBOUS OB8BRTATION8. 29 

decease in 1S*34, for the publication of inedited manuscripts 
relating to the North of England and borders of Scotland. 

At MoNKWE ARMOUTH, Venerable Bede spent the greatest 
part of his life. — The Church was the first in England that 
had glass windows, which were introduced about 680 bj 
Biscopius, its founder. 

NoRHAM Church had the privilege of sanctuary for 37 
days. Here was buried King Coelwulf — The architect of 
Bishop Pudsey's Castle tower was equipped with a frag- 
ment of the winding sheet of St. Cuthbert, and for a sight 
of this precious relic, the natives of the North gladly contri- 
buted their aid to the erection. 

At PiERCEBRiDGE died Jan. 26, 1778, Mary Hildray, 
spinster, aged 107 years. 

llie Hell Kettles at Oxenhall, near Darlington, are 
supposed to have been produced in the year 1179> upon 
Christmas day, when ''the earth raised itself up to a great 
height in the form of a lofty tower, and remained all that 
day till evening, when it sunk down with such a horrid noise 
that it terrified all the vicinity, when the earth absorbed it, 
and there formed a deep pit.'" 

Rabt Castle is a magnificent remnant of the feudal ages. 
The entrance hall is particularly grand and spacious : the 
sirched roof is supported by six pillars, with capitals diverg- 
ing and spreading along the cieling. Over the hall is 
a spacious room, in which the antient baronial festivals 
were celebrated, and where 700 knights are recorded to have 
been entertained at one time. At the west end is also a 
stone gallery for the minstrels. In the kitchen are three 
chimneys, and there are narrow passages in the walls fo 
the conveyance of dishes to the banqueting room. The oven 
has been coverted into a wine cellar, and its sides have been 
divided into ten parts, each capable of holding a hogshead of 
wine in bottles. 

At SocKBURN, the antient service by which the Manor 



90 COUNTT HISTORY— DURHAM. 

was held is still reUuned ; and the lord of Sockburn, or his 
steward, meets the Bishop of Durham, on his first arrival in 
his diocese, in the middle of the Tees, or on Croft Bridge, 
and presents a faulchion with this address: "My liord 
Bishop, I here present you with the faulchion wherewith 
the champion Gimyers slew the worm, dragon, or fierj flying 
serpent, which destroyed man, woman, and child ; in me- 
mory of which the King then reigning gave him the Manor 
of Sockbum, to hold by this tenure, that upon the first 
entrance of every Bishop into the country this faulchion 
should be presented." The Bishop takes the faulchion into 
his hand, and, wishing the lord of Sockbum health, and a 
long enjoyment of the manor, returns it. There is another 
manor in the county held by a similar tenure. 

At South Shields the original Life-boat was built by 
subscription, in consequence of the melancholy loss of the 
crew of the Adventure, of Newcastle, in September 17S9. 
It was made by Mr. Henry Greathead, and was first used 
January 30, 1790. 

Near Stockton died in June 1763, Rachel Weatherby, 
aged 110. 
At Sunderland died in 1816, Margaret Archer, aged 110. 
At Stranton, near Hartlepool, was buried May 29, 
1657i aged 106, Richard Brantingham. 

At Stre ATL AM are some excellent pictures : among them 
Rubens' Pregnant Wife in a Fruit* shop, which cost 1500 
guineas ; and a Poulterer's shop with dead game, by Rubens 
and Snyders. These were removed from Gibside. 

At an inn in Tweedmouth, Smollett wrote the greater 
part of his Humphrey Clinker. 

In Witton Gilbert Church is preserved the almost 
obsolete, but pleasing and affectionate, custom of hanging 
np funeral garlands. 



31 



LUt of JVwk* consulted, 

1. The history and antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham. 

By R. Surtees, esq. F.S.A. — folio, yoI. i. 1816; ii. 1830; iii. 

182S ; and ly. still in the press. 
9. The history and antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham , 

By William Hutchinson, F.A.S.— 4to, 8 vols. 1785. 
3. Beauties of England and Wales, vol v. — 8vo, 1803. 
■i. The Bishoprick Garland ; or a collection of legends, songs, and 

ballads, &c. belonging to the County of Durham. [By Sir 

C. Sharp.]— 8vo, 1834. 

5. Local Records, or historical register of remarkable events which 
occurred in Northumberland and Durham. By John Sykes. — 
3 vols. Svo. 1833. 

6. Westmorland, Durham^ &c. By Thomas Rose.— 4to, 1 835 $ 

now publishing in numbers. 

7. The antiquities of the Abbey or Cathedral Church of Durham. 

By Patrick Sanderson. — 18mo, 1767. 

8. Some account of the Cathedral Church of Durham. By the So- 

ciety of Antiquaries. — folio, 1810. 

9. A brief account of Durham Cathedral, &e. [By the Rev. James 

Raine, MA.] — small 8vo, 1888. 
{0. Saint Cuthbert: with an account of the state in which his 
remidns were found upon the opening of his tomb in Durham 
Cathedral in 1837. By James Raine, M A. &c. — 4to, 1838. 

11. Collection of tracts relating to Durham ; privately printed by 

George Allan, esq. of Darlington.— 4 to, in various years. 

12. A history of Hartlepool. By Sir C. Sharp, Kt. F.S.A. Mayor 

of Hartlepool. — 8vo, 1816. 

13. An historical and descriptive view of Monkwearmouth, Bishop- 

wearmouth, and Sunderland. By George Garbutt.«*8vo, 1819. 

14. The parochial history And antiquities of Stockton-upon-Tees/ &c. 

By Rev. John Brewsteri M.A.— 4to, 1796. 







LANCASHIRE. 



LANCASHIRE. 



SITUATION AND EXTJENT. 

Boundaries. North-east, Westmoreland,. se|>arated by the 
Brathy and the Winster: North-west, Cumberland, 
separated by the Dudden : East, Yorkshire, separated 
by the Hodder: South, Cheshire and the Mersey: 
West, the Irish Sea. 

Createst length, 74 ; greatest breadth^ 45 ; circun^erence, 
3^ ; square, 1831 miles ; statute acres, 1,171»840. 

Province, York. Diocese, Chester. It has Deaneries of 
Amounderness, Blackburn, Furness, Eirkby Lonsdale, 
Ley land, Manchester, and Warrington* 

Circuity Northern. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Setantii, or Segantii, or Sistuntii« a 
tribe of the Brigantes. Encampments, Broadclough 
Dykes, exhibiting a vast trench. Remains, Haulgh, near 
Bolton, a kistvaen, under a flattened tumulus of small 
boTilder stones (over which was a considerable thickness 

S 



of vegetable mould) containing bones, a circular fictile 
vase, and a brass spear-head with the point turned back; 
Smithiirs Dean, near Bolton, two large celts, one of 
brass, and the other of stone. 

Druidieal Remains. Allerton, called the Calder Stones; 
Saddleworth, Pots and Pans. 

Roman Province, Maxima Ctesariensis. Stations, Ad Alau- 
nam, Lancaster ; Bremetonace, Burrow, ibrmerlj called 
Overborough ; Colunio, Colne; Coccium, Ribchester; 
Mancunium, Mapchester. EneampmentSy Aldringham ; 
Briercliff ; Burrow ; Burj, a large square ; Portfield, 
Whalley; Whiteweil. i2o<u/«, from Manchester to Stock- 
port in Cheshire; another into Cheshire bj Stretford^ 
a third to Blackrod, with a branch to Warrington; s 
fourth to Ribchester and Burrow ; a fifth to Halifax in 
Yorkshire ; and a sixth to Almonburj in Yorkshire* 
Remains discovered^ Blackburn, coins; Blackrodt 
coins, urns, hinges, horse shoes, and iron utensils ; 
Bolton, a coin of the Emperor Hadrian; Burrow, 
inscriptions, coins, and pavements; Burnley, coins; 
Burf , coins ; Caton, milestpne, in the bed of the Aftle* 
beck rivulet ; Chatbum, 1000 denarii and a small bronze 
lamp in 1800; Colne, coins; Hornby; Lancaster, 
coins, pottery, altars, and bones ; Preston, coins ; Rib- 
chester, statue of a lion, and a fine helmet of copper 
with a sphinx for a crest; Urswick, brass vessel with 
three feet ; Worston, medals to the number of a thousand. 

JSaxon Octarchy, Deira, but subsequently NorthuipbHii> 
Encampment, Hornby. 

Danish Earthwork, Hylewood near Pendleton, in Brough- 



ANTIBNT STATE AND RBMAIN8. 3 

ton Vale, an oblong hillock of sand has been so supposed, 
and has been a subject of much controversy, but recently 
proved to be the outcrop of the natural rock. 

Abbeys, Gockersand, founded about 1190, by Theobald 
Walter, brother to Hubert Archbishop of Canterbury, 
three years after its dissolution it was restored for a short 
time by Henry VHI. the octagonal chapter house, and 
fragments of walls and sculptures remain; Furness, 
by King Stephen, then Earl of Boulogne, in 1127, exten- 
sive and picturesque remains ; Lydiate, never completed, 
stopt by the dissolution of monasteries, the walls, covered 
with ivy, appear never to have b^en roofed ; Whalley, 
removed firom Stanlaw in Cheshire in 1296, at the request 
of Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln the chapter house and 
vestry, parts of the church and dormitory, &c. forming 
three quadrangles surrounded by a moat and approached 
by large gatehouses, yet remain. 

Priories* Ashton, viWe Tulket ; Burscough, in the time 
of Richard I. by Robert Fitz Henry, lord of Lathom, 
part of the centre arch of the church as all that remains ; 
Conishead, or Coniside, by Gabriel de Pennington, in the 
time pf Henry II. no vestiges ; Hornby, by Roger Mont- 
begon, in the time of Stephen, cell to Croxton in Le - 
cestershire ; Kersall, cell to Lenton in Nottinghamshire ; 
Lytham, by Richard Fitz Roger, in the time of Richard 
I. subordinate to Durham ; Lancaster, by Roger de 
Poictou, in 1094, cell to the Abbey of Sees in Normandy ; 
Over Wyersdale, subordinate to Furness, removed in 1188 
to Ireland; Penwortham, in 1087, by Warine Bussel, 
subordinate to Evesham co Worcester, three sides remain 
surrounded by a moat; Tulket in Ashton, founded in 
1124, cdl to Sevigny in Normandy, removed in a few years 



4 COUNTY HWTORT— LANCA8HIBB. 

to FurDe«8 ; Up HoUand, in Wigan, changed from a 
college in 1319, by Sir Robert de Holland, the original 
founder, a few walls and the church remain ; Warring- 
ton, in 1379, by Uie Botelers, not a vestige. 

Friaries. Cartmel, Austin, by WiUiam Mareschal, Earl of 
Pembroke, 1188, the church remains. Lancaster, Black, 
by Sir Hugh Harrington, 44 Henry III. ; Grey. Pres- 
ton, Grey, by Edmund Crouchback, Eari of Lancaster, 
son of Henry HL 1221, the shell of the chapel remains; 
Minors. 

Preceptor^. Stcde, the chapel, of the period of Stephen, 
remuns. 

Colleges. Manchester, founded by Thomas Lord Delawarr, 
in 1422, suppressed by Edward VI. re-founded by Queen 
Mary, afterwards by Elizabeth, and agwn by Charles I. 
in 1636. Up Holland, afterwards a priory. 

Hospitals. Cockersand, belonged to the abbey at Leicester, 
afterwards convertedinto an abbey. Lancaster, for lepers, 
founded by King John. Preston. 

Churches. Burnley, of the time of Edward III. ; Cartmel, 
belonged to the priory, spacious and handsome ; Chor- 
ley, Norman ; Clitheroe, fine semicircular arch between 
the nave and choir; Hawkshead, Norman; Heysham, 
Norman; Leigh; Manchester, collegiate; Melling, 
with a Norman doorway ; Ormskirk, with a tower on 
the church, and a detached spire steeple; Ribchester, 
built in the time of Henry III. but since much altered ; 
Rochdale, 12th century, the choir of the time of Edward 
III. ; Whalley, cylindrical columns in the nave, but the 
choir built 1235. 



ANTIENT 8TATB AND REMAINS. 

CAapeis, Colne, with round pillars ; Heysham, in ruins ; 
Stede, belonged to the preceptory. 

Font. Walton, now a seat at a public-house door. 

Casties. Aldingham ; Castleton, before the time of Wil- 
liam I. site indicated hj a mound ; Clitheroe, by Robert 
de Iiacv, temp. Henry I J. the keep and some of the walls 
remain ; Ddton, by the Abbots of Fumess, a square 
tower of the 14th century ; Farleton, some slight vestiges ; 
Oleaston, 14th century, a portion of three square towers 
with some connecting walls; Greenhalgh, by Thomas 
Stanley, first Earl of Derby, temp. Henry VII. one tower 
in ruins ; Hoghton Tower, remsuns picturesque and vene- 
rable; Hornby, by the Montb^ons, about 1336; 
Lancaster, by Roger of Poietou, temp. William II., now 
the county prison, the keep 90 feet high, the gateway 
built by John of Gaunt ; Liverpool, finished by John ; 
Manchester, said to have been erected by the Romans, no 
remains, the site of the late Baron's yard is occupied by 
the Chetham hospital ; Pennington, some traces ; Pen- 
wortham, built 1066 ; Pile of Fouldrey, by the Abbot 
of Fumess, in the first year of Edward III. some ruins ; 
Thuriand, re-edified temp. Henry IV. foundations used 
for the present house ; West Derby, before William I. 
not a vestige. 

Mansions. Ashton-under-Line, Manor-house, built about 
1483 ; Ashurst Hall, now occupied by a farmer ; Astley 
Hall, in 1600; Barcroft, in 1614; Barnside, Colne, 
about the time of Henry VIII. a farm-house; Bold, the 
old Hall, a farm-house ; Borwick Hall, temp. Charles I. ; 
Bradshaw Hall, near Bolton, of the time of James I.; 
Claughton Hall, a singular structure temp. Charles I.; 
Clegg Hall, temp. James I. built by the Asshetons ; Co- 



> COUNTY HISTORY — LANCASHIRE. 

niston Hall, almost covered with ivy; Gawthoi^, built 
1602, embattled ; Haigh Hall, chapel as old as tiie timi 
of Edward II. ; Hale Hall, by Sir Gilbert Ireland, 1674; 
Hall i' th' Wood, near Bolton, fine specimen of the half- 
timbered house ; Hesandforth House, Burnley, a farm- 
house; Holme, partly built in 1603; HolkerHall; 
Hulme, half wood, dilapidated, but curious and picta- 
resque ; Ince, curious half timbered house ; Knowsley 
Park, part erected temp. Henry VII. by Thomas first Earl 
of Derby ; Lever Hall ; Little Mitton, one of the finest 
specimens of the time of Henry VII. ; Lostock Hall, of 
wood and plaister, date 1563, the Elizabethan gatehouse 
only standing ; Ordsall Hall, moated ; Ormerod House, 
rebuilt in the time of Elizabeth ; Peel Hall> very perfect 
and curious ; Pembertou, half wood ; Salesbury, of 
wood and stone^ quadrangular, now a farm-house ; Sal- 
mesbury, a magnificent moated mansion^ forming three 
sides of a quadrangle, the hall as old as the time of Ed- 
ward III. and the west wing built in 1532 by Sir Tho- 
mas South worth, of vefy great interest; Shaw Hall, 
curious, now a boarding school ; Smedley Hall, Chetbam ; 
Smithiirs Hall, fine dining room, richly carved oak wain- 
scot, temp. Henry VII. ; Speke Hall, near Liverpool, of 
wood and plaster, erected 1598, very curious, moated ; 
Towneley Hall, part as old as the time of Edward IIT.; 
Turton Tower, lately renovated ; Wycollar Hall, boilt 
1560, some curious remnants in the great hall. 

Crosses, Burnley, Mitton, and Whalley, all raised to com- 
memorate the preaching of Paulinus the apostle of North- 
umbria, from 625 to 631 ; Halton, n the churchyard, 
Saxon ; Lancaster ; Newton 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers, Alt, rises near Knowslej Park, passes bj Sefton, 
and joins the Irish Sea near Formby Point ; Beil ; 
Blakeboame ; Brathy, rises in Furness, passes through 
Elder Water, and flows into the Windermere near Am- 
Ueside ; Brock, from the moors of Bleasdale to the Wyer 
at St. Michael's ; Brun, or Bum, unites with the Calder 
near Burnley ; East Calder^ rises among the moors near 
Colne, and joins the Ribble near Whalley ; West Calder, 
rises in the Bleasdale moors, and falls into the Wyer near 
Garstang; Charnock; Cher, falls into the Yarrow near 
Chorley ; Cornbrook, rises in Openhaw near Manches- 
ter, and falls into the Irwell at Hulme ; Crake, from 
Coniston Lake to the Leven near Pennybridge; Dar- 
wen, rises about Over Darwen and Rosendale, mixes with 
the Ribble at Walton>le-Dale, near Preston ; Douglas, 
nses near Rivington Pike, in Blackburn, goes to Wigan, 
receives several streams, and empties into the estuary of 
the Ribble at Much Hool, near Hesketh ; Dudden, rises 
at Seathwaite; Ellerbrook, rises near Liatham, and flows 
into the Douglas near Rufford Hall ; Fosse, v. Leven ; 
Greta, enters from Yorkshire, at Melling, and joins the 
Lune near Tunstall ; Hindbume, rises in Melling, and 
joins the Weuning above Hornby Castle ; Hodder, from 
Yorkshii*e, joins the Ribble at Mitton ; Irk, rises near 
Royton, joins the Irwell at Manchester, has more mills 
upon it than any other stream of its length in the king- 
dom ; IrweU, rises near Derplay Hill, in Cliviger, goes 
to Bury and Manchester, and thence into the Mersey at 
Flixton ; Ken, comes from Westmorland, and goes into 



S COUNTY HISTORY — LANCA8HIRB. 

the Bay of Morecambe ; Leven, from Windermere to 
Morecambe Bay ; Lostock, rues in Wheelton, and joins 
the Yarrow near Croston ; Loyne, or Lune, from West- 
moreland, at Kirkby Lonsdale, to Lancaster, and thence to 
the sea at Sunderland Point in Morecambe Bay ; Med- 
lock, from Yorkshire to the Irwell at Manchester; the 
Mersby comes from Cheshire, of which county it is the 
boundary, and flows into the sea at Ldverpool ; Ribble, 
enters from Yorkshire near Downham, and goes to the 
Irish sea below Preston ; Koch, rises near Blackstone 
Edge, passes Rochdale, and unites with the Irwell at 
Radcliffe near Bury; Roddlesworth ; Roeburne, joins 
the Hindburne near Wray ; Savock, rises near Preston, 
and falls into the Ribble near Lea Hall ; Spodden ; 
Swinnel ; Tame, enters from Yorkshire at Mosley, and 
Joins the Mersey at Stockport; Weuning, enters from 
Yorkshire near Clapdale, and joins the Lune below 
Hornby Castle; Winburne; Winster, the boundary 
from Westmorland, falls into the estuary of the Ken at 
Castle Head ; Worsley ; Wyer, rises from Brinan tarn 
in Over Wyersdale, is joined by several streams^ forms 
the Wyre Water, and falls into the Irish sea ; Yarrow, 
rises in the muors of Ang^lezarke, and joins the Lostock at 
Croston. 

Inland Navigation. Ashton-under-Line Canal, from Man- 
chester, passes Fairfield, to Ashton, undertaken in 1792, 
lengfth eleven miles ; has branches to Oldham, Park col- 
liery, and Stockport. Bolton and Bury Canal, from the 
river Irwell at Manchester, passes over that river at Little 
Lever by a lofty aqueduct of three arches, near which is a 
branch to Bury ; act passed 1791* Bridgewater Canal, 
begun by the Duke of Bridgewater, engineer Brindley, 
acts passed 1758 and 1759; from Worsley, across the 



PRB8BNT STATE AND AFPEARANCE. 9 

Irwell by an aqueduct, to Manchester, whence, by other 
canals and branches, a communication is opened with the 
north of £ngland and the German Ocean. Douglas 
River, from the Ribble to Wigan, act 1719, not improved 
till 1727, and now disused. Dudden River, to Brough- 
ton. Lancaster Canal, enters from Westmorland near 
Burton, crosses the Lune near Lancaster by an aqueduct, 
proceeds to Garstang, crosses the Wyer, flows near Kirk- 
ham, and terminates at Preston, but on the other side of 
the Ribble, to which it communicates by a railway, it 
meets the Leeds and Liverpool canal at Whittle-le-Woods ; 
act 1792. Leeds and Liverpool Canal, act 1770, com- 
mences at Liverpool, meets the Douglas at Newburgh, 
passes Blackburn, nearly surrounds Burnley, crosses the 
Derwent at Ewood by an aqueduct, goes through a tunnel 
1630 yards in length, near Colne, and thence into York- 
shire. Irwell River, from Manchester to the Mersey. 
The River Lune has a wet dock at Glasson capable of 
containing twenty<five large merchantmen, excavated in 
1787, navigable to Lancaster for vessels under 250 tons, 
and thence to the sea of any burden. Mersey, navigable 
to Manchester. Ribble River. Rochdale Canal, from 
the Bridgewater Canal at Manchester, to the Calder near 
Halifax ; has a branch to Rochdale, and a reservoir at 
Hollingsworth, and leaves the county for Yorkshire at 
Todmorden ; act 1794. Sankey, the first complete artifi- 
cial canal in England, formed 1761, from Sankey brook 
to Fidler's Ferry. Ulverstone Canal, to the Leven, for 
vessels of 200 tons, cut 1795 by Rennie, " the shortest, 
broadest, and deepest in England.'' Wyer River. The 
underground Canals made by the late Duke of Bridge- 
water, extend from Worsley, where vessels can sail in on 
the level, to within two miles of Bolton ; there are three 
different canals, one below the other, to which the descent 



10 COUNTY HISTORY — LANCASHIRE. 

Is by coal pits, and people get out of the tub into the 
boat: thejr ex-end, inclirdiogp all their ramificatioDSi to 
the length of fifty miles. 

Lakes. Barton Mere, small; Bletham Tam^ comtnuni- 
catcs with Windermere ; Brinan Tarn, in Over Wycrs- 
dale; Coniston Lake, or Thurston Water, seven noiles 
long and three quar^ters broad ; Easthwaite, between 
Coniston and Windermere, two miles long and a half 
broad, a beautiful piece of water ; Low Tarn, in Coniston ; 
Marland Mere; Marton Mere; Scathwute Tarn; 
Silverdale Tarn, remarkably clear; Windermere or 
Winandermere, fifteen miles in length and one in breadth, 
the largest piece of fresh water in England* 

Eminences and Ftews. Ashurst Beacon, extensive view on 
almost every side; Ashton.Park, many extensive and fine 
views ; Bardsea Hall, romantic situation ; Billinge 
Beacon, near Wigan; Billing Scar, near Blackburn, 
the last of the chain of mountains from Yorkshire ; Birk- 
rigg, near Bardsea, >an extensive and beautiful prospect 
over Morecambe Bay and surrounding lake scenery, said 
to be almost Neapolitan; Blackpool, extensive views to 
the Fells of Furness and Cumberland, and the picturesque 
mountains of North Wales ; Blackstone Edge, a range 
of hills callsd the Back Bone of England, separates the 
county from Yorkshire; Bleasdale, 1709 feet high; 
Bolton-le-Sands Tower ; Bootle landmark ; Boulsworth 
hill, Trawden, 1689 feet high ; Broughton Tower ; 
Cartmel Fells ; Castleton, near Lancaster, extensive and 
beautiful views ; Childwall hills, views extensive and fine ; 
Coniston Fells, the loftiest, called the Old Man, is 2577 
feet above the level of the sea ; Criddon, a bold and lofty 
hill with extended prospects; Easthwaite Lake, scenery 



PRESENT STATE AND APPBABANCB. 11 

very beautiful ; £verton, near Liverpool, very extensive 
prospects on all sides; Furncss Abbey, **a paradise of 
picturesque scenes ;'* Furness Fells ; Grindleton Hill ; 
Harpur Hey, some interesting views ; Hartshead Pike ; 
Hawcoat, extensive prospect, embracing the Isles of Man 
and Anglesey, the Welsh mountains, &c. ; Height Barn, 
near Bury, a panoramic view on every side ; Holker 
Hall, some grand and highly picturesque views ; Hornby 
Castle, extremely fine view down the valley. and winding 
river ; Hogh ton Tower ; . Knowle Hill i Liverpool,' St 
James's walk ; Longridge Fells, a romantic mountain 
ridge extending seven miles ; Ormskirk Church Tower, 
fine view ;. Parbold Hill, . extensive, over the Filde coun- 
try, from Ormskirk to Furness, distant view of Wales ; 
Pendle Hill, 1803 feet high ; Prestwich Churchyard, 
most romantically beautiful ; Riving ton Pike, 1545 feet 
high, a prospect of vast extent ; Salford, from the cres- 
cent, one of the finest home views in the county ; Scout 
Mill, rural and romantic situation ; Tildesley, a delight- 
ful prospect into seven counties ; Warton Beacon ; 
^itewell, charming landscape ; Wittle Hill, 1614 feet 
high. 

Natural Curiosities. AUithwaite, spa or holy well, from a 
limestone rock called Humphrey Head ; Ashton Moss, a 
shaking bog ; Cartmel^ brackish spring ; Hindley, in 
Wigan, well of cold water, the gas arising from which 
bums when flame is applied to it ; Latham Park, medicinal 
waters; Lees,) chalybeate spring; Oldham, chalybeate 
spring. — Quantities of fossil plants peculiar to the coal 
formation are found. 

Public Edifices. Aintree, near Liverpool, race-course stand, 
inferior to none in the kingdom. Barton-upon-Irwell, 



12 COUNTY HISTORY — LANCASHIRE. 

aqueduct of three arches, coiiTejiDg the Duke of Bridge- 
water's canal across the Irwell, centre arch 63 feet wide 
and 38 high. Blackhum, grammar school, founded hj 
Queen Elizabeth, " free to all the world,'' recently rebuilt : 
cloth hall : theatre. Bolton, echange and town hall. 
Chorley, prison for the hundred of Leyland: grammar 
school: town hall. Clitheroe, moot hall, handsome* 
Golne, cloth hall, an elegant place : free school, lately re- 
built. Ooosnargh, hospital, founded by Dr. Bushell in 
1735. Hawkshead, grammar school, founded by Archbi- 
shop Sandys in 1585. Hornby, bridge of three arches. 
Hulme, cavalry barracks, large and handsome. Kirkdale, 
county house of correction, with 400 cells. Kirkham, 
grammar school, founded by Henry Colbome, 1670. 
Lancaster, aqueduct bridge of 6ve arches, each of 70 feet 
span, and 39 feet above the river: ajsembly rooms: bridge 
over the Lune, of five arches, 549 feet long, erected 1788, 
architect, Harrison of Chester, cost £14,000: county 
lunatic asylum: custom house, with a handsome porlJco: 
shire hall and gaol, within the castle, which embraces an 
area of 380 feet by 350 : theatre : town hall. Lever, aque- 
duct of Bolton Canal across the Irwell, of three arches. 
LiVBRpooL, asylum for the blind, begun 1790, the first 
in England: athenasum library, established 1799: blae 
coat hospital, established 1709, erected 1717: borough 
gaol: bridewell, built in 1776: cemetery, with catacombs 
affording sepulture for 14,000 persons: circus : corn ex- 
change, erected 1807: custom house: salt house dock, act 
10 Geo. IL: St. George's dock, 3 Geo. IIL: King's dock, 
opened 1788: Queen's dock, opened 1796: Princes dock, 
1821 : North dock : Brunswick dock : Clarence dock : 
Waterloo dock: house of industry: general infirmary, 
erected in 1824: lyceum libraries, erected in the year 
1804: St James's market : Great Charlotte market, erected 



PRBSENT Sl^ATB AND ArPfiARANCB. 13 

in 1822 by the Corporation, a stupendous edifice 183 yards 
long and 135 yards broad: music hall, extensive and ele- 
gant erection : new exchange buildings, first stone laid in 
June 1803 : Liverpool and Manchester railway, from the 
docks at Liverpool) under a tunnel of 2248 yards, and 
goes to Manchester, a distance of more than thirty miles, 
and a new tunnel, for passengers, into the town: 
seamen's hospital, designed 1747: theatre, opened 1772: 
town hall, built 1749: Wellington assembly rooms. — 
Manchester, assembly rooms : bridges, four of stone and 
one of iron, connecting Salford ; the old bridge, rebuilt 
temp» Edward III. repaired 1778: blackfriars bridge, 
opened 1820: new bailey bridge, opened 1785: regent's 
bridge, 1806: Waterloo bridge, of iron, 1817: €hetham*s 
hospital, or blue coat school, founded 1651, by Humphrey 
Chetham, esq. with a public library of great extent : new 
exchange, erected 1806: female penitentiary: fever hos- 
pital: grammar school, founded by Hugh Oldham, Bishop 
of Exeter, 1519 : infirmary: literary and philosophical so- 
ciety's hall, established 1781: lock and lunatic hospitals: 
portico, very elegant, opened as a news room 1806 : royal 
Manchester institution, the most splendid civic building 
in the town: theatre, opened 1807: town hall, magnifi- 
cent, of the ionic order. — Oldham, blue coat school, built 
1835, very handsome, endowed by Mr. Henshaw to the 
extent of £70,000. Preston, assembly rooms, built by 
the Earl of Derby; bridge over Ribble, built 1781 ; ca- 
tholic school, built 1814: guildhall : house of correction, 
opened on Howard's plan, 1789: marketplace: peniten- 
tiary : theatre, built 1802. Ribchester, stone bridge, of 
three arches, handsome. Salford, infantry barracks: 
lying-in hospital: new bailey prison, holding 1000 pri- 
soners, on plan of Howard, commenced 1787> opened 
1790: new cloth hall: new market house. Stonyhurst, 



14 COUNTY HI8TOET — ^LANCASHIRB 

college, the buildings begun by Sir Richard Sherburne 
who died in 1504, and finished by his son Sir Richard; 
who died in 1628, appropriated as a roman catholic col- 
lege in 1794 by Thomas Weld, esq. Walney, lighthouse, 
erected 1790, 68 feet high. Walton, bridge over the Rib- 
ble, of three arches, built 1782. Warrington, cloth hall: 
market house : town hall. Wigan, commercial hall : 
town hall, erected 1720, at expense of Earl of Barrymore 
and Sir Robert Bradshaigh, then representative for the 
borough. 

Cave, Dunald's Mill Hole, at the foot of a limestone moiui- 
tain in Over Kellet, extends about 200 yards, is of severtl 
apartments, and the roof is covered with, stalactites ; at 
Scales Haggs, in which human bones have been found. 



S^ats. Knowslet Park, Earl of Derby, 
Lord Lieutenant of the Countjf. 

Accrington House, late Jonathan Peel, esq. 
Adlington Hall, Browne Clayton, esq. 
Agecroft Hall, Rev. R. Buck, 
Aie:burgh Hall, William Gibson, esq. 
Aldcli^ie Hall, Edward Dawson, esq. 
Alkincoates, Thomas Parker, esq. 
Alkrington Hall, John Lever, esq. 
AUerton Hall, Pattison Ellames, esq. 
Alston Lodge, John Winstanley, esq. 
Anfield Lodge, €. Bullin, esq. 
Arlev Hall, J. €. J. Chisenhale, esq. 
Ashncid, John Clarke, esq. 

House, William Robinson, esq 

Anhton Hall, Duke of Hamilton. 
—— House, Thomas Walmsley, esq. 

Lodfi^e, James Pedder, esq. 

Astley Hall, Chorley, Lady Hoghtop. 
Aynsome, T- M. Machel, esq. 
Baggenley House, John Taloot, esq. 



SEATS. 15 

Bamford Hall, Joseph FentoD, esq. 
Bank, James Barlow, esq. 

Hall, BrethertoD, G. A. hegh Keck, esq. 

Warrington, John Wilson Patten, esq. 

, House, Francis Philips, esq. 

Top, Burnley, James Hargreaves, esq. 

Bankfield, Richard Harrison, esq. 

Bankside, Bacup, John Ormerod, esq. 

Bardsea Hall, William Gale, esq. 

Barlow Hall, Shakspeare Philips, esq. 

Barton Lodge, George Jacson, esq. 

Beaumont Hall, Skerton, J. G. Wilkinson, esq. 

Belle Grange, near Hawkshead, Thomas Pickard, esq. 

Berwick Castle, John Banner, esq, 

Biglacd Hall, George Bigland, esq. 

Birch Villa, Miss Dickinson. 

Birkett House, James Birkett, esq. 

Bispham Hall, John Hblt, esq. 

Blythe Hall, Richard Wilbraham, esq. 

Bold Hall, Sir Henry Bold Hoghton, Bart. 

Bolton Lodge, R. S. Berry, esq. 

Brathy Hall, Skelwith, John Harding, esq. 

Bridge Field, J. Penny, esq. 

Brmdle Lodge, William Heatley, esq. 

Broom House, Pendleton, James Touchet, esq. 

Broughton GroFC, near Cartmel, R. lifachell, esq, 

— Hall, Gray Rigg, esq. 

— Lodge, John Wakefisld, esq. 

-~ Hall, near Manchester, Rev. John Clowes. 

Tower, Broughton in Fumess, John Sawrey, esq. 

Burrow Hall, John Parr, esq. 
Cadeley House, Nicholas Grimshaw, esq. 
Cantsfield Hall, Edmund Tatham, esq. 
Carnforth Lodge, Thomas Jackson, esq. 
Carr Hall, Barrowford, late T. Clayton, esq. 
Castle Head, Robert Wright, esq. 
Castleton Hall, Miss Smith. 

Mere, George Walmesley, esq. 

Catlow Hall, Miss Sagar. 

Catterall House, Joseph Fielding, esq. 

Chadderton Hall, 

Chamber Hall, William Hardman, esq. 



16 COUKTf H18T0ET — LANCA8HIRB* 

Chamber Hall, Hollingwood, W. Moorhouie, esq. 

House, Castleton, R. Orford, esq. 

Chadwick Hall, Smith, esq. 

Childwall House, Bamber Gascoigne, esq. 

Claremont, Pendleton, B. HeywcKKl, esq. 

Clark6eld Place, James Lees, esq. 

Clayton Hall, late R. G. Lomax, esq. 

Clifton Hill, Robert Gillow, esq. 

Clerk Hill, Whallev, Robert Whalley, esq 

CoU^hurst Hall, Mrs. Rider. 

Conishead Priory, Thomas Richmund G«Ie Braddylli esq. 

Coniston Bank, Thomas North, esq. 

Crosby Hall, William Blundell, esq. 

Cross Hall, Edward Stanley, esq. 

Croston Hall, Rev. S. Master. 

Croxteth Hall, Earl of Seflon. 

Crumpsall Hall, J. H. Waklyn, esq* 

Cutrden Hall, R. Towneley Parker, esq. 

Culcheth Hall, T. E Withington, esq. 

Newton, Robert Keymer, esq. 

Dalton Hall, Edmund Hornby, esq. 
Darcy Lever, W. Bolline, esq. M.F. 
Dariey Hall, Benjamin Rawson, esq. 
Darwen Bank, Edward Pedder, esq. 
Davyhulme Hall, R. J. J„ Norreys, esq. 
Ditton Lodee, Mrs. Rothwell. 
Doe Park, John Roskell, esq. 
Dovecote House, Adam Dugdale, esq. 
Downham Hall, William Assheton, esq, 
Dunken Halgh, George Petre, eso. 
Duxbury Hall, Frank Hall Standish, esq. 
Easthwaite Hall, T. A. Beck, esq. 
EUerbeck Hall, T. Hodson Cardwell, esq. 
Euxton Hall, F. William Anderton, esq. 
Fair Oak House, J. C. Parker, esq. 
Fazakerley Hall, Richard Bullin, esq. 
Fell Side, Joseph Yarker, esq. 
Feniscowles, William Fielden, esq. 
Fishwick Hall, T. R. Shaw, esq. 
Flixton Hall, Ralph Wright, esq. 
Formby Hall, Rev. R. Formby. 
Forton Lodge, Thomas Paget, esr 



8BATB. 17 

Fox Holes, Wardleworth, J. Entwistle, esq. 

French Wood, PrestOD, John Swainson, esq. 

GillibraDd Hall, Chorley, H. H. Pazakeriey, esq. 

GolboFDe Park, Rev. Peter Legh. 

Grass Yard Hall, Caton, Thomas Edmondson. esq. 

Graythwaite Hall, Miles Sandys, esq. 

Green Bank, Preston, William Rawstornc, esq. 

Grimsargh Hall, James Blanehard, esq. 

Gunnerthwaite, W. H. North, esq. 

Hale Hall, John Blackburne, esq. 

Halsall Hall, Rev. G. Holden. 

Halsnead Hall, Richard Willis, esq. 

Halton Park, Thomas Bateraan, esq. 

Haydock Lodge, Thomas Claughton, esq. 

Hazles, The, Joseph Birch, esq. 

Heaton Park, Earl of Wilton. 

Hendham Hall, J. Andrew, esq. 

Heskin Hall, Mitchell, esq. 

Heyroyd, Colne, James Wilson, esq. 

Hey wood Hall, James Starkie, esq. 

Hig^hfield Hall, Pendleton, Mrs. Withington. 

Hilderstone, Edward Gumming, esq. 

Hindley Hall, Richard Pennington, esq. 

Hipping Hall, Edward Tatham, esq. 

Holker Hall, Lord George Cavendish. 

Hollings, G. Hammerton, esq. 

HoUins, near Bolton, the late Ralph Fletcher, esq. 

Hood House, Lawrence Halstead, esq. 

Hope House, Pendleton, the late Edward Hobson, esq. 

Hopwood Hall, R. G. He pwijod» esq. 

Hornby Castle, John Marsden, esq. 

House, Mrs. A. Murray. 

Hot'aersall Hall, Robert Parker, esq. 

Hulton Park, William Hulton, esq. 

Hurst House, T. M. U. Seel, esq. 

Hutton Hall, Colonel Rowbtorne. 

Hyndbourn House, Old Accrington, Robert Peel, esq. 

Hynirg Hall, John Bolden, esq. 

Ince Hall, Charles Blundell, esq. 

Irwell House, near Prestwich, Thomas Drinkwater, esq. 

Ivy Cottage, Hindley, Edward Kearsley, esq. 

Kersal Cell, Miss Atherton. 



18 COUNTT HISTORY — LANCASHIRE* 

Kirkland Hall, T. Butler Cole, esq. 

Knowsley Park, Earl cf Derby. 

Langroyd Hall, Colne, J. B. Carr, esq. 

Lark Hill, Preston, Samuel Horrocks, esq. 

Lathom House, Lord Skelmersdale. 

Leagram Hall, Georgfe Weld, esq. 

Lea Hall, John Okill, esq. 

Leek House, R. H. Welch, esq. 

Leighton Hall, R. Gillow, esq. 

Longlands, Mrs. Sunderland. 

Lostock Hall, near Preston, William Clayton, esq. 

Lon^sight Hall, Joslah Howard, esq. 

Low Graythwaite Hall, Mrs. Burton. 

Lunt House, Miss Bootle. 

Lytham Hall, John Clifton, esq, 

Maghull Hall, John Hornby, esq. 

Mcarley Hall, Thomas Preston, esq. 

Moor Hall, Auffhton, Lister, esq* 

Morecamhe Lodfe, John Ford, esq. 
Mosley Hill, William Ewart, esq. 
Moss Bank, John H. Ainsworth, esq. 
Moston House, Samuel Taylor, esq. 
]Vfyerscough Hall, James Ureenhalgh, esq. 

House, John Cunliffe, esq. 

Newhall, Sir John Gerard, Bart. 
Newsham Hall, John Pritchard, esq. 

House, T. Molineux, esq. 

Nut Grove, Sutton, J. Nuttall, esq. 

Nuttall Hall, John Grant, esq. 

Oak Hill House, Francis Bretherton, esq. 

Old Hall, Ash ton- under Line, John Wood, esq. 

Ruiford, T. H. Hesketh, esq. 

Olive Mount, Wavertree, James Swan, esq. 
Orford Hall, Hon, Lucy Hornby. 
Ormerod House, Mr. VVilliara Thursby. 
Orrell Lodge, James Harrocks, esq. 
Palace Hall, John Greenwood, esq. 
Park Field, Georg-e Withington, esq. 
Park Hall, R. P. German, esq. 
Parrox Hall, D. Elletson, esq. 
Parrs Wood Hall, Mrs. Farrington, 
Peel Hall, flulton, Mrs. P. Keuyon. 



BEATS. 19 



Pfcndlcbunr, Dr. W. Henry, F.R.S. 
Penketh Hall, H. A Potter, esq. 
PenDington Hall, William Hobson, esq. 
Pennybridge, J. P. Machell, esq. 
Penwurtham Hall, L. Rawstorne. esq. 

Lodge, William Marshall, esq. 

Pike House, John Beswick, esq. 

Pilkington Park, Robert Phillips, esq. 

Pleasington Hall, Mrs. Butler. 

Plumpton Hall, J. B S. Morritt, esq. 

Piatt Hall, Richard Cle^g, esq. 

Poulton, Anthony Eidstorth, esq. 

Prestwich Park, Thomas Marriot, esq. 

Rainhill House, Bartholomew Bretherton, «s<| 

Rakes Hall, John Hornby, esq, 

RawclifFe Hall, T. W. France, esq. 

Read Hall, Richard Frost, esq. 

Red Scar, William Cross, esq. 

Ribby Hall, Joseph Hornby, esq. 

Ridgemont, Joseph Ridgway, esq. 

Rivington Hall, Robert Andrews, esq. 

Rock House, Jonathan Smith, esq. 

Rose Hill, Thomas Rawson, esq. 

Rossal Hall, Pder Hesketh Fleetwood, esq. M.P. 

Royle, Burnley, R. Towneley Parker, esq. 

Rufford Hall, Sir Thomas D. Hesketh, bart. 

Rusholme House, Richard Entwistle, esq. 

Park, Joseph Denison, esq. 

Rusland Hall, Miss B. Walker. 
ScaitclifFe Hall, John Crossley, esq. 
Scarisbrick, Charles Scarisbrick, esq. 
Seaforth House, John Gladstone, esq. 
Sedgley, George Philips, esq. 
Shaw Hall, William Farrington, esq. 

Hill, R. B. Crosse, esq. 

Shepley Hall, John Lowe, esq. 

Sherdley House, Mrs. Hughes. 

Simonstone, Charles Whittaker, esq. 

Slade Hall, John Syddal, esq. 

Slyne, J. G. Bradley, esq. 

Smithills Hall, Peter Ainsworth, esq. M.I* 

Southtield, Mr?. Sagar. 



20 COUNTY HISTORY — LANCASHIRE. 

Spring Field, Lancaster, Henry Hargreave, esq. 

Pendlebury, Thomas Entwistle, esq. 

Stalmine Hall, John Bourne, esq. 

Standen Hall, John Aspinall, esq. 

Summeriield, R. T. Tatham, esq. 

Stand, Misses Johnson. 

Stodday Lodge, J. Fielding, esq. 

Sutton Lodge, Thomas Caldwell, esq. 

Throstlenest, J. Lare, esq. 

Thurnham Hall, John Dalton, esq. 

Thwaite, Jonathan Binns, esq. 

Tildesley House, George Ormerod, esq. LL.D. 

Towueley Park, Peregrine Edward Townelcy, esq. 

Townhead, William Townley, esq. 

Trafford Old Hall. Miss Ryle. 

Park, T. Joseph Traflford, esq. 

Tulketh Hall, Miss H. M. Hesketh 
Tunstall Castle, R. T. North, esq. 

Up Holland Grove, Anderton, esq. 

Walton Lodtfe, Richard Calrow, esq. 

Hall, Walton-on-the-Hill, Thomas Leyland, esq. 

Priory, George Case, esq. 

Waterhead House, Coniston, M. Knott, esq. 

Wavertree Hall, C. Lawrence, esq. 

Wennington, Thomas Barrow, esq. 

Westleigh, Richard Marsh, esq. 

White Stock Hall, East Coulton, Rer. John Romney. 

Whitehall, Thomas Westby, esq. 

Whittingham House, Henry Parker, esq. 

Whittington Hall, Thomas' Greene, esq. 

Windle, Mrs. Gerard. 

Winsianley Hall, Meyrick Banks, esq. 

Winwick Hall, Rev. James John Hornby. 

Witton Park, Joseph Fielden, esq. 

Woodfold Park, John Fowden Hindle, esq. 

Woolden Hall, J. A. Borron, esq. 

Wood Broughton House, James Crossfield, esq. 

Woolton Hall, N. Ashton, esq. 

Worsley Hall, James Sotherne, esq. 

Old Hall, Lord Erancis Egerton, M P. 

Wrightington Hall, the Misses Dicconson. 
Wyer Side, John F. Cawthorne, esq. 



PRESENT STATE. 21 

Peerage, Croxteth, Seftonof, baroDy (1831) to Molyneux 
Earl Sefton ; Derby (West Derby) earldom (1485) to 
StaDley; Haigh Hall, Wigan of, barony (1826) to 
Lindsay Earl of Balcarres; Liverpool, earldom (1796) 
to Jenkinson; Rochdale, Byron of, barony (1643) to 
Byron; Skelmersdale, barony (1828) to Bootle-Wilbra- 
ham; Warrington, earldom (1796) to Grey Earl of 
Stamford. 

Baronetage, Adlington, Clayton, 1774 ; Altham, Onslcw* 
1797 ; Ancoats, Mosley, 1781 ; Birchall, Anson, 1831 ; 
Bryn, Gerard, 1611 ; Hazles, Birch, 1831 ; Hoghton 
Tower, Hoghton, 1611; Liverpool, Cunliffe, 1759; 
Rufford, Hesketh, 1761 ; Scdgley, Philips, 1828 ; Whit- 
ley, Leigh, 1815. 

Representatives returned to Parliament, For the Northern 
Division of the County, 2 : Southern Division, 2 : Ash- 
ton-und«r-Line, 1 : Blackburn, 2: Bolton-le-Moors, 2: 
Bury, 1: Clitheroe, 1 : Lancaster, 2: Liverpool, 2: 
Manchester, 2 : Oldham, 2: Preston, 2: Rochdale,! 
Salford, 1; Warrington, 1: Wigan, 2: — total, 26. 
The Reform Act, by adding two to the County, enfran- 
chising Ashton-undcr-Line, Blackburn, Bolton-Ie-Moors, 
Bury, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, and War- 
rington, and disfranchising Newton, increased the repre- 
sentation by twelve. 

Produce, Coal, three principal ranges, from Worsley to 
the neighbourhood of Manchester, and thence by Bury to 
Rochdale ; from Prrescot, by Wigan and Blackburn, to 
Colne; and from Quernmoor to the Yorkshire border ; 
canel or candle coal, of the finest quality at Haiuh, and 
occupying a space near Wigan of four miles square. Iron, 



22 COUIfTT HISTORY— LANC ASH rRK. 

at Dalton, at Furness, producing the rich ore lapis hmmn 
titcs : copper, at Coniston and Furness Fells : carhonate 
of barytes, at Anglezark, found in but few other places id 
Europe: slate, at Broughton in Furness, whence 2,000 
tons are annually exported, at Kirkby Moor, where up- 
wards of 10,000 tons are annually raised, and at Chorley, 
and (.'oni^ton Fells: freestone, in great abundance near 
Burnley: lime-stone, at Bedford, which hardens under 
water, and an inexhaustible bed at Clitheroe : alum-stone, 
at Blackburn, not now worked: millstone, at Chorley: claj 
for tobacco pipes and crucibles, at Rainford : potter's claj, 
. Sutton. Oats, barley, and wheat: potatoes, the first in at 
England were cultivated in this county, and the best near 
Orinskirk. Cattle, a peculiar breed at Garstang, smaller 
and more elegant than the Lancashire breed. Salmon, 
plentiful and good : char, in the Coniston Lake, said to be 
the finest flavoured in the northern waters. 

Manufactures. In almost every town and extensive village 
will be found some manufactory connected with the cotton 
trade Backbarrow, cotton, and pyroligncous acid. Black- 
burn, printing of calicoes, which are so named from the 
province of Calicut in India. Bolton, muslin, dimity, and 
qailtiiig: flax spinning : every branch of cotton : locomo- 
tive engines, machinery, and iron founding. Broughton 
in Furness, hoops and baskets. Burnley, cotton, in every 
branch. Bury, woollens and cottons. Catterall, calico 
printing. Cborley, every branch of cotton. Chowbent, 
nails, machines, and cotton. Dalton, malting. Denton, hats, 
extensive. Dungeon, salt works, extensive. Eccleston, 
crown glass. Garstang and Haughton, hats, very exten- 
sive. Garston, salt. Kirkham, coarse linens, sailcloth, and 
cotton. Lancaster, ships, cabinet work (celebrated), cor^ 
dage, ssdlcloth, cotton and worsted yarn, candles. Leigh, 



PRfiSBNT 8TATB. 23 

muslins, and very good cheese. Liyerpool, earthenware, 
cutlery* hardware, watches, chain cables, salt, and sug^ar. 
Manchester, cottons, three-cord sewing twist (celebrated in 
every part of Europe), silk (very extensive), and machines. 
Oldham, hats, fustians, and every branch of cotton. Pree- 
cot, hats, cotton, earthenware, watch tools, watch move- 
ments, and small files (the best in the world). Preston, flax 
and cotton spinning. Ravenhead, plate glass, established 
in 1773, employing constantly between three and four 
iiundred men, and occupying about thirty acres of land, 
enclosed by a wall ; the buildings cost upwards of £40,000. 
Rochdale, woollens, hats, and cottons. Ulverstone, can- 
vas, hats, and cottons : edge tools and articles of iron, of 
great value : flax : ropes. Warrington, sailcloth, coarse 
linens, checks, cottons, glass, pins, files, locks, &c. Wigan, 
coarse linens, checks, calicoes, fustians, brass and pewter 
works, and toys of cannel coal. Woodland, bobbin and 
sickles* 



24 



POPULATION IN 1831. 



Hundreds, 6; Boroughs, 14; Market Toums, 27; Pa- 
rishes, 95; Parts of Parishes, 4. 

Houses, Inhabited, 228,130; BuUding, 2,8^; Uninha- 
bited, 11,266. 

Inhabitants. Males, 650,389; Females, 686,465; total, 
1,336,854. 

FamUies, employed in Agriculture, 24,696 ; in Trade, &€ . 
1 73,693 ; in neither, 61 ,636 ; total, 260,025. 

Baptisms m 1830. Males, 18,877; Females, 18,578; 
total, 37455. Annual average o/1821 to 1830, 36,233. 

Marriages, \%Q7b\ annual average, 11,247. 

J3urta/<r. Males, 14,676; Females, 13,914; total, 28»590. 
Annual average, 2&fi47» 

m 

Places having not less than 1,000 inhabitants. 

Houses. Inbab. 

Liverpool 85,782 165,175 

Manchester 99,445 142,026 

Salford 7,206 40,786 
AihtOD-under- 

Lyne 5,960 33,597 

Preston 6,184 33,112 

Oldham 5,950 32,381 

Great Bolton 4«813 28,299 

Little Bolton 2,811 12,896 

Blackburn 4,594 27,091 

Toxteth Park 3,814 24,067 

Wigan 3,870 20,774 

Chorlton Row 3,972 20,569 

Warrington 3,061 16,018 

Spotland 2,735 15,325 

Bury 2,743 15,086 

Lancaster 1,975 12,613 

Heaton Norris 2,127 11,938 

Castleton 3,088 11,079 





Houses. 


Inhab. 


Pilkington 


1,810 


1 1 ,006 


Heap 


1,693 


10,429 


Hulme 


1,848 


9,624 


West Derby 


1,634 


9,613 


Wardleworth 


1,788 


9,360 


Chorley 


1,564 


9,282 


LowerTottington 1,535 


9,280 


New Church 


1,822 


9.196 


Barton 


1,66^ 


8976 


Pendleton 


1,516 


8,435 


Colne 


1,501 


8,080 


Worsley 


1,262 


7,839 


Hasliogden 


1,422 


7,776 


Burnley 


1,423 


7,661 


Crompton 
Over Darwen 


1,158 


7,004 


1,151 


6,972 


Middleton 


1,246 


6,903 


Wuerdale and 






Wardle 


1,205 


6,754 



POPULATION. 



25 



Houses. 
Todmorden and 

WalsJen 1,011 
Ashton-in-Mack- 

erfield 1,020 

Oswaldtwistle 1,007 

Windle 922 
Dabergharo Eaves 1,131 

Wakou Je-D&Ie 1,013 

Rojton 1,012 

Butterworth 987 

Ardwick 1,033 

Cbadderton 960 

ClUheroe 888 

North Meols 875 

Prescot 934 
Tyldesley with Sha- 

kerley 833 

New Accringtan 861 

Ulverstone 963 

Hindley 802 

Everton 737 

Westhoughtun 773 

NewtoD 736 

Higher B«»oths 728 

Pembertoo 764 

Ormskiik 807 
Blatchin worth and 

Calderbrook 715 

Atherton 805 

Elton 663 

Cheetham 727 

Failsworth 62 S 

H or wick 57.Q 

Radcliffe 670 

Padiham 643 

Walmersley 584 

Leyland 57 8 

Lathom 547 

Eccleston 624 

Sutton 408 

Paanington 55 1 

Bedford 538 

Upholland 551 

Blackley 492 

Droylsden 491 

Little Hiltan 534 



Inhab. Houses. 

Halliwell > 522 

6.054 Prestwich 482 
Farn worth 511 

5,912 Houghton 472 

5,897 Trawden Forest 514 

5,825 Denton 460 

5,817 West Leigh 498 

5,767 Little Marsden 486 

5,652 Kearsley 461 

5.618 Lower Dar wen 409 

5,524 Barrowford 479 

6,476 Gorton 417 

5,213 Biackrod 447 

5,132 Kirkdale 363 

5.055 Sharpies 433 
Higher Tottington 424 

5,038 Turton 425 

4960 Orreil 451 

4,876 Cnlcheth 372 

4.575 Kirkham 490 

4,518 AspuJl 422 

4,500 Stretford 484 

4,377 Great Harwood 419 

4,347 Standish and Lang- 

4,276 tree 400 

4,251 Lowton 361 

Burscough 397 

4,221 Little Lever 885 

4 , 1 A 1 ToDge with Haulghd88 

4,054 Ellel 349 

4,025 Hoghten 343 

3,667 Liiwer Booths 395 

3,562 Clayton-le Moors 3 '7 

3,904 Edg worth 367 

3,529 Newton-iuMack- 

3 456 erfield 279 

3,404 Mellur 348 

3,272 Whittle-le-Woods 363 

3,259 Harwood 357 

3,173 Widness with Ap- 

3,165 pleton 323 

3,087 Aighton, &c. 286 

3,040 Great Marsden 344 

3,020 Billinge 332 

2.996 Samlesbury 313 

2,981 Parr 313 



Inhab. 

2,963 

2,941 

2.928 

2,914 

2,863 

2,792 

2,780 

2,742 

2,705 

2,667 

2,633 

2,623 

2,591 

2,591 

2,589 

2,572 

2.563 

2,518 

2,503 

2,469 

2,464 

2,463 

2,436 

2,407 
2,374 
2,944 
2,231 
2,201 
2,217 
2.198 
2,178 
2,171 
2,168 

2,139 
2,071 
2,015 
2,011 

1,986 
1.980 
1,971 
1,955 
1.948 
1,942 



26 



COUNTY HISTORY — LANCASHIRB. 



Houses. 

Wavertree 8 1 i 

Ince 835 

Ribcheiter 887 

Tarietoo 889 

Cruropsall 847 

Goosnargh 891 

Asdey 8)9 

Ttinge 808 

Livesly 808 

Coulton 813 

Scarisbriek 898 

HriericUfFe 898 

Longtou 80S 

Wood Plurnptoo 801 
Birde with Bamford 868 
Rainford 808 

Wrightington 867 

Cliviger 889 

Pruughton 868 

A ins worth 858 

Kuxton 866 

Briudle 955 

PendUbury 849 

Goiborne 997 

Lvtharo 868 

WheeUoD 831 

Cou|)e Leoch, &c. 868 

868 
847 
941 
881 
851 
841 
936 



Martoti 

Whiston 

Aughton 

Thornham 

Foul ridge 

PeDwortliam 

Hop wood 

Walcoo-on-the-Hill910 

Croston 848 

Flixton 883 

Broughtoo 879 



Inhab. Houses. Inhab. 

1,939 Skerton 976 1,861 

1,908 Much Woolton 995 1,344 

1,889 Chipping 994 1,834 

1,886 Suuthworth&Croft998 1,899 

1,878 Old Accrington 959 1,893 

1,844 F.irmby 948 1,819 

1,889 Bickerstmffe 914 1,309 

1,800 Clirton 198 1,977 

1,787 Haigh 919 1,971 

1,786 Withnell 191 1,951 

1,783 Musbarj 900 1,931 

1,755 Vate and Pick-up- 

1,744 Bank 917 1*909 

1,719 Pendleton 916 1,905 

1,6 Great Crosby 916 1,901 

1,642 Kirkby 195 1,190 

1,601 Halsail 160 1,169 

1,598 Ciiton 90S 1,166' 

1,589 Rumworth 981 1,164 

1,584 Knowsley 169 1,169 

1,581 Whalley 198 1^151 

1,558 Garston 181 1,147 

1,556 Boritle & Linacre 183 1,133 

1,539 Pilling • 193 1,197 

1,593 Tockholes 198 1,194 

1,519 Dai cy Lever 909 1,119 

1,519 Upfier Holker 188 1,095 

1,487 Huyton 177 1»094 

1.468 Levenshulme 195 1,086 

1.469 Adiington 906 1,089 
1,455 Rushulme 179 1,078 
1,418 D'idsbury 181 1,067 
1,416 Witton 190 1,047 
1,418 Withington 169 1,048 
1,400 Higham Booth 901 1,088 
1,898 Breightmet 189 1,096 
1,393 Poulton 919 1,095 
1,875 Lower Holker 913 1,091 



Annual Value of Real Property ^ as assessed in April, 
1815, £3,087,774. 



27 



HISTORY. 

A. D 

79. Setantii or Sistuntii subdued by Julius Agricola. 
494. On the Douglas River, the Northumbrian Saxons 
defeated by Arthur. 

716. On Windermere Lake, Osred, Kin^ of Nortbum- 
bna, slain by his rebellious kinsman Coenred, who suc- 
ceeded him on the throne. 

1199. Hubert Archbishop of Canterbury besieged and took 
Lancaster Castle. 

1307. Robert Bruce King of Scotland entered Preston, and 
razed it to the ground. 

1322. Lancaster devastated by the Scots under Robert 
Bruce. 

1323. Preston partly burnt by Robert Bruce and the Scots. 
1333. Edward HI. passed through Preston on his way to 

reduce Scotland. 

1363. This County created a Palatinate by Edward III. in 
favour of his fourth son John of Gaunt, Duke of Lan- 
caster. 

1453, The Earl of Derby raised troops in Prisston during 
the wars of the two houses. 

1464. At Waddington Hall, after the battle of Hexham, 
Henry VL concealed for a year, but at length taken pri" 
soner and conveyed to London by Thomas son of Sir 
Edmund and his cousin Sir John Talbot. 

1^7. At Pyle of Foudre landed Lambert Simnel, the pre- 
tended Earl of Warwick, the Earls of Lincoln and Kildarc, 
Lord Lovel, and the German General Martin Swartz, with 



28 COUNTY HISTORT — LANCARHIRB. 

A. D. 

an army of Irish and Germans. Swartz encamped at 
Ulverstone, and the place is now known as Swartz Moor. 

1536. John Paslew, the last Abbot of Wlialley, joined in 
Aske's rebellion, called the Pilgrimage of Grace, and re- 
possessed himself of the abbey, for which he and two of 
his associates were hanged. 

1605. At Manchester, 1,000 persons died of the plague. 

1617* Sir Richard Hoghton entertained James I. for two 
days at Hoghton Tower, on his way from Scotland. The 
King hunted in Myerscoug^h Forest. 

1631. At Dalton, the plague carried off 360 persons, and 
in the Isle of Walney 120 persons. 

1642. March 21, an engagement on Ribbloton Moor be- 
tween the Royalists and Parliamentarians. — Manchester, 
in September, successfully defended by the inhabitant^ 
against James Earl of Derby and the Royalists, who came 
from Warrington with 4,000 foot and 300 horse. 

1643. Preston besieged and taken by Sir Thomas Fairfax 
for the Parliament; retaken a few months afterwards by 
the Earl of Derby, and the works destroyed. — Warring- 
ton twice stormed and taken by the Parliament. — At 
Lyndal, October 1, Colonel Huddlcston and 300 Royalists 
taken prisoners by Colonel Rigby, who soon afterwanlK 
took Thurland Castle, defended by Sir John Girlington 
for the King. 

1644. Latham House heroically and successfully defended 
from February 28 to May S^, by Charlotte Countess of 
Derby, against the Parliamentarian Colonels Egerton, 
Rigby, AshtOB, and Holcroft, who lost 2,000 men in the 
siege. — Bolton, under Rigby, stormed May 28, by Prince 
Rupert and the Earl of Derby. — Liverpool, after a spi- 
rited resistance by Col. Moore and the Parliamentarians, 
taken June 26, by Prince Rupert, by assault. 

1648. At Ribbleton Moor, near Pre^.ton, August 17> the 



HISTORY. 29 

A. D. 

Duke of Hamilton, Sir Marmaduke LaDgdale, and the 
Scotd, who were coming to rescue the captive monarch » 
were defeated by Cromwell and Lambert.— At Red Bank, 
near Newton, a party of Highlanders defeated by a detach- 
ment from Cromwell's army, and the greater part of the 
prisoners hanged.— At \yarrington Bridge, the Scotch 
army under the Duke of Hamilton flying from Ribbleton 
Moor, were overtaken by Gen. Lambert, 1,000 of them 
slain, and 2,000, with Lieut.-Gen. Bayley, taken prisoners. 

1649. Clithero castle dismantled. 

165L The Earl of Derby landed at Wyer Water with 300 
men from the Isle of Man, to sustain the cause of Charles 
n. At Wigan Lane, August 25, the Earl, with only 600 
horse, after a brave resistance, in which the loyal Sir Thos. 
Tildesley and Lord Widdrington were killed, defeated by 
Col. John Lrlburn at the head of 3,000 Parliamentarians 
A monumental pillar to Sir Thomas was erected in 1679. 
^At Warrington bridge, Charles IF. and the Scotch army 
repulsed by Gen. Lambert.— At Bolton, October 15, the 
brave and loyal James seventh Earl of Derby, beheaded. 

1690. At f iiverpool, William III. embarked for Ireland. 

1715. The Pretender's horse reached Preston November 9, 
and the foot on the 10th ; and here on the 13th, Mr. 
Foster, who had proclaimed the Pretender king, and the 
adherents of the Stuarts, surrendered to Generals Car- 
penter and Wills, after a desperate encounter.— In No- 
vember, the river Kibble stood still, and became dry for 
the space of five hours, and then began to flow again as 
usual. A similar circumstance occurred in the December 
of 1774. 

1745. The Pretender, with 6,000 men, marched through 
Preston, but returned in a fortnight's time, and finally 
quitted it a few hours before the arrival of Duke of Cum- 
berland.— At Manchester, the Chevalier resided at the 
house now the Palace Inn. 



32 COUNTY HISTORY — LANCASHIRE. 

Carlisle, James, actor and dramatic writer (slain at Aughrim 

in 1691). 
Chaderton, Laurence, divine, first master of Emanuel 

college, Cambridge, Chaderton, 1646. 
Chamberlayne, Robert, poet, author of" Nocturnal Lucu- 

brations," 1607. 
Chetham, Humphrey, founder of Manchester hospital and 

library, Crumpsal), 1580. 
Chisenhale, £dward, colonel, author of ''Catholic History," 

Chisenhale (flourished temp. Charles I.) 
Christopherson, John, Bishop of Chichester, persecutor 

(died 1560). 
Collier, John, schoolmaster, writer, musician, caricaturist, 

versifier, author of ** A view of the Lancashire Dialect," 

by "Tim Bobbin," (Jrmston near Warrington, 1708 (died 

Cottam, Thomas, Jesuit (suffered for his religion in 1582). 

Crompton, Samuel, inventor of a machine for spinniog, 
called the " Mule" (see p 37). 

Cudworth, Ralph, divine, father of " the intellectual Cud- 
worth," Wernith Hall (died 1624). 

Dawson, James, captain in the Pretender's army in 1745 
whose execution has been so beautifully perpetuated by 
Shenstone, Manchester. 

Deare, John, sculptor, whose excellent works are chiefly 
known in France and Rome, Liverpool, 1759. 

Dugdale, Richard, impostor, detected by Chief Justice Holt, 
Surrey (17th century). 

Evanson, Edward, theological writer, Warrington, 1731. 

Falkner, lliomas, Jesuit, author of Description of Pata- 
gonia, Manchester (died 1774). 

Fenton, Roger, divine, author against usury, 1565. 

Fleetwood, William, recorder of London, historian, anti- 
quary, and lawyer, Hesketh (died 1.592). 

Gascoigne, William, natural philosopher, inventor of the 
micrometer (killed in 1648, a royalist, at the battle of 
Marston Moor). 

GregFon, Matthew, topographer and antiquary, Liverpool, 
1749 (died 1824). 

Hargrave, James, inventor in 1767 of improved spinning- 
jenny, Blackburn. 



EMINENT NATIVES. 33 

Hanrood, Edward, author of '^ Editions of the ClassicR/i^ 

1729. 
Harward, Francis, physician and scholar, Warrington; 

1738-9. 
Heton, Martin, Bishop of Ely in 1600 (died 1609). 
Heywood, Nathaniel, nonconformist divine and author 

. Little Leaver, 1633 (died 1677). 

Oliver, nonconformist divine and author, Little Leaver, 

1629 (died 1702). 

Samuel, serjeant-at-law, learned author, Liverpool, 



1753 (died 1828), 
Highs, Thomas, inventor of the spinning-jenny, and other 

machinery, which effected a complete revolution in the 

state of the cotton manufacture, Leigh. 
Hilton^ Elizabeth, died aged 121, Liverpool, 1639. 
Horrox. Jeremiah, astronomer, declared by Newton to foe a 

genius of the first order, Toxteth Park, 1619 (died 1640). 
Houlston, Thomas, physician, Liverpool, 1746. 
Hutton, Matthew, Archbishop of York, Priest's Hutton^ 

1529 (died 1606). 
lUingworth, James, nonconformist divine and author (j^d. 

1693). 
Johnson, Joseph, bookseller, publisher to Priestley, Cowpcr, 

and Darwin, Liverpool, 1738. 
Jones, Thomas, Archbishop of Dublin, Chancellor of Ire- 
land (died 1619). 
King, Captain James, companion of Captain Coolc, CIs- 

theroe. 
Law, Edmund, Bishop of Carlisle, editor of Stephens's 

Thesaurus, and Locke, Cartmel, 1703. 
Leaver, Thomas, eloquent preacher, commentator on the 

Lord's Prayer, Leaver (died 1558). 
Leigh, Charles, author of '^ Natural History of Lancashire/' 

the Orange, 1640. 
Leland, John, author of "View of Deistical Writer^," 

Wlffan, 1691. ' 

William, died in Ireland aged 140, Warrington, 1593. 

Manchester, Hugh of, scholar, detector of impostors, Man- 
chester (flourished 1294). 
Markland, Jeremiah, critic and collector, Childwall, 1693 

(died 1776). 
Jdarsfa, George^ Dean, martyr (suffered at Chester 1555). 



34 COUNTY HISTOEY — LANCABHIRB. 

Mather, Richard, nonconformist divine, Liverpool, 1596* 

Samuel, nonconformist divine and author, 1626. 

Middletou, John, <* child of Hale,'* nine feet six inches h]gh» 

Hale, IVS (died 1628). 
Molineux, Sir Richard, under Henry V. at Agincourt, 

Sefton (died 1439). 
Molineux, Sir William, under the Black Prince at Nava- 

rette, Sefton (died 1372). 
• Sir William, under the Earl of Surrey at Flodden, 

Sefton (died 1548). 
Moore, Sir Jonas, mathematician, Surveyor-g^eoeral of the 

Ordnance, and author, Whittle-le* Woods, 1617 (died 

1679). 
Nowell, Alexander, dean of St. Paul's, the last surviving 

father of the Reformation, author of " Catechism," See, 

Read, 1506 (died 1602). 
— — - Lawrence, brother of preceding, saxonist and anti- 
quary, Read, 1516. 
Ogden, Samuel, nonconformist divine, Oldham, about 1626. 
— > — Dr. Samuel, divine, Woodwardian professor at Cam- 
bridge, Manchester, 1716 (died 1778). 
Oldham, Hugh, Bishop of £xeter, founder of Manchester 

school, Oldham (died 1520). 
Parkinson, Thomas, amiable divine, and author, Kirkham- 

in-the-Fylde, 1745. 
Parr, Richard, Bishop of Sodor and Man, author (ob.l643)t 
Peel, Sir Robert, improver of cotton machinery, M. P. 

author, and father of the present baronet. Peel's Cross, 

Lancaster, 1750 (died 1830). 
Pendlebury, Henry, author against transubstantiation, 1625. 
Penketh, Thomas, schoolman, Penketh (died 1487)> 
Percival, Thomas, physician, philosopher, and moralist, 

Warrington,* 1740 (died at Manchester in 1804). 
Pilkington, James, Bishop of Durham, one of the six who 

corrected the Book of (Jommon Prayer, Rivington, 1520 

(died 1576). 
Rawlinson, Christopher, antiquary and saxonist, Carkhalli 

1677 (died 1733). 
Richmond, Legh, amiable divine, author of the ** Dairy- 
man s Daughter," kc. Liverpool, 1772 (died 1827). 

* By some authors given to Cheshire*. 



\ 



BMIN1BNT NATIVES. 35 

RUhton, Ednrard, divine (died 1585). 

Rislejr, Thomas, nonconformist divine and author, near 
Wkrrlngton, 1630. 

Rogers, John, translator of the Bible, first of Queen Mary *s 
martyrs (suffered 1555). 

Romney, George, painter, royal academician, Beckside near 
Dalton, 1734 (died 1802)< 

Roscoe, William, poet and politican, Liverpool, 1752 (died 
1831). 

Roth well, Richard, enthusiast, Bolton, 1563. 

Sandys« Edwin, Archbishop of York, proclaimed the Lady 
JaoeGrey, Hawkshead, 1519 (died 1588). 

Smith, William, Bishop of Lincoln, founder of Brazennose 
college Oxford, and a grammar school at his native plaoe» 
Pamworth (died 1513). 

Standish, Henry, Bishop of St. Asaph, Standish (died 1535). 

Sir John, wounded Wat Tyler iii Smithfidd, Stan- 
dish (flourished in the time of Richard IL) 

John, author against translating the Scriptures, Stan- 
dish (died 1556). 

Sir Ralph, general of the army in France for Henry V. 



and VI. Standish. 
Stanley, James, Bishop of Ely (died 1515). 
Stubbs, George, R.A. painter of animals, especially excellent 

in horses, Liverpool, 1724 (died 1806). 
Talbot, Thomas, antiquary, assisted Camden, Salesbury 

Hall, 1580. 
Taylor, Dr. John, unitarian divine, teacher, and author 

of an Hebrew-English concordance, Lancaster, 1694 

(died 1761). 
'nidesley, Sir Thomas, the brave and loyal (slain 1651). 
Townley, Charles, antiquary and skilful collector, Towneley 

Hall, 1737 (died 1805). 

Christopher, antiquary, Towneley, 1603. 

John, military hero, translator of *<Hudibra8'' into 

French, Towneley, 1697 (died 1782). 
Ulverston, Richard, author of " Articles of Faith," Ulver- 

ston (died 1434). 
Walker, George, learned puritan divine, author of sermons, 

eiiemy of Archbishop Laud, Hawkshead, 1581 (died 1651). 
Weever, John, industrious antiquary, author of "Funerai 

Monuments," 1576 (died 1632> 



36 COUNTT HISTORT — LANCASHIRE. 

West, Thomas, Lord de la Warr, founder of Manchester 

college in 1422. 
Thomas, catholic priest, historian of Furness and the 

Lakes, Ulverston (died 1779). 
Whateley, William, divine, protestant advocate in the time 

of Henry VIIL 
Whitaker, John, divine, antiquarv, and historian, Mandies- 

ter, 1735 (died 1808). 
- William, polemic divine, and author. Master of St 

John's college, Cambridge, Holme, 1547 (died 1595). 
Winstanley, Hamlet, painter, Warrington. 
Woodcock, Martin, roman catholic divine (suffered for his 

religion 1646). 
.Wool ton, John, Bishop of Exeter, author> Wigan, 1535 

(died 1593). 
WorthingtoB, Dr. John, divine and author, Manchester, 

1618 (died 1671). 
' Thomas, author of " Catalog us Martyrum," Blwns- 

eoe^died 1626). 
Wright, Richard, marine painter, Liverpool, I735u 



37 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

At Ashton-under-Lynb is kqyt up a custom on Easter 
mondaj, called '* Riding the Black Lad/' It consists of an 
effigy in black, led on a horse, and hung up in the market- 
place and shot at. Till lately it was covered with armour, 
and the expense defrayed by the Court. It is said to owe its 
nse to the resentment of the townsmen with respect to se- 
verities exercised by one of its former lords ; possibly Thomas 
Ashton, distinguished at the battle of Nevil's Cross, who 
entered the tent of the Scottish monarch and bore away the 
royal standard. 

At Bolton, Mr. Samuel Crompton, a weaver, originated 
the ** Mule,"' a machine combining the powers of the spinning- 
jenny and water-frame, for which Parliament in 1812 voted 
Wni £5,000, — Here resided, in the capacity of a barber. Sir 
Richard Arkwright, at the time that he became possessed 
from Thomas Highs, of Leigh, the inventor also of the 
original spinning-jenny, of that water<>frame which ultimately 
wade his fortune.— Of the Free School, Robert Ainsworth, 
* the lexicographer, received his education and was master. — 
At this place was used so lately as 1801 the ** bridle,'' an 
instrument for punishing scolds. 

Bradshaw Hall is generally said to have been the seat 
of Serjeant Bradshaw, president at the trial of Charles I., 
hut this statement is incorrect. It was the seat of the Brad- 
shaws of Bradshaw, royalists, from whose descendants it was 
purchased by the Bradshaws of Marple, in Cheshire, descend- 
ant representatives of the elder brother of the Serjeant. 



38 COUNTY HISTORY — LANCASHIRE. 

Brimhill was the Rectory of the antiquary Samuel 
Peggc. 

On the outside of Brindlb Church is an impression re- 
sembling a shoe with a great heel, respecting which Pennant 
relates a traditionary legend of a dispute between a Protes- 
tant and a Catholic clergyman, which was settled by the foot 
of the latter becoming fixed in this stone as .a testimony of 
Providence against him. 

At Cartmel Grammar School the learned Dr. Edmund 
Law, Bishop of Carlisle, was a scholar. 

At Church, the seronaut Mr. W. W. Sadler, who as- 
cended from Bolton, met his death by being thrown out of 
the car in his descent September 29, 1824. 

In Clitheroe Church is a brass to Dr. John Webster, 
astrologer, who detected many of the impositions of witdi- 
craft. 

At CoLNB Free School Archbishop Tillotson was educated. 

The Priory of Conishbad had to provide a guide to 
conduct travellers over the Leven Sands. 

Of Cuerden was Dr. Richard Kuerden, whose MSS. 
entitled'* Britannia Lancaster iensisRestaurata,^" in five folio 
volumes, are in the Chetham library at Manchester, and other 
portions are preserved in the College of Arms. 

At Dalton was buried in 1802 its native artist Oeorge 
Romney, who died at Kendal in Westmorland. 

Chat Moss, in Eccles, formerly contained 7,000 acres. 
A considerable portion has been within a few years been 
brought into a high state of cultivation; and there is evetj 
probability of a successful drainage of the greater part of 
the moss. In the time of Henry VIII. it disgorged its vast 
contents into the Mersey, and destroyed the fish. The Li- 
verpool and Manchester railway crosses it, and has mainly 
contributed to its improvement. 



^MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 39 

Haioh Hall was the residence of the familj of Brads* 
Jisigb, of whom was the last Lady Bradshaigh, the corres* 
pondent of Richardson the novelist. 

At Hale was buried, in 1628, its native John Middle* 
ton, called the '* Child of Hale/' who was nine feet three 
inches high, and of prodigious strength^ when presented to 
James I. 

Holme was the residence and the family property of 
Thomas Dunham Whitaker, the historian of Whalley, &c. 
a learned divine, intelligent antiquary, industrious topo* 
|[rapher, a great planter of trees, and a benevolent man, 
who died in 1821. 

HoGHTON Tower was visited by James I. in 1617, and it 
is said to have been there that the King, pleased with a fine 
loin of beef, knighted the joint Sir-loin. From this palac^ 
James issued the order for Sunday amusements called the 
** Book of Sports." 

At Inge Blundell is an exceedingly fine collection of 
sculptures, busts, bas-relieves, sarcophagi, cinerary urns, &c. 
including a variety of antique marble pillars, tables, &c 
The statues of Minerva and Diana rank with the finest 
works of the antients ; and there is a Psyche by Canova. 

Knowsl^t Park has a number of interesting family 
portraits, from the first Earl to the present time ; including 
James seventh Earl of Derby, beheaded at Bolton in 1652 
for adhering to Charles II. ; and his Countess, the heroic 
defender of Latham House, and daughter of the Due de la 
Tremouille. 

At Shaw Hall, Leyland, are some fresco paintings 
brought from the walls of Herculaneum. 

At liivBRPOOL, February 11, 1810, forty-nine persons 
were killed by the falling of the spire of St Nicholas church. 
^Dr^ Currie practised as a physician, and wrote his ** Life 



40 COUNTY HISTORY — LAKCASHIRC. 

of Burns'' in this town.— In St- John s Church is a monu- 
ment to Matthew Gregson, esq. author of "Fragments 
relative to Lancashire.'* — In the chapel of the Blind Asy- 
lum is a picture by Hilton of Christ restoring sight to the 
hlind. The portico of this building is copied from the 
temple of Jupiter PanhtUenius at JEgina, and is one of the 
most beautiful things of the kind in England.—The theatre 
is rendered memorable hj the solemn death of John Palmer, 
in 1798, who whilst pronouncing the words " there is ano- 
ther and a better world/' in the play of the "Stranger/' 
sank on the stage, and immediately expired. — In 1720 only 
one private carriage was kept in Liverpool, and no stage 
coach came nearer than Warrington. It is now the second 
oapital of the empire t — In this town died, July 31 , 1828, 
aged 102, Charles Mac Quarrie, a native of the Island of 
Ulvain, in Scotland ; and in the same year, aged 110, Mr. 
Roger Murphy. 

The antient history of Manchbstbr, and of Britus, 
has been treated upon by its learned native Dr. John Whit- 
aker. — At Chetham's College is a library of nearly 20,000 
volumes. Dr. John Dee, the mathematician and pretended 
necromancer, and Samuel Peploe, Bishop of Chester, were 
Wardens of this college. — ^The amiable and philosophic Dr. 
Percival, and the ingenious Dr. Ferriar, detector of the pla- 
giarisms of Sterne, were contemporary physicians and mem- 
bers of the Literary Society of this town. — In St. Peter's 
Church, a beautiful building of Grecian doric, of which the 
architect was James Wyatt, is a " Descent from the Cross'' 
by Annibal Caracci. — Manchester returned Members to 
Parliament for the two years 1654 and 165.5, in the time of 
Cromwell. — The right of soke, compelling all the inhabitants 
to grind their corn and malt at the lord's mill on the Irk, 
continued till the year 1759, when it was repealed, except m 



MISCBLLANE0U8 OB8BRVATION8. 4l 

to malt, hy an act of Parliament. The monopoly of grind- 
ing malt now belongs to the Grammar School, and its con- 
tinuance is injurious to the interests of the borough. 

At Milne Row the celebrated John Collier, better known 
as Tim Bobbin, resided 57 years of his life as a village 
schoolmaster. 

At Oamskirk was buried April 30, 1830, Elizabeth 
Coantess of Derby, formerly the accomplished and talented 
actress Miss Farren. 

On Pbndle Hill the enthusiast George Fox professed to 
hare received his first illuminations. 

To Radcliffe, and family of that name, are attached 
. the tradition and ballad in Dr. Percy's *^ Reliques,'' entitled 
"the Lady Isabella's Tragedy/' 

At RiBCHBSTBR was buried in 1736, William Walker, 
aged 122, a royalist soldier, who had his horse killed under 
him at the battle of Edge Hill and was the last survivor of 
the civil wars. 

Rochdale Vicarage is the richest in the kingdom, and 
is in the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

In Sbfton Church are monuments of the brave Moli- 
I neuxs. 

SwARTMOOR Hall was the residence of George Fox, the 
founder of Quakerism, and was acquired by marrying the 
widow of Judge Fell, whose family he had converted. The 
lady died here in 1702, aged 88. The earliest place of wor- 
ship of this sect, built here by George Fox, still remains. 

At Townelet Hall were originally deposited the collec- 
tion of antiques, now in the British Museum, and known as 
the Towneley Marbles. They were collected by Charles 
Towneley, esq. who died in 1805, and were purchased by 
ParUament for £20,000. 

At Ulvbrstone catholic chapel was priest the Rev. 
Thomas West, author of the ** History of Furness,'* *' Guide 
to the liakes," &c. who died in 1779. 



42 COUNTS HISTORY — LANCASHIRE.. 

West Derby, a small hamlet near Knowslej, gives its 
iiiime to the hundred, and the title of earl to the present Lord 
Lieutenant of the county. 

WiNWiCK was the favorite seat of St. Oswald, King of 
Northumhria, who was slain at Oswestrj, in Shropshire, 
hy Pen da, the hoary tyrant of Mercia. — The Rectory, 
which is the most valuable in the gift of the Earl of Derby, 
was enjoyed by Dr. Sherlock, father of the authors upon 
Death, and grandfather of the Bishop of London. 

Wrightington Hall was the first house north of Trent 
that had sash windows. 



43 



List of Works consulted. 

1. The Natural History of Lancashire, &c. By Cliarles Leigh, 

M.D.— folio, 1700. 
2 Beauties of Eogland aod Wales. — 8vo. 

3. Portfolio of Fragments relative to the history and antiquities of 
the County Palatine and Duchy of Lancaster. By Matthew 
Gregson, esq.-— folio, 181 7t 

4. The Lancashire Gazetteer. By Joseph Aston. — 12rao, IBSi. 

5. The new Lancashire Gazetteer, or Topographical Dictionary. 

By Stephen Reynolds Clarke. — Svo, 1830. 

6. An essay towards the history of Liverpool. By William Eniield. 
folio, 1774. 

7. A general and descriptive history of the antient and present state 

of the town of Liverpool. By Mr. Wallace. — 8vo, 17J)5* 

8. The Stranger in Liverpool .^1 2 mo^ 1807. 
.9. History of Liverpool. — 4to, 1810. 

10. A description of the country firom thirty to forty miles round 
Manchester. By J. Aikin, MJ). — 4to, 1795. 

11. The history of Manchester. By John Whitaker, B.D. F.S.A. 

—2 vols. 4to, 1771. 

12. A picture of Manchester. By Joseph Aston. — 13mo, 1816. 
Id. An history of the original parish of Whalley and honor of Cli- 

theroe, &c. By Thomas Dunham Whitaker, LL.D. F.S.A. 

Vicar.— 4to, 1818. 
14. Account of the parish of Cartmel. By the Rev. T. D. Whitaker. 

— 4to, 1818. 

A topographical, statistical, and historical account of the borough 
f Preston. — 8vo, 1891. 

Antiquities of Fumess. By the Rev. Thomas West.— 4 to, 1774. 
Description of Blackpool. By W. Hutton, F.A.S.— Svo, 1 804* 




IT O R TB riSI B E R L AM ». 



iblnhtd 1839.bT J.BJIichiJs S Son.;s.P»ili>n™it 



NORTHUMBERLAND. 



INCUJDING 



BERWICK-UPON-TWEED. 



' . M 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Bmsndaries. Nerth, detaeched part of DurhamiiAd Scot- 
land: Blast, German Ocean: Souifay Durham: West, 
Cumberland. 

Gireatest lengthy 64 : greatest hvfdodihr 48 : ekewt^et' 
en^e, 225: iquate^ \&ll milts; •tatuie aer^lil^ A^* 

Province^ York. Dioceses, Durham, excepting the four 
parisiieB of Allondale, Hexhatti, Stu J^kn Xjee» and 
ThrookinftoB, which form the Hexham peculiar in the 
diocese of York. There is an Archdeaconry of Nortkum- 
berland* and Deaneries of Alnwick, Bamboroogk^ Gor- 
bridge, Morpeth, and Niewcastle. 

Cireuiif. Nortkern^ 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Ottadini, Oadeni, and Brigantes. 
Cities or Towns, Amble ; between Linbope and Hart- 
side, considerably perfect, and remains of a British road. 
Encampments, Bewick Hill and Harup Bum, two, semi- 
circular; Burgh Hill, Great Tosson, the larg^est in the 
county ; Chillingham, called Ros Castle, circular, double 
entrenchment; Hetchester, near Hepple ; High Warden, 
called Castle Hill, an area of two acres; Old Rothbury, 
circular, with double fosse and rampart; Spindleston, 
circular, with triple ditch and vallum ; between Tyne 
Head and Bellingham are numerous traces of British 
castrametation ; Whitton Tower, with a triple rampart. 
Remains, Bowsdon, urns of burnt bones ; Ewart Park, 
two bronze sword blades, 21 inches long ; Humbleton, 
kistvaen with skeleton ; Hulne Park, in Alnwick, many 
brass celts, sword blades, and spear heads ; Olanton, urns 
and celts ; Netherton, querns or hand millstones ; Shar- 
perton, urns. — Numbers of cairns and kistvaens, or Bri- 
tish burial places, have been opened and removed, and 
many others still exist. 

Druidicai Remains. Burgh Hill, two circles ; between 
Ilderton and Hedgehope, one of the Cheviot mountains, 
ten large stones in an oval form; Little Chester, three 
rude stones called the Mare and Foals ; Nunwick, circle 
of five stones ; Three-stone Burn, a circle thirty-eight 
yards in diameter ; Todd Law, at Bymess, three stones 
in a triangle, twelve feet distant from each other, uid 



ANTIBNT 8TATB AND RBMAIN8. 3 

each twelve feet in diameter; Yevering Bell, on t&e 
summit, extensive remains, and many cairns4n theiUoigh- 
bourhood. 

Roman Province^ Maxima Csesariensis. Stations, Aballaba, 
Watchcross ; Amboglanna, Burdoswald ; ^sica, (xreat 
Ghesters; Borcovicus, Housesteads; Bremeniam, Ro- 
chester ; Bremetenracum, Whitley Castle, in Kirkhaagh ; 
Cilumum, Walwick Ghesters on the Picts' Wall ; Con- 
durcam, Benwell; Gongavata; Gorstopitum, Gorches- 
ter ; Habitancum, Risingham ; Hunnum, Halton Ghes- 
ters ; Magna, Caervorran ; Poi^s ^lii, Newcastle ; Pe- 
triana, Gastlesteads ; Procolitia, Garrawburgh; Sege- 
dunum, Wallsend; Vindobala, Rochester; Vindo- 
lana, Little Ghesters. Encampments, Alnham^ within 
which is the church ; Belford ; Bolam Hill ; Broom 
Dykes ; Gallaly Grag ; Gastle Banks ; Chew Green, 
£lsdon; Glanton Pike; Greenleighton, West Shank; 
Haley Ghesters; Harwood : Hartburn, several ; Huck- 
hoe, circular; Howick Burn; Maiden Gastle, Gattle- 
well, in Wooler ; Motehill, Wark ; Mowson ; Newton- 
on-the-Moor ; Old Slate Hill ; Outchcster, near Wam- 
mouth, square ; Raechester ; Rosedon Edge, square ; 
Thirlwall, two ; Trodden Gazes ; Whalton ; Whitby 
Castle ; Whitchester. Earthworks, Little Ghesters, 
tumuli. Temples, some remains appear to indicate that 
there were several in this Romanized district. Remains 
exist or have been discovered at all the stations previously 
mentioned. The Roman or Pict's Wall, from Carlisle in 
Cumberland to Newcastle, length 80 miles, runs through 
the county, was erected by Hadrian in 120, and repaired 
by Severus in 208. Amble, coins. Ayden, urns, effigy 
of a man. Benwell, urns, coins, altars and inscriptions, 
one of the former inscribed to the three Harpies ; bronze 



COUNTY HltTORT — NORTH UMBKRL AND. 

figures ; «Dd « stone recording a viotorf over the Britons^ 
Aenidlnsop, altar. Breodkbura, urns, foundadons of 
houses, and piers of a bridge in the water. Caervorran, 
interesting inscription of ten verses to the Zodiacal Ceres, 
statues, a lar, and rings. Capheaton, coins. Carraw- 
burgh, inscriptions. Ohesterhope, figure in sand-stone 
rodL called Robin of Risingham. CorbrSdge, Greek in- 
scription, curious plate or lanx, finely sculptured ; altars* 
&c. Denton, inscription. Elsdon, inscriptions and altars. 
East Heddoa, silver and copper coins and medals in 
wooden boxes. Halton Chesters, shaft and capital of a 
column, coins, a ring of gold, and inscriptions. Hexham, 
altar, &c. Housesteads, called by Stukelej the Palmyra 
of Great Britain, extensive remains of a town, sculptures, 
inscriptions, altars, &c. Howick, coins, arms, and rings. 
Learmouth, oak paddle. Little Chesters, two raulted 
rooms with a hypocaust. Newcastle, part of Hadrian's 
wall near Panden Gate ; coins in the piers of the bridge, 
&c. ; altars ; fragments of a Corinthian pillar, &c. Ri- 
singham, altars and inscriptions. Rochester altars, urns, 
figure of Hercules, coins, hypocaust, millstones. Simon- 
bum, altar. Tynemouth, inscriptions. WaYbottle, in- 
scriptions. Walwick Chesters, statue of Europa, and in- 
scriptions. Walwick Grange, monumental sculptures of 
human figures. Wallsend, a piece of pottery, with a Ro- 
man horseman striking at a naked Pict ; an altar to Ju- 
piter ; four centurial stones; tegula, coins, and rings. 
Whitley Castle, altars and inscriptions. Rcadj, 6am- 
meVs Path, leading to Chew Green in Elsdon ; Maiden 
Way, from Caervorran to Whitley Castle ; Watling Street, 
$nters at Ebchester, divides into two branches at Bew- 
clay, one of which is called the Devil's Causeway, and the 
other goes through Reedsdale into Scotland ; there is a 
paved way from Rochester to the Devil's Causeway ; at 



ANTIBNT STATE AND RBM A1N8. O 

Outchester aie remains of a road towards Alnwick ; and 
there is one from Wallsend to Walvick Chesters, and 
thence to Caervorran* 

Saxon Octarchy, Northumbria. Encampments, Clinch 
Hill ; Ingram Hill ; Hare Law, Kilham, circular, with 
double rampart and foss ; Harehaugh, with triple ram- 
parts, one of the most perfect in the county. Earthworks, 
Humbleton, terraces cut in a hill. 

Danish Encampments, Spinelston Hill, two. 

Cathedral. Hexham, from 674 to 821, when its jurisdiction 
was added to the see of York ; it had ten bishops. 

Abbeys. Alnwick, founded by Eustace Fitz John, 1147, a 
gateway and oblong tower only remain, the work of a 
subsequent pericd; Blancheland, by Walter de Bolbeck, 
] 165^or 1 175 ; Hulne, by William de Vescy and Ralph 
Tresbom, a monk of Mount Carmel, about 1240, ivy- 
clad ruins ; Newminster, by Ralph de Merlay, Baron of 
Morpeth, and his wife Julian, 1138, the arch of one of 
the entrances only remains 

Priories. Amble, cell to Tynemouth, some ruins; Bam- 
borough, in 1137, cell to Nostill in Yorkshire ; Berwick ; 
Brinkburn, by William de Bertram, Baron of Mitford, 
temp. Henry I. the church nearly entire, and remains of 
dormitory, &c. a mixture of Norman and Pointed archi- 
tecture ; Carham, cell to Kirkham in Yorkshire ; Coquet 
Island, cell to Tynemouth ; ('orbridge, ante 771 ; Hex- 
ham, in 1113, by Thomas Archbishop of York, the choir 
now the parish church ; Ovingfaam, by Umfreville, Baron 
of Prudhoe, cell to Hexham; Tynemouth, by Edwin 



O COUNTY HISTORY — NORTHUMBERLAND. 

King of Northumbria, between 617 and 633, refounded by 
%frid between 671 and 685» destroyed by the Danes, and 
rebuilt by Tosti Earl of Northumberland, interesting re- 
mains, partly Norman; Warkworth, by Bishop Parn- 
ham in 1256. 

JVunneriet. Berwick, founded by David I. King of Soot- 
land; Guyzance, by Richard Tyson, ante Edward I.; 
Holystone, by the Umfranrilles ; Lambley, ante John ; 
Newcastle, its foundation variously attributed to Henry I, 
Henry II., David King of Scotland, and a Baron de Hilton. 

Friaries. Bamborough, Austin, founded in 1137 ; Preachers, 
by King Henry III. in 1265. Berwick, White, in 1270, 
by Sir John Grey ; Grey ; Black, by the King of Scots, 
1230; Trinitarians. Newcastle, Austin, by William Lord 
Ros, about 1290 ; Black, by Sir Peter and Sir Nicholas 
Scott, 1251 ; Grey, by the Carlisles temp. Henry III. ; 
White, by Edward I. ; de Penitentia, by Henry III. 

Hospitais. Alwinton, subordinate to Holystoi^ nunnery ; 
Alnwick ; Bamborough, licensed by Edward II. ; Ber- 
wick; Bolton, by Robert de Roos, Baron of Werk, 
before 1225 ; Hexham, spital ; Jesmond, one of the 
windows remain at the Nag's Head; Mitford, to St. 
Leonard, by Sir William Bertram, temp. Henry I. ; 
Morpeth, by Sir William Bertram ; Newcastle, one to 
the Virgin Mary, by one Asclack of Killinghowe, temp* 
Henry II., another to Mary Magdalen, by Henry I., a 
third to the Triuity, by William de Acton, in 1363, and 
a fourth to St. Catharine, by Roger Thornton, the elder, 
temp. Henry IV. ; Twizle, by Roger de Merley, the se- 
cond ; Tynemouth; Wooler ante Richard II. 



ANTIBNT STATE AND REMAINS. 7 

Churches, Bamborough, built by King Oswald, the ruins 
discovered by the removal of some sand in 1773; Bolam, 
Norman; firinkburn, rich Norman ornaments; Els- 
don ; Hartburn, venerable and romantic ; Hexham, a 
magnificent edifice ; Newcastle, St. Andrew, and St. Ni- 
cholas, the latter, erected in 1359, has a light and elegant 
steeple, 194 feet high, with nine lofty and highly orna- 
mented spires, arranged in the form of an imperial crown; 
Ponteland, has a doorway in the Norman style Roth- 
bury, formerly much larger; Wark, in ruins; Wark- 
worth, erection ascribed to Geolwulph King of Northum- 
berland, semicircular arches and windows, and plain round 
columns remain. 

Chapels, Belford, in ruins ; Bothal, in ruins, on the banks 
of the river ; Kirkhill, some remains ; Newcastle, St. 
James, some remains ; Seaton Delaval, a very good and 
perfect specimen of Norman architecture. 

Fonts, Bamborough, found with the ruins of the church 
in 1773, richly carved, now in the keep of the castle; 
Rothbury, sculptured with Our Lord sitting in judgment. 

Crosses, Belsay; By well; Glanton. 

Castles, Alnwick, built in 1411, by the Earl of Northum- 
berland, but parts are of Norman work, and it is still the 
family seat; Ayden; Bamborough, on the summit of a 
rock, the keep is Norman, but there is a tower of Roman 
work ; Bellingham ; Bellister ; Berwick, the remains 
are a heap of stones ; Blenkinsop ; Bothal, by Sir Ro- 
bert Bertram, temp. Edward III., a large tower gateway 
and fragments of walls remain ; Bywell, some ruins ; 
Callaly, one of the towers remidns attached to more sub- 



S COUNTT HISTORY — NORTHUMBERLAND. 

sequent work; Capheaton; Carting^ton, rapidlj g^ing^ 
to decay, but part inhabited, maBsive walls and extensive 
ruins ; Chipcbase, a tower remains ; Delaval, do remains ; 
Dunstanbrough* bj Thomas Earl of Lancaster, general 
of the armies against Edward II. 1321, extensive remains 
of the outworks ; Edlingham, ante Henry II. a tower, 
&c.; Etal, fortified in 1341, by Sir Robert de Manners, 
towers remain ; Featherstonehaugh ; Ford, by Sir Wil- 
liam Heron in 1287, two towers remain attached to some 
modem work in the old style ; Harbottle, bnik before 
1296 ; Hepple ; Horton, foundations razed 1809 ; 
Houghton, extensive and strong, an oblong square of 100 
feet by 44 ; Langley, most perfect ruin of the kind in the 
county, in the shape of the letter H; Morpeth, the gateway 
tower remains, built by William Lord Greystoek, 14th 
century ; Mitford, dismantled in 14th century, remains 
in confused heaps ; Nether witton, by Roger Thornton, 
15th century; Newcastle, began by Robert Curthese, 
son of William I. 1079, the chapel a valuable specimen of 
Norman architecture; Ogle, about 15 Edward III. by 
Sir Robert Ogle ; Otterbnrn ; Prudhoe, towers, gateway, 
keep, and amazing extent of ruins; Seaton Delaval; 
Shewing shields ; Simonburn ; Tynemouth ; Wark- 
worth, by the Bertrams, ante Henry II., magnifioent and 
extensive ruins; Wark, built by Henry II., some inte- 
resting remains ; Widdrington. 

Towers, Belsay, by Sir John de Middleton, temp. Henry 
V. ; Berwick, the Bell Tower, 400 yards to the north 
of the castle, to which it was exploratory ; Cockle Park I 
Cockley ; Crawley, partly Roman ; Fenwick, totally in 
ruins ; Halton, a strong oblong structure, thirty feet by 
22, widi four turrets ; Hefferley ; Hexham ; Howick ; 
Lilbum; Little Harle, in good preservation; Lough 



ANTIENT 8TATB AND REMAINS. 9 

Horsley; Rochester; Rothley, built by John Buttler, 
Abbot of Newminster ; Seghill ; Shortflat, near Bolam ; 
Stawardle Peel ; Thirlwall, a fort on the Roman wall, 
in ruios ; Welton ; Whitton, considerably modernized ; 
Wooler, some remains. 



Maniions, Birtley Hall, some remains; Burrowden 
House ; Chillingham Castle, a heavy square building 
of the time of Elizabeth ; Dilston Hall, erected in 
1616, by Francis Radcliffe, ancestor of the Earls of Der- 
wentwater. 



1 



10 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers. Allen, East and West ; Aln, issues from a moun- 
tain west of AInham and goes to the sea at Alemouth ; 
Alwain ; Bly the, to the sea near Sleekburn ; Bovent ; 
Brennich; Cherlop; Coquet, rises on the borders of 
Scotland, surrounds Warkworth, and falls into the Ger- 
man Ocean opposite to Coquet Island ; Cor ; Derwent, 
from Durham, falls into the Tjne near Newcastle ; Dill or 
Devil's beck; Erringburn; Font; Glen; Hart; Hestild; 
Hoc; Irthing; Knare; Line; Nent; Otter; Perop; 
Pont; Rede; Ridley; Ridland; Seaton; Shele; Till; 
Tippal; Twbbd, from Scotland, the boundary of the 
county from Durham and Berwickshire ; Tyne, North 
and South, the former at Wheel Fall among the border 
mountains, receives a number of tributary brooks, and joins 
at Hexham the southern stream, which comes from Garri- 
g^ll gate, on the borders of Cumberland ; from Hexham 
they go as one stream to Corbridge, Newbum near New- 
castle, and forming the magnificent bason at Shields, goes 
to the German Ocean ; Wansbeck, falls into the sea at 
Cambois. 

Inland JVatfigation. The Blythe, Tweed and Tyne rivers. 

Lakes. Capheaton; Eland; Keemer liough, near Eglin^- 
ham, covers five acres, very black and deep. 

Eminences and Views, Ashington, fine view of the sea ; 
Aumond; the Bannocks; Bamborough Castle, most 
extensive sea and land prospects; Bilden Hill; Black 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 11 

Tree ; Borcum Hill ; Brislee Tower, near Alnwick 
castle, erected for its \iews, the extent and variety of which 
are astonishing, by Henry Duke of Northumberland, 17B1 ; 
Byres Fell; Camp Hill; Carter Fell, 1602ft. high, divides 
England from Scotland ; Catcleuch ; Chipchase castle, 
delightful ; Clinch Hill ; Cocklaw ; Dale Castle ; EarVs 
seat: Ellis Craig ; Etal, many beautiful views; Flodden 
Hill, and a natural rock thereon, named ''the King's 
Qiair ;'' Ford Castle, fine prospect ; Fox Craig ; Glanton 
Pike; Glassenhope; Hamham, '*seen before a setting 
San appears like one of the fine towered hills in the pictures 
of Nicholas Poussin ;"' Hanging Shaw ; Harwood Moor I 
Hawkhope; Hedgehope; Ingram Hill; Jesmond Dean» 
beautifully romantic and picturesque; Leam Beacon; 
Mote Law ; Newbiggin, from the churchyard an exten- 
sive and beautiful prospect; Newton Tor; Ottercaps; 
Plin Meller ; Red Squire ; Rosedon Edge ; Rothley 
Castle, 843 feet above the level of the sea, vast prospects 
on every side ; Ruff Hill or Law, one of the most exten- 
uve and fatiegated prospects in the north of England; 
Samyel Ci^sdg ; Scotsh Coltherd ; Shidlaw, extensive 
and beautiful prospect into Scotland; Silvertoh Moun- 
tain; Simonside Hills, the largest 1287 feet high; Snow- 
hope; TindaleFell; Tinney Hill; Two Pikes ; Wal- 
wick, prospects exceeding fine; Warkworth Castle; 
White Squire; Widdrington Castle, extensive views both 
by sea and land; Wolsington, extraordinary prospect; 
Yevering Bell, 2,000 feet high. 

J^atural Curiosities, Allendale, mineral spring; Berwick > 

. mineral spring called the Catwell; Dukesfield, ppring 

holding sulphurated hydrogen in solution ; Chillingham 

Park, a breed of wild cattle called White Scottish Bison ; 

^ Eglingham, strong mineral spring ; Halliwell, medicinal 



12 COUNTY HISTORY — NORTHUMBERLAND. 

water ; Halystone and Jesraond, holy welU ; Simonbum 
and Bedling^tOD, petrif jing springs ; Snowhope, mediciiial 
water; Teckett Linn, romantic cascade: Thurston, m/t- 
dicinal water ; Wing^ate Spa, strongly chalybeate. 

Public Edifices. Alnwick, clock house, built 1786 : free 
school, rebuilt 1741: house of correction, erected 1807: 
Lancastrian school, founded 1810: shambles, built by the 
first Duke of Northumberland, 1765: town hall, built 
1731. Berwick, barracks, built 1719, and since conaider- 
ably improved: bridge over the Tweed, of fifteen arcbes, 
1014 feet long and 17 broad, finished 1634, architects 
Biirrel and Braxton, cost £24,960 : union chain bridge, 
the first suspension bridge erected in Great Britain : forti- 
fications: hospital: ordnance house: pier, begun 1810, 
cost £40,000: schools: theatre: town hall, upper story 
used as a gaol, built 1754, its turret 150 feet high, archi- 
tect Dodd. Coquet and Fern Inlands, lighthouses. Cor- 
bridge, bridge over theTyne, of seven arches, erected 1764. 
Hay don, bridge of 5 arches, erected 1809-10 : school : hos- 
pitals. Hexham, bridge, architect Myiie, of 9 arches and 3 
smaller ones on the south side. Morpeth, clock-house; 
cross, built 1699, at the cost of the Hon. Philip Howard and 
Sir Henry Belasyse : county gaol, began 1821, extensive: 
grammar school: town house, 1714. Newcastle, county 
court, built 1810, Stokoe architect: bridge connecting the 
town with Gateshead, in Durham, of nine arches, 300 feet 
long, finished 1781, cost £30,000: assembly rooms, built 
1776, Newton architect, cost £6,701: baths: butcher 
market: exchange and guildhall, finished 1658, Trollop 
architect, cost £10,000: freeman's hospital, erected 1681: 
infirmary, founded 1751: Keelman^s hospital, built 1701, 
cost £2,000: lunatic asylum: lying-in-hospital: royal 
jubilee hchool : mansion house, rebuilt in the year 1691, 



SEATS. 13 

cost £6»000 : St. Nicholases library, built in 1736, by 
Sir Walter Blackett: theatre, opened 1788. North 
Shields, Clifford's fort, strong and handsome, built 1672: 
two lighthouses. Otterbum, Percy's cross, or battle stone, 
to commemorate the engagement with the Scots in 1388. 
Scotswood, near Newcastle, suspension bridge over the 
Tyne, of 670 feet, begun August 1829, and finished April 
12, 1831, Green engineer, cost £15,000. Seaton Sluice, 
harbour. Tynemouth, lighthouse, erected 1776. Wark- 
worth, stone bridge, over the Coquet, of two arches. 

SeatSy Alnwick Castle, Hulne Abbey, and Keelder 
Castle, Duke of Northumberland, Lord Lieutenant, 

Acton, Major Spedding. 

Adderston House, Tliomas Forster, esq. 

Arcot, George Shum Storey, esq. 

Backworth House, 

Bavington Hall, George Dalston Shaftoe, esq. 

Beacon House, M. W. Carr, esq. 

Beadnall House, John Wood, esq. 

Beaufront, J. Errington, esq. 

Bel ford Hall, William Clarke, esq. 

Bells Hill, near Warrenford, John Pratt, esq. 

Belsay Castle, Sir Charles Miles Lambert Monck, Bart. 

Benwell Grove, Anthony Cl>ipham, esq. 

Lodge, Robert Pearson, esq. 

Benridge, Robert Hedley, esq. 

Biddleston, Walter Selby, esq. 

Birney Hall, William Linskill, esq. 

Blagdon House, Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart. 

Bienkinsop Hall, John Blenkinsop Coiilson, esq. 

Brenckburn Priory, M^or Hodgson Cadogau. 

Broom Park, William Burrell, esq. 

Budle, Grieve Smith, esq. 

By well Hall, Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, esq. 

Camp Ville, Frederick Ceetor Forster, esq. 

Capheaton House, Sir John Edward Swinburn, Bart. 

Causey Park. William Ogle Wallis Ogle, esq. 

Charlton Hall, Captain Landers. 



14 COUNTY HISTORY — NORTHUMBERLAND. 

Cheeseburne Grange, Ralph Biddell, esq. 

Chesters, Nathaniel ClaytOD, esq. 

Cheswick House, J. S. Donaldson, esq. 

Chillingham GastJe, Earl of Tankerville. 

Chipchase Castle, Ralph William Grey, esq. 

Close House, near Horsley, Mrs. Bewick. 

CoUingwood House, Unthank, J. CoUingwood Tarleton^eeq. 

Craster, Shafto Craster, esq. 

Cresswell Hall, Addison John Creswell Baker, esq. 

Denton Hall, R. Hoyle, esq. 

Dissin^ton Hall, Edward Stanhope CoUingwood, esq* 

Elachwick, Miss Spearman. 

Easington Grange, John Nesbitt, esq. 

Ellingham Hall, Thomas Haggerston, esq. 

Eisington, Lord Ravensworui. 

Elswick Hall, 

Etal Hall, Lord Kelburn. 

Ewart Park House, Sir Horace David St. Paul, Bart 

Falloden, Hon. Lieutenant General Henry Grey. 

Felton Hall, Ralph Liddell, esq. 

Fenham Hall, James Graham Clarke, esq. 

Ford Castle, near Millfield, Marquis of Waterford. 

Glanton, John Tewart, esq. 

-«— House, West Glanton, Major Franklen. 

Glosterhill, Henry Dand, esa. 

Gosforth House, C. J. Branaling, esq. 

Haggerston Castle, Sir Carnaby Haggerston, Bart 

Harbottle Castle, Thomas Clennell, esq. 

Hartford House, 

Heaton Hall, near Newcastle, Sir Matthew W. Ridley, Bart. 

Heckley House, Joshua Hewitson, esq. 

Hetton Hall, John Allen Wilkie, esq. 

Hexham Abbey, Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, esq. 

High Warden, W. Errington, esq. 

Howick Hall, Earl Grey. 

Humshaugh, Henry Richmond, esq. 

Kirk Harle, Sir Charles Lorraine, Bart. 

Kirkley, Rev. J. S. Ogle. 

Kyloe, Charles Bacon Forster, esq. 

Ladythorn House, Robert Wilkie, esq. 

Lanton, John Davison, esq. 

Lemington Hall, J. A. Wilkie, esq. 



SEATS. 15 

Lilburn Tower, Henry John William Collingwood^ esq. 

Lindon Hall, Charles William Bigge, esq. 

Lipwood House, Thomas Coats, esq. 

Little Harle Tower, J. Murray Aynsley, esq. 

Longwitton Hall, James Fenwick, esq. 

Low Espley Hall, John Mitford, esq. 

Lowlin House, Anthony Gregson, esq. 

Marshall Meadows, David Murray, esq. 

Mjddleton Hall, G. F. Gilham, esq. 

Milburn House, Ralph Bates, esq. 

Minster Acres, George Silvertop, esq. 

Mitford Castle, Bertram Mitford, esq. 

Newbrough Lodge, Nicholas Maughan, esq. 

Newton Park, William Mitford, esq. 

Netherwitton, Raleigh Trevelyan, esq. 

North Earle, Thomas Selby, esq. 

North Seaton, William Watson, esq. 

NuDnykirk, William Ord, esq, 

Nunwick, R, L. Allgood, esq. 

Oakerland, J. Ruddock, esq. 

Ovingham, Edward Swinburn, esq. 

Palinsburn, George Adam Askew, esq. 

Park End, John Ridley, esq. 

Preston, Edmund Craster, esq. 

Ridley Hall, Thomas Bates, esq* 

Roddam, Stanhope Roddam, esq. 

Rothley Park, Sir John Trevelyan. 

St. Ninian^s, Sir Horace St. Paul, Bart. 

Sandhoe House, Edward Charlton, esq. 

Seaton Burn House, Henry Hewitson, esq. 

Shaw House, Styford, Charles Bacon, esq. 

Shawden, Mrs. Hargrave. 

Shoston, Colonel John Grey. 

Snitter, William Pringle, esq. 

Spital Hill, near Morpeth, Robert Bullock, esq. 

Swansfield House, Henry CoUingwood Selby, esq. 

Swarland Hall, Alexander Davison, esq. 

Swinburn Castle, 

Thirston House, Thomas Smith, esq. 
Threepwood, G. Lee, esq. 
Trewitt House, John Smart, esq. 
Twizle Housfc, Prideaux John Selby, esq. 



16 COUNTY HI8T0Rt — ^NOHTHUMBBRLAND. 

Tynemouth Lodge, William Ldnskill, esq. 

Unthank Hall, Robert Pearson, esq. 

WallingtoD, Sir John Trereljan, Bart- 

Walirick Hall, C. J. Clavering, esq. 

Weetwood, John Ord, esq. 

West Thirston, Thomas smith, esq. 

Whitfield Hal], William Ord, esq. 

Wolsing'ton, Matthew Bell, esq. 

Wylam Oak Wood, Christopher Blackett, esq. 



Caves. Bewick Moor, called Caterane's Hole, or the Rob- 
ber*8 Retreat: Rothburv, in the side of a hill : Shaftoe 
Hall, in Shaftoe Crag: Tutman's Hole, in Gilderdale 
Forest, the roof covered with stalactitical formations. 

Peerage. Alnwick, Louvaine of, barony (1784) to Pcrcj 
Earl of Beverley ; Belford, Graham of, earldom (1722) 
to Graham Duke of Montrose* in Scotland ; Howick, , 
viscounty (1806) to Grey Earl Grey (1806), who is also 
Baron Grey de Howick (1801): Knaresdale, Wallace of, 
barony (1828) to Wallace; Morpeth, Howard of, vis- 
county (1661) to Earl of Carlisle; Northumberland, 
dukedom (1766) and earldom (1749) to Percy; Pmd- 
hoe, barony (1816) to Percy ; Redesdale, barony (1802) 
to Mitford; Tynedale, barony (1663, forfeited 1685, 
and restored 1743) to Scott Dukeof Buccleuch : Wark<> 
worth Castle, barony (1749) to Percy Duke of Northum- 
berland. 

Baronetage, Belsey Castle, Monck, 1662: Capheaton, 
Swinburne, 1660: Ewart Park, St Paul, 1813: Fea- 
therstonhaugh, Featherstonhaugh, 1747: Haggerston 
Castle, Haggerston, 1643 : Heaton and Blagdon, Ridley* 
1756: Kirk Harle, Lorraine, 1664: Matson HaU, New- 



PRB8BNT 8TATB. 17 

I 

casdfs-apon-Tjne, Blackett, 1673: Morpeth, Orde, 1790* 
Preston, Smith, 1821. 

kepresentatives returned to Parliamenty fcr the Northern 
Division of the County, 2 ; Southern Division, 2 ; Ber- 
wiek-upon-lVeed, 2;' Morpedi, 1; Nevrcastle-^upon- 
Tyne, 2 ; Tynemouth, 1 ; total, 10.--The Reform Act 
added two to the County, disfranchised Morpeth of one, 
and enfranchised Tynemouth, making the total ten in- 
stead of eight. 

Produce. Coal, the staple commodity, the pit at Willing- 
ton is 280 yards deep, and the first steam engine in the 
county was erected at Byker in 1714: lead, plentiful at 
Allenheads, Coalcleugh, and near Hexham and Blanch- 
land : zinc : quicksilver, in a pure state at Berwick : iron 
pyrites, in immense quantities, lie imhedded in the indu- 

. rated clay of the coal fields : limestone: freestone: whin- 
stone, at Alnwick : marl. Com. Cattle, a breed of wild 
called the White Scottish bison, in Chillingham Park: 
sheep. Salmon. The golden eagle is met with on the 
highest' and steepest part of Cheviot : and the osprey is 
found breeding annually among the reeds near Greenley 
lake. 

Manufactures, More glass is manufactured on the river 
Tyne than in all France. — Acklington, blankets, duffles, 
&c Alnwick, bricks and tiles. Bedside, iron. Berwick, 
sacking cloth, cottons, and muslins. Byker, jglass bottles 
and crown glass. Chirton, engines and machinery. Hart- 
ley, glass bottles and crown glass. Heworth Shore, Prus- 
sian blue,* coal tar, sal ammoniac. Hexham, leather, long 
celebrated ; gloves, stuff hats, worsted articles, weaving, 
and wool combing. Houghton, paper. Langley, lead 



18 COUNTY HIBTORT — NORTHUMBBRLAND. 

mills' and refineries. Lemington, iron. Liong Benton, 
iron. Low Elswick, lead and shots. Mitford, snuff. 
Newbum Hall, glass bottles and crown glass. Newcas- 
tle, glass bottles and crown glass, cloth, hardware, iron, 
ships, steam engines and machinery, red and white lead, 
cork cutting, and leather. Newsham, alkali. North 
Shields, chfun cables. Otterburn, woollens. Scotswood, 
near Lemington, coal tar, and here the first apparatus for 
extracting tar from pit coal was established by Lord 
Dundonald. Slaley, lead and shots. Sugley, iron. 
Wylam, lead and shots. 



19 



POPULATION IN ia31. 



Wards, 6; Boroughs,^; Market Toums, 13; Parishes, 

86; Parts of Parishes, 2. 
Houses. Inhabited, 35,926 ; Uninhabited, 1,509 ; Building, 

220. 
Inhabitants. Males, 106,147; Females, 116,765; total, 

222,912. 
Families. Employed in Agriculture, 10,127; in Trade, 

14,246; all other families, 23,991 ; total, 48,364. 
Baptisms in 1830. Males, 3,038; Females, 2,792 ; total, 

5,830. Annual average of 1821 to 1830, 5,402. 
Marriages y 1,517. Annual Average, 1,495. 
Burials. Males, 2,081: Females, 1,949: total, 4,030. 

Annual Average, 3,430. 

Places having not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 





Houses. 


Inhab. 




Hoaxes. 


lohnb. 


Nevcutle-upon- 






Cnwpea 


363 


2,081 


Tyne 


5,048 


42,760 


Wonler 


306 


1,926 


Tpemouth 


1,724 


10,182 


Lowick 


870 


1,864 


Berwick-upon- 






Hartley 


387 


1,850 


Tweed 


1,190 


8,920 


South Blyth and 






Alowick 


940 


6,788 


Newsham 


246 


1,769 


North Shields 


818 


6,744 


Chatton 


285 


1,632 


LongBeoton 
Hexham 


1,174 


6,613 


Belford 


230 


1,854 


848 


6,042 


Jesroood 


231 


1,393 


Allendale 


956 


5,540 


Corbridge 


248 


1,298 


Walls £nd 


984 


5,510 


Beoweil 


834 


1,278 


Byker 


835 


5,176 


Carham 


230 


1,174 


Chhrton 


6'36 


4,978 


East and West 






Morpeth 


560 


3,890 


Kenton 


217 


1,106 


Westgate 


427 


2,996 


Haltwhistle 


178 


1.018 


Ford 


417 


2,110 


Rothbury 


231 


1,014 


AmuaJ Value 


of Real Property, as assessed in 


Apritp 


1815, £1,240,594. 











20 



HISTORY. 

626. At Wall-towQ, Edwin, the first christian King of 
Northumbria, baptised by Paulinus the first Bishop of 
that kingdom. 

628. At Widdringpton, Cadwallon King of the Britons de- 
feated by Edwin King of Northumbria. 

635. At Dilston, King Cadwallon defeated and slain bj 
Oswald King of Northumbria. 

642. Bamborough castle successfully defended by the North- 
umbrians against Penda King of Mercia, who attempted 
to fire it. 

653. At Welton, Penda King of Mercia, and Sigebert King 
of Essex, baptised by Finian Bishop of Lindisfame, in 
the presence of Oswy King of Northumbria. 

705. In Bamborough castle, Osred' the young King of 
Northumbria besieged by the pretender Edulph, but in a 
sally made by Brithtric, Osred's general, Edulph was de- 
feated, taken prisoner, and beheaded. 

788. At East Chesters, Alfwald I. King of Northumbria 
assassinated. 

793. The Danes ravaged the coast. 

795. Tynemouth priory plundered by the Danes. 

800. Tynemouth plundered by the Danes. 

832. An army of pirates made an attempt to land at Tyne- 
mouth, but were routed and driven back to their ships. 

866. Through the ravages of Hungar and Hubba; Tyne- 
mouth monastery completely destroyed. 

876. Tynemouth ravaged by Halfden, the Danish king, 
and the whole kindom of Northumbria parcelled out 
among the Danes. 



HIBTORT. 21 

4. D. 

ttO. Gregory King of Scotland, sumamed the Great, took 
Berwick from the Danes and Picts, the former of whom 
he put to the Bword. 

938. At Brunanburgh (Broomridge or Brinkbum), the 
allied Scotch, Welsh, Irish, and Dano -Northumbrian 
army under Anlaff, totally defeated by Athelstan, when 
Constantine King of Scotland, six petty princes of Ireland 
and Wales, and twelve earls, were slain. 

993. Bamborough castle and Tynemouth priory nearly 
destroyed by the Danes. 

1015. Bamborough castle pillaged by the Danes. 

1048. At Carham, a decisive battle fought, in which the 
Scots were victorious. Aldhun Bishop of Durham died 
of a broken heart for the fate of St. Cuthbert's people. 

1068. Northumberland invaded, and Newcastle taken, by 
£dgar Etheling, heir to the crown of England, together 
with Malcolm l^ing of Scotland, and some Danish pirates. 
William I. in person encountered them, and beat them 
in Durham county. 

1070. William I. passed through Newcastle on his way to 
Scotland ; and again in 1072, when King Malcolm jnet 
him at Berwick and did him homage. , 

1072. At Newbume, Copsi Eiarl of Northumberland mur- 
dered by Osulph. 

1078. Malcolm King of Scots laid waste the county. 

1093. Alnwick successfully defended against Malcolm and 
his eldest son Edward, both of whom were surprised and 
slain by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland. 

1095. Tynemouth castle, under Robert de Mowbray, Earl 
of Northumberland (who had revolted in consequence of 
receiving no reward for his victory at Alnwick), after a 
siege of two months, taken by William Rufus : but the 
£arl escaped to Bamborough castle, which Rufus imme* 
diately invested, but being unable to take the place by 



22 COUNTY HISTORY— NOaTHUMBERLAND. 

A.D. 

liege, he commenced a blockade bj building a castle called 
**malvoi8in/'or "bad neighbour/' to intercept supplies 
from the surrounding country, when the Earl endeavour- 
ing to escape was taken prisoner at Tynemouth, and his 
wife surrendered Bamborough castle to the King on his 
threatening to put out Mowbray's eyes if she refused. 
The Earl was carried to Windsor castle, where he was im- 
prisoned for thirty years. 

1 135. Alnwick taken by David of Scotland. 

1137. David of Scotland attempted for three weeks to take 
Wark castle, but failed with disgrace. Stephen subse- 
quently advanced to Wark, forcing David out of the 
county, who, however, on the retirement of the former, 
destroyed Norham, and made a second unsuccessful at- 
tempt on Wark. After the defeat at the battle of the 
Standard, David resumed the siege, but after a defence 
of unequalled bravery, hardships, and privations, the gar- 
rison capitulated, and the castle was demolished. 

1 173. Harbottle castle taken by William King of Scodand, 
one of whose generals burnt Warkworth, and put the in- 
habitants to the sword without distinction. 

1174. Berwick burnt, and its inhabitants butchered, b^ 
Earl Duncan.— At the siege of Alnwick, William of 
Scotland defeated and taken prisoner. 

118S. At Brigham, William 11. King of Scotland, with 
many of his nobles and prelates, met Hugh Bishop of 
Durham, and rejected Henry the Second's demand of 
tenths as a tax for a crusade. 

1209. At Newcastle, John King of England and William 
King of Scotland, met to negotiate a peace in vain. 

1213. John marched through Newcastle on his route to 
Scotland. 

1215. Morpeth town burnt by its inhabitants in hatred to 
Kiug John. In this and the following year Northum- 



HISTORY. 23 

A. D. 

berland was ravaged : the castles of Alnwick, Berwick, 
Mitford, and Wark, destroyed by an army of Flemings 
under King John, in consequence of the Barons of this 

• county having done homage to Alexander King of Scot- 
land at Felton Hall. A meeting took place at Berwick 
of the Archbishop of York and the Bishop of Durham, 
to absolve from a sentence of excommunication Alexander 
the Scottish king, who attended in person. 

1236. At Newcastle Henry III. had a conference with Alex- 
ander of Scotland. 

1244. At Ponteland, peace concluded between Henry and 
Alexander, through the mediation of the Prior of Tyne- 
mouth. 

1249. Newcastle wholly destroyed by fire. 

1255. At Wark castle, Henry III. and his Queen Eleanor 
had an interview with their daughter Margaret, and her 
husband Alexander III. of Scotland. On her way south- 
ward, she stopt at Alnwick. 

1272. The Scots on June 12 swore fealty to Edward I. at 
Berwick. 

1278. Edward I. resided sometime at Tynemouth priory, 
and Dec. 5, visited fielsay, the seat of Chancellor Richard 
de Middleton. 

J29L At Berwick, August 2, the States of England and 
Scotland assembled by Edward I. to determine the suc- 
cession to. the throne uf Scotland, when they decided in 
favour of the claim of John Baliol against Robert Bruce. 

1292. At Newcastle, John Baliol King of Scotland did 
homage to Edward I. 

1295. Berwick, March 30, taken by Edward I. and 7,000 
Scots slain. In the town was a building called the Red 
Hall, which certain Flemings possessed by the tenure of 
defending it at all times against the King of England. 
Thirty of them maintained their ground, but perished by. 



24 COUNTY HISTORY — ^NORTHUMBERLAND. 

A.D. 

the place being fired. About the same time Carfaam 
abbey was burnt by Sir William Wallace. 

1296. At Berwick, August 24, an English Parliament 
assembled by Edward I. when the Scotch nobility did ho- 
mage to him. — Harbottle castle successfully defended 
against the Scots —Hexham priory burnt by the Scots.— 
Wark castle, soon after the destruction of the re-inforoe- 
ment sent by the King, taken possession of by Edward 
with his whole army, and here he celebrated Easter.— 
Corbridge burnt. 

1297. Berwick taken by Sir William Wallace and the Scots 

1298. Edward I. at Tynemouth. 

1299. Sir William Wallace assaulted Newcastle, fautwss 
repulsed. 

1302. On Red Rigs, near Yevering, 10,000 Scots, under 
Earl Douglas, defeated by Henry Lord Percy and Geoif e 
Earl of March. 

1303. The Queen resided at Tynemoutii whilst the King 
was in Scotland. 

1305. After the- execution of the brave Wallace, one half 
of his body was exposed on the bridge of Berwick. 

1306. Tynemouth priory ravaged. 

1307. At Berwick, the Countess Buchan, for* crowning 
Robert Bruoe at Scone, shut up by order of Edward I. in 
a wooden cage made in the shape of a crown, aiid exposed 
on the walls of the castle. She was thus confined for six 
years. 

1310. In Bamborough Castle, Edward II. sheltered his fa- 
Yourite Gaveston from the Barons, whilst he and his 
Queen Isabella wintered at Berwick. 

131 1. Corbridge burnt by the Scots. 

1312. Berwick in vain attempted by escalade in the night 
by Robert Bruoe and the Scots. 

1314. At Berwick, June 28, Edward II. issued a procla- 
mation informing his subjects of the loss of the reat seal 



HISTORY. 25 

A. D. 

at the battle of Bannockburn, iu Scotland, fought June 
25. — Harbottle castle, July, taken by the Scots. 

1315. The whole militia of England ordered to rendezvous 
at Newcastle. — The Scots attempted to take Berwick by 
surprise from the sea, but failed with loss. 

1316. Tynemouth priory plundered by the insurgents 
under Sir William Middleton and Walter de Selby, who 
were shortly afterwards, in the following year, taken pri- 
soners at Morpeth castle, sent to London, and hanged. 

1318. Berwick, through the treachery of its governor, 
Peter Spalding, taken by Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, 
after which, in 1319, it was besieged both by sea and land, 
by £dward II., but without success.— Harbottle, Mitford, 
and Wark castles demolished by the Scots. 

1322. At Tynemouth, the queen of Edward II. resided for 
some time. 

1323. At Newcastle, peace concluded with the Scots for 
thirteen years. 

1328. In Berwick church, Joan, sister of Edward III. was 
married to David son of Robert Bruce, King of Scotland. 

1333. Bamborough castle, in which was Philippa queen of 
Edward III. successfully defended against the Scots. — 
Berwick surrendered to Edward III. the day after his vic- 
tory at Halidon hill in Scotland. 

1334. At Newcastle, June 19, Edward Baliol, King of 
Scotland, did homage to Edward III. 

1335. Edward III. at Berwick-upon-Tweed. 

1336. Edward III. at Newcastle on his way to Scotland. 

1339. At Newcastle, a great part of the bridge swept away, 
and 120 persons drowned by a sudden flood. 

1340. Edward III. at Berwick with an army of 40,000 foot 
and 6,000 horse. 

1341. Newcastle successfully defended by Sir John NeviU 

against David King of Scotland, whose general, the Earl 

m 



26 COUNTY HISTORT— NORTHUMBERLAND. 

A. D. 

of Murray, was taken prisoner in a sally by the §farrison. 
From Wark castle, its goremor, Sir Edvfard Montagu, 
made a sally on the rear of the Scotch army, under King 
David, returning from the sack of Durham, when 200 
Scots were slun, and twelve horses laden with spoil taken 
by Sir Edward. To revenge this attack, David invested 
Wark castle, but was repulsed in two desperate assaults, 
the defenders being animated by the presence of the cele- 
brated Countess of Salisbury, to whom Edward I. perton- 
ally returned his thanks in this castle, where, according 
to some authors, he became enamoured of her, and in ho- 
nour of her, it has been commonly but erroneously re- 
ported, founded the Order of the Garter. Edward kept 
his festival of Easter here. 

1346 Hexham priory pillaged, and the surrounding coun- 
try devastated by David King of Scots, who halted here 
three days with an army of 40,000 men. — ^To Ogle castle, 
Oct. 17, John Oopeland conveyed his prisoner David 
King of Scotland, whom he had taken that day at the 
battle of Nmlle's Cross, in Durham. 

1353; Edward III. kept his Christmas at Newcastle. 

1355. Berwick town, November, surprized, and its gover- 
nor. Sir Alexander Ogle, slain by the Scots ; but the cas- 
tle bravely defended by the famous Sir John Copeland 
until relieved, and the town retaken by Edward III. who 
came from France for that purpose. 

1370. At Carham, Sir John Lilburn and his brother de- 
feated and taken prisoners by the Scots under Sir John 
Gordon. 

1377. Berwick castle surprised by seven Scotchmen, who 
held it for eight days against 10,000 men. 

1383. Wark besieged by the Scots. 

1384. Berwick treacherously delivered to the Scots by the 
Deputy-governor to the Earl of Northumberland ; hut 



HISTjOAT. 27 

A. D. 

the earl, by menaces and bribery, soon afterwards reco- 
vered it. — Ford castle demolished, and the country as faj:, 
as Newcastle laid waste by liie Soots. 

1388. At Otterburne, August 9, the English defeated, 
%500 killed and wounded, and their commander, Sir Ralph 
Percy (who was also wounded) and 1,000 men taken pri- 
soners by the Scots ; but their general, the brave Earl 
Douglas, was slain. This battle was commemorated in a 
song (preserved in " Percy's Reliques,") from which, with 
many variations from real history, the famous ballad of 
"Chevy Chase," eulogized by Sir Philip Sydney and 
Addison, was afterwards composed. 

1389. Tynemouth priory ravaged by the Scots. 

1400. At the Redeswire, Sir Robert Umfranville defeated 
the Scots. 

1402. At Humbleton, on Holy rood day, 1 0,000 Scots under 
Earl Douglas overthrown by Henry Lord Percy and 
George Eari of March. Six Scottish earls were made pri- 
soners. 

1^. Berwick castle, defended by the retainers of the Earl 
of Northumberland, surrendered to the forces of Henry 
IV. the garrison being intimidated by a cannon shot (the 
first ever fired in England) which demolished great part 
of a tower. 

141 4. At Yevering, the Scots, to the number it is said of 
4,000, defeated by Sir Robert Umfranville, Lord Warden 
of the Marches, who had ouly 140 spears and 300 bows. 

1417. The Lord Marchers assembled at Barmoor with 
100,000 men to punish the Scots for attacking a body of 
English near Roxburgh. 

1419. Wark castle taken, and the garrison butchered by 

f^ the Scots ; but shortly afterwards retaken by the English, 
who crept up a sewer from the Tweed into the kitchen 
^nd retaliated upon the garrison> 



28 COUNTY HIBTORT — ^NORTHUMBERLAND. 

A. D. 

1422. Berwick suooessfuUy defended against the Scots. 
1448. Alnwick nearly reduced to ashes hj the Scots. 

1460. Wark castle taken and demolished. 

1461. Berwick g^ranted hy Margaret of Anjou, queen of 
Henrj VI. to the Scots. Here she sought shelter after 
the battle of Towton. 

1463. At Berwick, landed from France Margaret queen of 
Henry VI. whence she moved to Bamborough castle, which 
she took, and proceeded to Hexham, near which place, on 
Lyvel's plain, June 24, she was defeated by John Nevill 
Lord Montague, brother of the *' King-making'' Earl of 
Warwick, when her General, the Duke of Somerset, with 
the Lords Ros and Hungerford, were taken prisoners, 
and she herself, with her son Prince Edward, narrowly 
escaped by flight through a forest, where they were at- 
tacked and plundered by banditti, but at length safely 
embarked on board a small vessel and found shelter in 
Flanders. In this battle about 2,100 men were slain ; the 
Duke of Somerset was beheaded at Hexham; and the 
victor obtained the title of Earl of Northumberland, 
which he afterwards resigned on being created Marquis of 
Montague. After this victory, Bamborough and Dun. 
stanbrough castles were taken from the Lancastrians hy 
the Earl of Warwick, who also besieged Alnwick ; hut 
the garrison, consisting of French troops, were rescued 
by an army of Scots under the Earl of Angus. — A few 
days before the battle of Hexham, a body of Lancastrians, 
on their way to join the Queen, were defeated at Hedge* 
ley moor, and Sir Ralph Percy slain, by Lord Montague. 

1480. Berwick besieged by the English, who were obliged 
to retire with disgrace. 

1482. Edward IV. in July, marshalled his army at Aln- 
wick.— In August, Berwick taken from the Scots by Ri- 
chard Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III., and 
ever after remained in the hands of the English. 



flI8T0R7. 29 

A D. 

1513. Etal castle taken by James IV. of Scotland, but a 
division of bis army was routed on Milfield plain by the 
men of Durham, under Sir William Bulmer; and soon 
afterwards, on Branxton Westfield, near Flodden hill, 
September 9, the Scotch army totally defeated by the Earl 
of Surrey, wben the King, the Archbishop of St. An- 
drew's, two Bishops, four Abbots, twelve Earls, and se- 
venteen Barons, with about 10,000 men, were slain. Of 
the English there fell only one man of rank. Sir Brian 
Tunstall, '* stainless knight,'' and about 2,000 men. This 
battle is admirably described by Sir Walter Scott. The 
staying of King James for several days at Ford castle, 
enamoured of the daughter of Sir William Heron, then a 
prisoner in Scotland, and desisting from all military ad- 
vances, contributed to his entire destruction at Flodden. 

1523. Wark castle, in November, successfully defended 
against the Scots and their French auxiliaries, commanded 
by the Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland. At this 
siege Buchanan the historian and poet was present 

1549. The Scotch under the French General D Esse, laid 
the greatest part of Ford castle in ashes. 

^558. At Haltwell Sweire, near Broombridge, Sir Henry 
Percy defeated by the Scots under the Earl of Bothwell, 
who took above 120 prisoners. — Another engagement at 
Orindon with similar results. 

1590. In this and several subsequent years, several priests 
were executed for their religious opinions. 

1603. On his way to take possession of the English throne, 
James entered Berwick on the 6th of April, was at Wid- 
drington on the 8th, and arrived at Newcastle on the 9th. 

^617. James I. at Newcastle April 23. 

1633. Charles I. at Newcastle June 3, on his way to be 
crowned in Scotland; on the 5th at Tyneinouth; and a 
f«w days after at Berwick. 



30 OOUNTY HI8TORT«*«ORTHUMBERLAND 

A. D. 

1636. At Newcaatk, from May 7 to December 31, upvards 
of 5,030 persons died of tke plague. 

1639. Charles remained at Newcastle from May 5 to 22. 
On the 28th, the Kin^ encamped near Berwick, which he 
left, after the settlement of peace, on June 22, and dis- 
missed his army on the 24th. 

1640. At Newbume, August IS, the royal army under 
Lord Conway defeated by General Leslie and the Scots 
Covenanters, who took possession on the following day of 
Newcastle. 

1641. In August, the Scottish army having received the 
sum of £6,000 for disbanding, quitted Newcastle ; and 
on the 10th Charles passed through it on his way to, and 
on November 19, on his return from Scotland. 

1643. Coquet kland taken by the Scots. 

1644. Tynemouth castle, with thirty-eight pieces of ord- 
nance, taken by General Levin and the Scots, October 27. 
•— NewoaatLo, under its gallant mayor Sir John Morlej, 
succesafuUy defended, in a tatge of three weeks in F^ra- 
ary, against the Soots ; but in a second siege, after a veiy 
spirited defence from August 14 to October 22, it surren- 
dered to the Earl of Callender and General Levin. 

1646. Charles, having thrown himself under the protection 
of the Scottish army, made an entry into Newcastle on 
May 6. 

1646. Tynemouth castle, on its governor Colonel Henry 
Lilbum declaring for the King, taken by assault by Sir 
Arthur Hazelrigge, and Lilburn beheaded.^-^Cromwell 
took Berwick, and returned to Newcastle in October, 
where he stayed three days. 

1651. Cromwell and his army of nine regiments of foet 
were at Witton castle in the summer. 

1715. At Greenrigs, October 6, the friends of the Stuarts 
assembled under Mr. Thomas Foster, M.P. for the CoUntf, 



HISTORY. 31 

A. D. 

and on Waterfalls hill were joined by the Earl of Der- 
wentwater; after which they proceeded to Rothbury. 
October 7, they went to Warkworth, where their chaplain 
on Sunday the 9th prayed for James III. On the 10th 
they passed through Alnwick to Morpeth, where their 
number was about 300 horse, but they would not enter- 
tain any foot, great numbers of which offered themselves. 
Finding the gates of Newcastle shut agadnst them» they 
marched to Hexham, where they proclaimed James III. 
and on the 19th, returned to Rothbury, and joined the 
Scots under Viscount Kenmure; after which, on tiie 20th, 
they went to Wooler, and thence to Kelso in Scotland. 

1740. From June 9 to the end of July, Newcastle was in a 
riotous state owing to the scarcity of grain. These riots 
pat the corporation to an expense of £4,000. 

1745. At Felton, the Duke of Cumberland and the army 
entertained by Mr. Widdington, a catholic. 

1761. At Hexham, March 9, a large concourse of people 
assembled to oppose the ballot for the militia, when En- 
sign Hart, and a private of the North York militia, being 
killed, the Magistrates ordered the soldiery to firej when 
45 of the rioters were slain, and 300 wounded. 

1771. September 7» the Tyne rose six feet higher than bad 
been known for some years, and inundated Newcastle and 
the whole of its banks, doing a good deal of injury. The 
bridge was washed away, and many persons drowned. 
The rivers Wear, Tees, and Eden also overflowed. 

1815. Another great flood of the Tyne, similar to that of 
the year 1771> and almost as disastrous. 



32 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Acca, St. Bishop of Hexham, theological writer (died 740). 
Akenfiide, Mark, physician, and author, besides professional 

works, of "The Pleasures of Imagination/' and other 

poems, Newcastle, 1721 (died 1770). 
Alnwick, Martin of, franciscan philosopher and divine, Aln- 
wick. 

' l^lliam. Bishop of Norwich in 1426, and Lincoln 

in 1435, Keeper of the Privy Seal, Alnwick. 
Askew, Anthony, greek scholar, collector, Newcastle*, 1722 

(died 1774). 
Astell, Mary, learned and pious author, Newcastle, 1668 

(died 1731). 
Bate, John, carmelite, ereek scholar, Hexham (died 1429). 
Beverley, St. John of. Archbishop of York, Harpham, about 

640 (died 721). 
Bewick, John, engraver on wood, Ovingham, 1760 (died 

1795). 
Thomas, brother of John, engraver on wood, Qicr- 

rybum near Ovingham, 1753 (died 1828). 
Brand, John, divine, antiquary, historian of his native town, 

Newcastle, 1743 (died 1806). 
Brown, Dr. John, divine, solaier, poet, dramatist, musician, 

painter, and author, Rothbury, 1715 (died 1766). 
— — Lancelot, " Capability Brown,'' landscape gardener 

and horticulturist, Kirkharle, 1716 (died 1773). 
Stephen, lord mayor of London in 1438, benefactor, 

Newcastle. 
Bulmer, William, correct and beautiful typographer, New- 
castle, 1757 (died 1830). 
Burdon, William, political and miscellaneous writer, New- 

castie, 1764 (died 1818). 

* Claimed also by Kendal in Westmoreland. 



EMINENT NATIVES. 33 

Carr, William, blacksmith, strong man, six feet four inches 
hi^h, weighed twenty-four stone, could carry an anchor 
weighing half a ton. Hartley Old Engine, 1756. 

Cary, Valentine, Bishop of 'Exeter in 1621, Dean of St. 
Paul's, and Master of Christ College, Cambridge, Berwick 
(died 1626). 

Chambers, Sir Robert, chief justice in the East Indies, New- 
castle, 1737 (died 1803). 

Charlton, Lionel, mathematician, author of the History of 
Whitby, Upper Stobbilee in Bellingham, 1720 (died 1785). 

Clennell, Luke, artist, Ulgham. 

Collingwood, Cuthbert, Admiral Lord, victor at Trafalgar, 
Newcastle, 1749 (died 1810). 

— — Thomas, physician, agriculturist, medical author, 
dramatist, and writer of sermons, Bates Cross, near Ber- 
wick, 1751 (died 1822). 

Cook, Anthony, mathematician, Woolley (died there 1824). 

Copeland, Sir John, took David King of Scotland prisoner 
in 1347. 

Coughran, George, mathematidan, compiler of the "Ladies 
Diary,'' "a prodigy of genius," Wreighill, 1752 (died 
1774, aged 21). 

Delaval, Admiral George, North Dissington (died 1723) 

Sir Ralph, admirau at the battle of La Hogue, North 

Dissington (died 1707)* 

Duns, John, "Duns Scotus," "Doctor Subtilis," frandscan 
friar, Dunstan near Alnwick (died 1308). 

Dynley, John, scholar, Newcastle (flourished 14.50). 

Ebba, St. prioress of Coldingham, murdered by the Danes 
in 630. 

Elstob, Elizabeth, saxonist, Newcastle, 1683 (died 1756). 

William, brother of Elizabeth, divine, saxonist, 

Newcastle, 1673 (died 1714). 

Fenwick, Sir John, conspirator against William III. 1645. 

Fresburn, Ralph, founder of the first house of Carmelites in 
England (died 1274). 

Gibson, Thomas, a printer, author of works in nhysics, divi- 
nity, history, and botanv, Morpeth (died 1562). 

Grey, Sir Charles, first Earl Grey, warrior, father of the 
present Earl, Howick, 1729(died 1807). 

Sir John, K.G. first Eari of Tankerville, Horton 

(flourished in the time of Henry V.) 



34 COUNTY HISTORY — ^NORTHUMBERLAND. 

Grey, Ricfaard« D.D. divine, learned and ineeniom author, 
Newcastle, 1694 (died 1771). 

Hall, John,juAtice, adherent of the StusirtB, Otterbum, IG72. 

Handjside, •— ^— enamel pfdnter, Wooller (living 1764). 

— -- — General, whose regiment is noticed hj Uncle Toby 
in Tristram Shandy, Harehaugh. 

Hewson, William, anatomist, experimentalist, and author, 
Hexham, 1739 (died in 1774 from a wound indiBsection). 

Hexham, John de, prior of Hexham, historian, Hexhan 
(flourished 11.54V 

Richard de, prior of Hexham, historian , Hexhan 

rdied 1190). 

Holdsworth, or Oldisworth, Richard, learned and loyal dean 
of Worcester, defender of episcopacy, Newcastle, 1590 
(died 1650). 

Horsley, John, dissenting divine, author of " Britannia Ro- 
mana," Morneth, 1685 (died 1731). 

Hutton, Dr. Charies, aelf-taught mathematidan, Tolumi- | 
nous author, Newcastle, 173/ (died 1823). j 

Johnson, Robert, punter and engraver of great promise, 
Shotley (died 1796> aged 25). I 

Knott, Edward, (whose true name was Matthias Wilson, , 
but who also took that of Nicholas Smith) Jesuit, oppo- 
nent of Chillingworth, P^sworth, 1580 (died 1656). 

Lennox, Margaret Countess of, dauehter of the Earl of i 
Angus, andlilargaret Queen of Scotland, Harbottle, 1518. ] 

March, John, learned and pious vicar of Newcastle, author, 
Newcastle (died 1692). 

Mitford, John, author and song-writer, &c. of mat talent, 
but greater improvidence, Mitford Castle (died 1831). 

Morrison, Robert, D.D. Chinese missionary, translator of 
the Scriptures into Chinese, and some of the native litera- 
ture into english, author of a dictionary and grammar of 
the Chinese, &c. Winyates, 1782 (died 1834). 

^esbitt, John, dissenter, author of "Marks of Cadency,'* 
1550. 

Newcastle, Hugh of, defender of Duns Scotus agunst 
Aquinas, Newcastle. 

Ogle, Sir Chaloner, admiral, Kirkley, 1680 (died 1750). 

Pickering, George, poet, Simonburn, 1758. 

Pringle, James, mathematician and linguist, North Shiel 
(died 1824, aged 71). 



JBMINRNT NATIVES. 35 

Richardson, Josepk, lawyer and poet, Hexham, 1774 (died 
1803). 

William, aatiquary, heaefactor, and poet, little 

Hark, 1759 (died 1824). 

Ridley, Nicholas, Bishop of Rochester in 1547 and London 
in 1550, Master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, classical 
and theological scholar, Willimoteewick, 1500 (martyred 
1555). 

Rotheram, John, pious divine and author, Haydon Bridee, 
1725 (died 1789). 

Rush worth, John, lawyer, republican M P. editor of " His- 
torical Collections," &c. 1607 (died 1690). 

Scott, John, engraver of animals, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
(died 1827). 

Spence, Thomas, politician, author of a plan to remove pau- 
perism, Newcastle (died 1814). 

Stackhouse, Thomas, learned and laborious divine and au« 
thor, 1680 (died 1752). 

Stevenson, William, author on commerce and agriculture, 
Berwick, 1772 (died 1829). 

Stockdale, Percival, soldier, poet, and divine, Branxton, 
1736 (died 1811). 

Swinhoe, Gilbert, author of '< The unhappy fair Irene," a 
tragedy, published in 1658. 

Thornton, Koger, bene&ctor to Newcastle, Thornton (died 
1429). 

Turner, William, divine, physician, and naturalist, author 
of Herbal, ''the venerable father of English botany," 
Morpeth (died 1568). 

Tweddell, John, extensive traveller, scholar, poet, and ac- 
complished gentleman, Threepwood, 1769 (died 1799). 

Tynemouth, John of, author of ** Sanctilogium Servorum 



Dei" (flourished 1336). 

Umfranville, Sir Robert, K.G. Vice Admiral of England, 
Prudhoe (slain 1419). 

Walker, George, author of" Doctrine of the Sphere," New- 
castle, 1734. 

WalHs, John, historian of the County, Whitley in Kirk- 
haugh, 1714 (died 1793). 

Whittle, Thomas, eccentric and humble wit and comic poet, 
(died at Hartbum 1731). 



36 COUNTY HISTORY — NORTHUMBERLAND. 

Widdrington, Sir Thomag, Lord Chief Baron of the Exche- 
quer in the 17th century, Cheesehume Grange. 

Sir William, created Lord Widdrington in 1644, 

royalist and gallant officer (slain in the fight at Wigan, 
in Lancashire, in 1651). 

Woodlark, Robert, founder of Catherine Hall, Cambridge, 
Wakerley (died 1490). 

Yarrow, John, born at Mason Dinnington, and died in 1814, 
aged 110 years. 



37 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

This County is remarkable for the longevity of its inha- 
bitants, many of them attaining a very great age. Some 
instances are given under their localities. 

The history of Alnwick is the history of the noble and 
g^allant house of Percy. — Here died in 1784, aged 115, Hugh 
Rowland Hughes. 

Barmoor Castle was for some time in the possession of 
Colonel Bladon, translator of Csesar's Commentaries. 

Benwell Hall was the property of the noted Andrew 
Robinson Stoney Bowes, whose cruelties to his wives, espe- 
cially to his second, the Countess of Strathmore, and her 
family, besides other, excesses, are so well known. This 
villain's death took place in 1810. — Benwell was probably 
the first place were coals were wrought in England. 

The guildhall books of Berwick, under the date 1649 
ittate that the Corporation " sent for the man which trieth 
the witches in Scotland.''— Here died, in 1770, aged 108, 
Mr. Palmer, a gunner. 

At Black Callerton, near Newcastle, died December 
31, 17G8, aged 113 years, Cicely Fenwick. 

From the river Brennich was derived the name of the 
province of Bemicia, which with Deira formed the kingdom 
of Northunibria. On the Brennich is the Linhope Spout 
cataract, with a fall of 56 feet. 

At Cambo school Lancelot Brown, ** Capability Brown,'' 
the eminent landscape gardener, was educated. 

At Cullbrcoats died in December 1807, John Ramsitv. 



38 COUNTY HISTORT-^NORTHUMBERLAND. 

mariner, aged 115. He was at the taking of Gibraltar in 
1704. 

Df L8T0N Hall was the reudenoe of James Ratcliffe, Earl 
of Derwentwater, who was beheaded on Tower Hill for his 
adherence to the Stuarts, February 24, 1717* The hall is 
now a ruin, and his large estates, now said to be of the value 
of £60,000 per annum, were granted by Act of Parliament 
to Greenwich hospital. 

At Eacrwick the family of Akenside the poet had lands 
for many generations. — The late Ralph Spearman, esq. of 
this place is said to have been the "Monkbarns"' of Sir Wsdter 
Scott's *' Antiquary."' ** He was almost the sole depository 
of a vast mass of oral and popular tradition." He died in 
1823, aged 74, and made Mr. Hunter, his steward, his heir, 
being determined, as he had no children, " to follow the ex- 
ample of Abraham, and to consider his Eleazar as heir to 
all his house/' 

East Dbnton was the residence of Edward Montague, 
esquire, whose wife, a daughter of Matthew Robinson, esq. 
wrote an " Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shaks- 
pearcr'' in answer to the objections of Voltaire. She died 
in 1800, aged 80. By her marriage she became first cousin 
to the celebrated Lady Mary Montague. 

Elsdon was the living for many years of the Rev. Louis 
Dutens or Duchillon, historiographer to the king, a success- 
ful french adventurer who spoke but poor english, and died 
in 1812, aged 83. 

At Flodden, near to the highest part of the memorable 
hill, is a natural rock, known as ** the King^s Chair," from 
which James might have enjoyed a good view of his own 
army, and of the movements of the English. 

At Hartley died July 15, 1817* aged 106, Margaret 
Lowerey. 

In the beautiful Church of Hexham are the tombs of 



MIS€ELLAKB0tI8 OBSERTJkTiOKB. 39 

Alfwald King of Northumberland 788, and its prior Ri- 
chard of Hexham, historian, 1190. The parish, containing 
eight townships, ranked as a county palatine till 33 Henry 
VilL-^f the Grammar school was master, the learned 
Thomas Stackhouse. 

HowicK was the rectory of Dr. Isaac Basire, royalist, and 
traveller in Syria and Palestine as a propagator of the doc- 
trines of the Church of England. He died in 1676. 

HcLNB was one of the first houses of Carmelites or white 
friars in this kingdom. John Bale, the biographer, resided 
and composed his works here. 

Lbsbdry and Lokg Hougrton were the Vicarages of 
Perdval Stockdale, soldier, poet, and dirine, the *' Belfield*" 
of Miss Bumey's ''Cecilia.*' — At Lesbury died, December 
31, 1756, Mary Bennett, aged 110. 

At LiNMOUTH, August 8, 1822, a large whale of the sper- 
maceti kind, named by naturalists the Macrocephalus or 
Blant-headed Cachelot, was taken on the shore. It was 61 
ibet long, 37 feet 4 inches in circumference, and 12 feet 
in heiglkt* 

At LowiCK, about 1822, died Andrew Carr, of Braken- 
side, aged 107* 

At LoNO Bbnton died, in December 1753, aged 107> 
Margaret Rochester, who had lived all her life in the village. 

At MoRpBTH, Akenside wrote the first copy of his " Plea- 
sures of Imagination : "" 

ye Northumbrian shades, which overiook 
The rocky pavement and the mossy falls 
Of solitary Wans-beck, limpid stream ; 
How gladly I recall your well-known seats, 
Belov'dof old, and that delightful time 
When, all alone, for many a summer's day 

1 wandered through your calm recesses, led 
In silence by some powerful hand unseen. 



40 COUNTY HISTORY — ^NOBTHUMBBRLAND. 

— Here, in 1732, died John Horslej, author of "Britannia 
Romana/' who was for many years minister of a dissenting 
congregation at that place. 

At Nbwburoh, in 1763, died Alice Wilson, aged 111 ; 
and at the time of her death was living a woman aged 115, 
who rode abroad and practised midwifery. 

At Nbwcastlb, at the Grey Friars, the very learned 
Duns Scotus took the order of St. Francis. — The Vicarage 
was held by the orientalist Joseph Dacre Carlyle for the three 
years before his death in 1804. — In St. Nicholas' Church 
was buried its lecturer John Rowlet, author of " l*he Chris- 
tian Monitor,'" who died 1686. Here is also a monument 
by Flaxman for the Rev. Hugh Moises, master of the free 
school, who died in 1806. It is the tribute of his pupils, and 
the epitaph was from the pen of the late Lord Stowell. In 
the old library, is tbe bible of Hexham priory, a splendidly 
illuminated MS. about 600 years old. — In St. John's church 
is the monument of John Cunningham, pastoral poet, 1773' 
— Of the Free School were masters, Richard Dawes, author 
of '^Miscellanea Critica,'' and Hugh Moises, previously 
mentioned ; and here were educated, the martyr Bishop 
Ridley, Horsley the Roman antiquary, Akenside the poet, 
the late Admiral Lord Collingwood, the present Lord EUdOn, 
and his brother the late Lord Stowell. — In this town died, 
in 1744, Adam Tumbull, keelman, aged 112; in 1764, 
Ralph Hart, aged 115; in 1766, Roger Dove and Elizabeth 
his wife, whose united ages were 202; in 1777* Anne Fors- 
ter, aged 123; in 1808, Mrs. Dorothy TurnbuU, aged 107; 
and in 1810, aged 111, Thomas Robinson, who recovered 
from a broken thigh when upwards of 100 years of age. — 
Anderson Place was the abode of Charles 1. when in capti- 
vity with the Scots, at which time one of their ministers after 
his sermon gave out the 52d Psalm, which begins. 
Why dost thou, tyrant, boast thyself, 
Thy wicked works to praise; 



MISCELLANEOUS OiTSERVATIONS. 41 ' 

when his Majesty stood up and called for the 56th Psalin, 
hegfinning. 

Have mercy, Lord, on me I pray, 
For man would me devour, 
which the congregation, with good feeling, immediately sang; 
At Ogle, in 1766, died Matthew Richardson, aged 111. 
At OviNGTON died, January 18, 1756, Isabella Simpson, 
aged 109. 

At Plesset died, in April 1817, aged 106, Margaret 
Stafford. 

At RoTHBURY died, nearly a hundred years old, Bernard 
Rumney, a musician, author of the ballad of '*£cky's Mare."' 
<^Here died in 1830, aged 109, Tibby Allan, widow of the 
notorious Northumberland piper Jemmy Allan, who termi- 
nated a life of singular adventure, vicissitude, and crime, in 
Durham gaol about 20 years previous. 

Sbaton Delaval was the work of Sir John Vanbrugh. 
The ceiling of the saloon was executed by the famous 
Italian Vercelli. 

SiMONBURN was the largest, wildest, and most unpro- 
ductive parish in the diocese of Durham. It was thirty-two 
miles long, but five parishes have been taken out of it. 
It was the Rectory of Dr. John Scott, eloquent preacher, 
and author of the letters signed *' Anti-Sejanus,"' who died 
in 1814, aged 81. WaUis, the historian of Northumberland, 
was Curate here for several years. 

Twizle House has an extensive and valuable museum of 
stuffed birds, and other objects of natural history. 

At Tynemouth Priory flourished John Whethamstede, 
learned and voluminous writer ; and John of Tynemouth, 
sacred biographer. Here had sepulture Oswyn the martyred 
King of Northumbria, its patron saint, 652 ; Malcolm King 
of Scotland, and his son Prince Edward, slain ^t Alnwick, 
1093. 



42 COUNTY HISTORY — NORTHUMBBRLAND. 

At Wark WORTH, John Harding, the metrical chronicler, 
was Constable to Sir Robert Umfrannlle. — The hermitage, 
the best preserved and most entire work of its kind in the 
kioffdom, has three apartments cut out of the rock on the 
north bank of the Coquet, and is described by Dr. Percy, 
Bishop of Dromore, in his pleasing ballad of " The Hermit 
of Warkworth.*'— Here was buried about 1744, John Com* 
mon, aged 115, who a few days before his death was able to 
read a printed paper some distance off without glasses. His 
brother Peter died at Rugley, aged 133, and another brother 
^rhomas lived to above 110, and died at Dunshaugh. This 
family, of which representatives are still living at Denwick, 
Sic, have been for several centuries ^remarkable for stature, 
strength, longevity, and talent. In 1818, Mr. John Com- 
mon received a gold medal from the Society of Arts for an 
improved self-adjusting drill. 

At Whitley died, in 1814, aged 108, Eleanor Gibson. 

At WhaIiTON died in November 1766, Margaret Bcker- 
in^9 ftgcd 100. 



43 



Lisi of H^orkt eonsuHetL 

1. The natural history and antiqaities of Northumberland, &c. 

By John Wallis, A.M.— 2 toIs. 4to, 1769. 

2. A view of Northomberland, By W. Hutchinion. — 2 toIi. 4to, 

1778. 

3. A historical and descriptive view of the county of Northamber- 

land. — 2 vols. 8vo, 1811. 

4. Beauties of England and Wales, vol. xii. By Rev. J. Hodgson 
and Mr. F. C. Laird.— 8vo. 

5. An historical, topographical, and descriptive view of the couuty 
of JNorthumberlandy &c. By^E. Mackenzie. — 2 vols. 4 to, 2d 
edit. 1825. 

6*. A history of Northumberland. By Rev. J. Hodgson. — 4to, in 
three parts; part 2, vols. i. and iu 1827-32. 

7. Local Records^ or historical register of remarkable events which 
have occurred in Northumberland and Durham. By John 
Bykes. — 2 vols. 8vo, 1833. 

8. Chorographia : or a survey of Newcastle 'upon-Tine. By Wil- 
liam Grey.^>4to, 1649. 

9. The history and antiquities of the town and couaty of the towu 

of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. By Jolin Brand, M.A. — 2 vols. 4to, 
1789. 



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WESTMORLAND. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Boundaries, North, Durham and Cumberland : East, 
Yorkshire and Durham : South, Lancashire and York- 
shire: West, Cumberland and Lancashire. 

Greatest length, 40; breadth, 32; square, 763 miles; 
statute acres, 487>680. 

Province, York. Dioceses, Carlisle and Chester. The 
Deanery of Appleby is in the diocese of Carlisle ; and 
those of Kendal and Kirkby Lonsdale in that of Chester. 

Circuit, Northern. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Brigantes, and Voluntii, and Sistuntii. 
Encampments, Haberwain; Milbourne, called Green 
castle ; Pendragon Castle, one opposite to, on the banks 
of the Eden ; Sandford, two, small, and near them was 
formerly a druidical circle of stones. Earthworks^ 
Eamont, a curious deep circle, called Arthur's Round 
Table ; Peohurroek. Remains, Gamelands, near Orton, 
a tumulus nearly 100 yards in circumference, and three 
yards in height in the middle, and composed of stones 
thrown loosely together ; Penhurrock, a tumulus of a 
heap of stones ; Sandford, near Appleby, three tumuli, 
one 91 paces in circumference, opened 1766, and produc- 
ing an urn, and remains of bones, ashes, and arms. 

Druidical Remains, Dunmelwrays, near Ambleside, a heap 
of stone 750 feet above the level of the sea ; Ellerbeck, 
called Cock Stones ; Helton Cop stone, and the DNmid^s 
cross ; Mayborough, at Eamont Bridge, v^y remark^le 
circle ; Moorduvvock; Oddendale^ exftctly half^ihe size 
of Stonehenge ; near Pooley Bridge, called the White 
Raise ; near Rothay Bridge, a circle ; Shap, oalldd 
Karl Lofts, two lines of huge obelisks of unhewn granite, 
a mile and a half in length, and between 20 to 30 yards in 
breadth, having at the south end a drcle of similar stQnes, 
18 feet in diameter, and near the north end a square {ilot 
of stones, partly covered with earth : some of the stones in 
each line are three or four yards in diameter ; White 
Raise> a large £airn on Ralphland, near Tailbert. 



ANTIBNT STATB AND REMAINS. 3 

Roman Province, Maxima Cffisarienais. Stations, Gallacum, 
Ambleside ; Brovonacis, Brough or Kirkbjthore ; Bro- 
▼acum or Brovoniacum, Brougham; Concangium, Wa- 
tercrook near Nailand; Castlehows, in Borrowdale, 
strongly walled ; Voreda, Whelp castle. Encampments, 
Castlehows, Borrowdale, in the parish of Orton ; Castle- 
steads and Conejbeds^ near Natland, exploratory camps to 
Watercrook ; between Crackenihorpe and Crossfell, are 
several, one dOO yards long and 15Q broad ; Haberwain, 
opposite to the British encampment; Muden Castle, 
Sandford, two ; Watercrook, the station. Earthworks, 
Crawdandale Wath, mounds of earth and ditches; 
Eamont Bridge, amphitheatre, called King Arthur's 
ronnd table, respected when the common was inclosed in 
1815. Temple, at Levins, in the parish of Heversham, 
supposed of Diana. Remains discovered, at Ambleside, 
remains of a bridge ; Appleby, inscriptions ; Barton, 
two urns found in a cairn ; Brough, brooches, jewellers' 
working tools, urn of coins, &c.; Brougham, coins, 
altars ; Crackenthorpe ; Crawdundale Wath, inscrip- 
tion ; Kirkby Thore, altars, walls, urns, sandals, and the 
cusp of a spear ; MacfaePs Bank near Appleby, urns with 
burnt bones ; Milbum, altar ; Watercrook, coins, urns, 
inscribed stones, and altars. Roads, the Maiden Way 
crosses the moors at Crackenthorpe. Watling Street, 
from Stanemoor, by Brough, to Penrith. 

Sason Oetarehy, Northumbria. 

Abbeys, Preston Patrick, founded in 1119 by Thomas, son 
of Gospatric, removed to Shap by the founder about 1 150, 
where the great tower of the church and a beautiful ruin 
remain. 



4 COVKTY HISTORY — ^WttTMORLAKD. 

Priory. BatUeburg^h, in Applebv, founded in 1281, by tile 
Lords Clifford, Percj, and Vescy. 

Friary. Appleby, Wliite, founded in 1281. 

Hotpitals. Appleby; Brough, founded by Jobn Bruns- 
kill in the 16th century ; Kirkby, ante Henry 11. 

Ckurcket, Asby, considerably diminished by repairs; 
Askham, enumerated by Grose among the remarkable 
edifices of the county ; Barton ; Brough ; Crosby Ra- 
vensworth, founded by Torphin de Alverstain, in the 
time of Henry I. exhibits curious specimens of architec- 
ture; Kendal; Kirbythore, very antient; Kirkby 
Lonsdale, 120 feet long and 102 broad ; Kirkby Stephen ; 
Sizergh, in ruins ; Warcop, dedicated to St. C'Olumbus, 
an apostle of the Picts. 

Chapeli, Appleby, in ruins in 1482, afterwards converted 
into the county gaol ; Applethwaite, on St. Catharine^s 
brow; Betham; Brougham; Bumeshead; Cracken- 
thorpe ; Crosthwaite; Orasmere; Kendal, were one in 
Chapel lane, another on Chapel hill, St. Anne's, near 
Docwra hall, and a third at Stammongate bridge; 
Kentmere; Milbourne, in which are the tombs of the* 
Sandfords; Natland; Newbiggen; Patterdale, dedi« 
cated to St. Patrick ; Skelsraergh ; Stiunton, founded in 
the time of Richard I. by Anselm de Fumess, son of 
the first Michael le Fleming ; Staveley, handsome steeple ; 
Temple Sowerby. 

^SUme PulpiU Brough, cut out of one entire stone. 
Cuttles. Appleby, the greatest part of the present one was 



iLNTIENT 8TATB AND REMAINS. 5 

erected by Thomas Lord Clifford, in the time of Henry 
VI. ; Betbam ; Brough, built before the time of Wil- 
liam I.^ Brougham, at the confluencie of the Eamont 
and Lowther rivers, majestic ruin of Norman architec- 
ture, the keep erroneously supposed by Grose to be Ro- 
man ; Buley, belonged to the Viteriponts and Bishops 
of Carlisle, now a farm house ; Hartley, scarce a vestige 
remains ; Haverback ; Howgill ; Kendal, four broken 
towers and part of the out«r wall still remain ; Pendra- 
gon, at Mallerstang, erection attributed to Utter Pen- 
dragon, the fabled builder of Stonehenge, who is said to 
have been poisoned in 515, some ruins of a square tower ; 
Warcop, long since disappeared. 

Mimsions. Asfctam Hall, now the rectory house of Low- 
ther, an oblong turreted building, enlarged in 1574; 
Breeks Hall, now occupied by a farmer; Calgarth, the 
Old Hall ; Clifton Hall, turreted, a farm house ; Great 
Ormside Hall, an old tower building, now occupied by a 
farmer; Kentmere Hall; Leven's Hall, of the time 
of Henry VHI.; Preston Hall, a farm house; Rosgill 
Hall, now a farm house, but the remains show its former 
importance; Rydal, the Old Hall, in ruins; Sizergh, 
the seat of the Stricklands, a very interesting specimen of 
early domestic architecture ; Sockbridge Hall, quadran- 
gular with a small tower, a farm house ; Ubarrow Hall, 
with a tower, now a farm house ; Yanworth, quadran- 
gular, like a small castle. 



6 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers. Barrow ; Betha or Bela ; Brathay, issuing from 
Langdale ; Eamont, from the Ullawater to the Eden ; 
Eden, one of the most considerable in the oortli of 
Eni^iand, rises in Kirkby Stephen parish, flows northward 
through the whole of Westmorland, receiving manj 
streams, and goes into Cumberland ; Helle-beck; Hunna; 
Kent, rises in Kentssere, receives the Sprint from Long- 
sleddale, the Mint from Baanisdale, and the Bela near 
Milnthorp, and goes to the sea over the sands of More- 
combe baj; Lowther, from the moors north of Wet- 
sleddale to the Eamont ; Lune or Lion, formed hy two 
rivulets uniting at Tebaj, flows by Kirkby Lonsdale to 
Lancaster; Lyvennate, has its source at Black Dub, 
in Crosby Gill; Mint; Rothay, has its source in 
in Orasmere ; Rother, rises in Ravenstonedale ; Sled- 
dale ; Sprint ; Tees, rises in the East Ward, enters into 
Durham at the sublime cataract of Caldron Snout; 
Underbarrow ; Winster, rises in Clay borrow heath, and 
forms the boundary between Westmorland and Lanca- 
shire. 

Inland JVavigation* This County has little or no advan- 
tage from navigable rivers, but the Lancaster and Kendal 
canal opens an inland water communication to nearly all 
the principal towns in England : its act was obtained in 
1792, was opened in 1819, is in length 76 miles, and has a 
large reservoir near Killington of 150 acres. Wigan at 
Kendal canal. 

Lakes, Ais water ; Angle tarn, about five acres of watei 



PRE8SNT STATS AND APFBARANCE. 7 

Blea tarn ; Windermere, the residence of Wordsworth *s 
hermit; Broth^'s or Broader water, very small, but 
enchanting and sublime scenery; Deroke water, near 
Ravenglass, and connected with the river £sk, half a mile 
in length, with several tarns in its district, but seldom 
visited; Elter water, nearly a mile long, divided into 
three parts, and is a tributary stream to Windermere; 
Grasmere, near Rydal water, about one mile long, its 
scenery bold and picturesque, being encircled by moun- 
tains ; Grisedale tarn ; Hawes water, three miles long and 
a half broad ; Kentmere, small, fed by ihe river Kent ; 
Keppel Cove tarn ; Little Langdale tarn, Windermere, 
swampy, and not often visited ; Loughrigg tarn, Winder- 
mere, a circular area of 12 acres ; Red tarn, a mile long, 
of a brownish red ; Rydal water, in the vale of Grasmere, 
near Ambleside, half a mile long ; Skeggles tarn, Long- 
sleddale; Stickle tarn, Langdale Pikes, Windermere, 
1700 feet above the sea, and has a foaming cataract; 
Sunbiggin tarn; Small Water tarn, near Wastdale; 
UUswater, partly in Cumberland, nine miles in length 
and nearly three quarters in breadth ; Wast water, 
near Ravenglass, 3 miles long, half a mile broad, and 45 
fatiioms deep, being 15 fathoms below the level of the sea, 
and has never been known tp freeze ; Windermere, in 
which are thirteen islands, is the most •capacious and ex- 
' tensive of all the English lakes, is above twelve miles in 
length and one in breadth, and its greatest depth is forty 
£itiioms; Winfell tarn. 

Smtnenceg and Fiews. Ambleside, commands charming 
prospects ; the high land about Askham affords a most 
delightful and extensive prospect ; Bowfell, 9090 feet 
^i?h; Brougham Hall, for its attitude and beautiful 
^WB, called the Windsor of the north ; Crosspbll, 3000 



'6 COtlHTt HI6T6ET — ^WBStMORLAT^d. 

feet above the level of the seia ; Curwen's island, Winder- 
mere, ** one of the loveliest and most sacred seats of 
simplicity''; Farlt(>n Knot, a bold and high moun- 
tain ; Grasmere, ** as sweet a scene as travelled eye ever 
beheld," nearly the whole of the lake can be seen at once ; 
Hall Hill; Hardknot Hill; Harrison Stickle, near 
Bowfell, 2400 feet high; Hartsop high field, whence 
Broadwater is seen to great advantage; Hayerback 
Castle hill; Helm Crag, Grasmere; Helsington Chapel, 
-omantic view of sea, rocks, woods, and fertile valleys ; 
Hblybllyn, 3210 feet high; Kirkby Lonsdale, fine 
view from the churchyard ; Lowther Park, likened by 
Lord Macartney to the park of the Emperdr of China 
called " Van-shoe-yuen, or the paradise of 10,000, or 
innumerable trees," and ''so rich, so various, so beautiful 
so sublime a prospect, my eyes had never beheld ;" Low 
Wood inn, near Ambleside, a delightful view of the Win- 
dermere lake; Mardale Head, grand and sublime; 
MellFell; MurtonPit; Naddlie forest; Orton Scar, 
on its top are remuns of a beacon ; Patterdale, for six 
miles much admired for its beautiful and diversified 
scenery; Pike o' Stickle, 2000 feet; Riggendale, a deep 
romantic glen branching from Hawswater; Rydal 
Hbad, 9090ft. high, from its summit the lakes of Winan- 
dermere, Elter water, Grasmere, and Rydal water are 
seen ; the Rydal Falls are romantic and pleasing ; Stan- 
more Dale; Storr's Point, delightful view; Under- 
barrow Scar, near Kendal; Wallow Cragg, on Haws- 
water ; Whinfell, 1 500 feet high ; Whitbarrow Scar, ro- 
mantic prospect ; Wildboar Fell, very interesting prospect'; 
Windermere, highly picturesque ; Wrynose Hill. 

Natural Curiosities, Asby, two wells, one called St He- 
len's, and the other near Grai^ge hall ; Betha, or Bela, 



PRB8BNT 8TATB AND APPEARANCE. 9 

waterfall) one of the catadupse of Camden; Brongh, 
well, formerly much resorted to, and the Vicar of Brough 
had a diploma from the Pope to receive oblations from 
the pilgrims resorting to it ; Bumeshead, well, reputed 
sacred ; Burton, well ; Clifton, well, at which a great 
concourse of people annually assemble on May day; 
Colwith Force, near Ambleside, waterfall, eminently pic- 
turesque and sublime, depth 150 feet ; Dungeon Gill, 
near Langdale Pikes, beautiful and romantic waterfall ; 
Dufl»a Fell, petrifying well ; Gellforth Spout, in Long- 
lesdale, the fall about 300 feet in an unbroken sheet ; 
Grasmere, well; the side of the Kent is famous for petri- 
fying springs that incrust vegetable bodies, and one of 
them is a dropping well ; Levens Park, waterfall, one of 
the catadupse of Camden: at Nateby, near Stenkrith 
Bridge, is a noisy cataract falling into numberless cavities 
or perforations in the rock, of different sizes, by many 
considered a remain of druidism, but called by the people 
*Hhe devil g^rinding mustard;'' Pate Hole, petrifying 
spring ; Rounthwsdte, the Gondsike spring on- Jeffery's 
Mount, continually casting up small silverlike pieces of 
spangles ; Shap, wells, in great repute, one resembling 
the Leaming^n water, and the other petrifying ; Stock- 
gill Force, near Ambleside, the most beautful waterfall, 
next to Lowdore in Cumberland, among the lakes; 
Witherslack, holy well, discovered to bemedicinalinl656. 

Pubiic Edifices. Ambleside, market house, erected 1796. 
Appleby, bridge: county gaol and courthouse, erected 
1770-1 : free grammar school, founded by Queen Eliza- 
beth in 1574: hospital, founded by Anne Countess of 
Pembroke and Montgomery in 1653, very neat : house of 
correction : market house, erected in 181 1, from a design 
by Smirke : new gaol, built 1771 : town hall. Ashby, 



10 COUNTY HI9TORT— ^WBIimOELAirO. 

school, founded in 1688, by Mr. George Smith. Bamp- 
ton, free grammar school, founded in 1623, bj Dr, Thos. 
Sutton. Barton, school, founded in 1649, by Doctors 
Otrard Langbaine» Lancelot Dawes, &c. Betham, bridge. 
Bolton, chain bridge over the Eden, raised 1816. 
Crosby Ravensworth, free school, founded about 1617- 
Heversham, school, founded by Edward Wilson in 1613. 
Kendal, blue coat school and hospital, founded in 1659, 
by Mr. Thomas Sandes: three bridges: free grammar 
school, endowed in 1525, by Adam Pennyngton, of Boa- 
ton, rebuilt 1592 : house of correction, built 1786, enlarged 
1828-9 : obelisk on Castlelaw hill, erected 1788, in com- 
memoration of the restoration: school of industry, insti- 
tuted 1799: town hall, rebuilt 1759: the white hall, buSt 
1825, architect Webster, cost £6,000: workhouse, 
large and airy building, built 1769. Kirkby Lonsdi^, 
bridge, of three ribbed arches over the Lune, of singular 
beauty, very lofty, but very narrow : free grammar 
school, founded in 1591, by Queen Elizabeth. Kirkbj 
Stephen, free grammar school, founded in 1556, by Tho- 
mas Lord Wharton : market house and piazza, built in 
1810, by the will of Mr. John Waller, purser^ R.N. 
Measand, grammar school, founded in the year 1711, 
by Richard Wright and Richard Law. Millthorpe, 
bridge over the river Betha, of stone, handsome, built 
by Mr. Wilson of Dallam Tower : incorporated workhoo^, 
erected 1813, cost £4,990, large. Morland, free gram- 
mar school, founded about 1780, by the Dean and Chi^ter 
of Carlisle. Old Hutton, free school, built in 1613^ hj 
Edward Milner. Orton, free grammar school, founded 
about 1730 by subscription. Ravenstonedale, gramn 
school, founded in 1688, by Thomas Fothergill, B ► 
rebuilt in 1758. Stenkrith, bridge over the Eden. Te - 
pie Sowerby, bridge over the Eden, rebuilt in 17^ 



V 



SEATS. 11 

Thrimbj) school, founded by Thomas Fletcher in 16S1. 
Whitby, free school, founded by James Highmore, about 
1630. Winandermere, school, built about 1637. Winton, 
grammar school, founded in 1659 by Rev. Wm. Morland. 

Seats. LowTHER Castle, Earl of Lonsdale, 
Lord Lieutenant of the County. 

Abbot Hall, Kendal, Christopher Wilson, esq. , 

Acorn Bank, Temple Sowerby, John Boazman, esq. 

Appleby Castle, Earl of Thanet, Hereditary Sheriff. 

Asby Hall, James Park, esq. 

Ash Meadow, William Berry, esq. 

Askham Hall, the Rector ot Lowther. 

Bank House, R. J. Gamett, esq. 

Beck Side, William Walker, esq. 

Beetham Lodge, William Hutton, esq. 

Bcllield, Mrs. Taylor. 

Belle Isle, Winandermere, J. C. Curwen, esq. 

Biggins House, Edward Tomlinson, esq. 

Bowness Parsonage House, Edward Swinburne, esq. 

Bratha Hall, Ambleside, J. Harden, esq. 

Brigsteer Park, near Sizergh, T. Strickland, esq. 

Brougham Hall, Lord Brougham and Vaux. 

Calgarth Park, Mrs. Watson. 

Casterton Hall, William Wilson Cams Wilson, esq. 

Collin Field, Kendal, Anthony Yeates esq. 

Croft Lodge, Ambleside, Miss Pritchard. 

Curwen's Island, Winandermere, H. Curwen, esq. 

Dallam Tower, George Wilson, esq. 

Dalton Hall, fidmund Hornby, esq. 

Deepthwaite, William Bindloss^ esq. 

Eden Grove, Richard Tinkler, esq. 

EUerbeck, William Sisson, esq. 

Eileray, J. Wilson, esa. 

Elterwater Hall, David Huddleston, esq. 

Eusemere Hill, J. C. Bristow, esq. 

Femey Green, Bowness, Bobert Greaves, esq. 

Green Bank, Kendah J. Atkinson, esq. 

Grimes Hill, William Moore, esq. 

Harley Castle, Sir Philip Musgrave, Bart. 



13 COUNTY HISTORY — WBSTMORLAND. 

HeaTes Lodg^e, Major CunDingham. 
Helm Lodge, W. ifilworth Crewdsoo, esq. 

Hill Beck Hall, 

Hill Top, near Old Hutton, Ralph Fisher, esq. 

Holly Hill, Bowness, Mrs. Bellasis. 

Howe, CdpUin Wilson. 

Ivv Cottage, Rvdal Water, Rev. Samuel Tilbrook, D.D. 

Killington Hall, John ITpton* esq. 

Levins Park, Hon. Col Fulk Greville Howard.. 

Lunefield, William Cams, esq. 

Marton House, Robert Stagg, esq. 

Mint House, James Hogffarth Long, esq. 

Meahurn Hall, Earl of Lonsdale. 

Mosedale Hall, James Thompson, jun. esq. 

Newbiggin Hall, William Crackenthorpe, esq. 

Oddendale, John Gibson, esq. 

Orest Hall, J. Braithwaite, esq. 

Orton Hall, Richard Bum, esq. 

Patterdale Hall, William Marshall, esq. 

Plumtree Bank, John Wilson, esq. 

Hall, Edward Pedder, esq. 

Rajrigjg', Winandermere, Rev. J. Fleming. 

Rigmaiden Hall, Christopher Wilson, esq. 

Rydal Hall, Ladv Ann Frederica Elizabeth le Fleming. 

Mount, William Wordsworth, esq. 

Sedgwick House, near Kendal, the late John Wakefield, esq. 

Shaw End, Arthur Shepherd, esq. 

Sizergh Hall, Thomas Strickland, esa. 

Skirsffill, Eamont Bridge, Hugh Parkin, esq. 

Stockbridge Hall, W. Sanderson, esq. 

Storr's Hall, Bowness, Colonel Bolton. 

Summerfield, T. Tatham, esq. 

Temple Sowerby, Matthew Atkinson, esq. 

Townson Hall, near Kendal, John Bateman, esq. 

Underlay Hall, Alexander Nowell, esq. 

Wharton Hall, Earl of Lonsdale. 

Whittington Hall, Thomas Green, esq. 

Whelprigg, Joseph Gibson, esq. 

Witherslack Lodge, the Misses Bownas* 

Wood, (The), Gell, esq. 

Wreston Hall, Rev. Mr. Strickland. 



PRESBNT 8TATB. 13 

Cuve. Asby Gill, called- Pate Hole, 1,000 yards in length, 
with a stream of water running through it ; Stenkrith 
Bridge, called Coop Karnel Hole. 

Peerage, Brougham,. J^oogham and Vaux of, barony 
(1830). Lonsdale, earldom (1797) to Lowther, extinct 
in 1802, but recreated in same family 1807. Westmor- 
land, earldom (1397) to Nevill, forfeited 1570, but again 
revived in the Fanes in 1624. 

Baronetage, Rydal, Fleming, 1705. 

Representaiives returned to Parliament, For the County, 
2 : Kendal 1 : total, 3.-^The Reform Act enfranchised 
Kendal, and disfranchised Appleby of two. 

Produce, Copper : gypsum : lead, at Hilton, yielding 
about 144 tons weekly, and containing ten ounces of 
silver in every ton, and at Swindale Head, in Brough, a 
vein has been diseovereed, and said to be the richest at 
present worked in the north of England : marble, near 
Kendal ; granite : porphyry : basalt, or whinstone : 
limestone : freestone : barytes, at Crook, similar to that 
from which Wedgewood manufactured his beautiful jasper 
ware, the vases of which were superior to any other made 
in the world, and were celebrated for their beauty through- 
out Europe : jasper, agate, onyx, cornelian, and a va- 
riety of other stones, are found at Barton Fell : coal : 
blue slate, from Langdale Pikes, Mosedale, Patterdale, and 
Longsleddale. Corn. Cattle: sheep. Fish, plentiful in 
the lakes, particularly trout, perch, pike, and char. 

Manufactures, Ambleside, linsey and coarse woollen goods : 
baskets, called snrills and corves: gunpowder, at Elter- 
water. Crook, woollens and bobbin, at Hilton, Kirk- 
land, Stainton, and Nether Graveship, worsted and 
woollens. Holme, near Burton, flax, extensive: canvas 
and linens: marble. .At Hugill, Stanley, and Strickland, 
bobbins. Kendal, paper: cards for dressing wool and 



14 COUNTY HISTORY — ^WB8TM0RLAND. 

cutton : combs : marble : linens : fancy fabrics for iraist- 
coats: carpets: worsted: leather: coarse irooUens, called 
Kendal cottons, extensive : hosiery : girths and sacking : 
slate encils, from the blue slate of Thomshap and Rosgill 
Beck. Kirkby Lonsdale, carpets and blankets: linens: 
ginghams : calicoes : leather. Kirkby Stephen, cottoss : 
•ilks : coarse hosiery for sailors. Kirkby Thore and Or- 
ton, canvas and linens. Longdales, gunpowder. Mill- 
thorpe, flax twine and linen thread: paper: wool-carding: 
stocking and blanket yarn. Sedgwick, gunpowder. 
Staveley, woollens and bobbins. 

POPULATION m 1831. 

Bar(mieif2; JVard$y^\ Borough,!; Market Toumsy 
10 ; ParUheSy 7 ; ParU of Parishes, 2. 

Houses, Inhabited, 10,353; Uninhabited, 421 ; Building, 44. 

/n^a^t'/oft^^. Males, 27,576l; Females, 27,465 ; total, 55,041. 

Families. Employed in agriculture, 4,454; in trade» 
4,116; all other, 2,414; total, 10,984. 

Baptisms in 1830. Males, 870: Females, 791: total, 
1 ,661 . Annuai average of IS21 to 1 830, 1 ,702. 

Marriages, 338 ; annuai average, 356. 

Burials. Males, 501 ; Females, 481 ; total, 982. 
Annual average, 9^. 

Places having not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 

Houses. Inhab. 

Kirkby Kendal 2,092 10,015 Beediam 

Kendal parish 1,375 7,549 Barton 

Heversham 738 4,162 Orton 

Kirkby Lonsdale 705 3,949 Windermere 

Kirkby Stephen 533 2,798 Appleby 

Grasmere, including Bongate 

Ambleside 376 2,083 Kirkby Thore 

Morland 367 1,940 Shap 

Brough 333 1,882 Ravenstonedale 

Burton in Kendal 329 1,800 



Houses. 


Inhah- 


294 


1,639 


268 


1,537 


295 


1,501 


283 


1,495 


261 


1.459 


220 


1,264 


236 


1,231 


190 


1,084 


234 


1,036 



15 



HISTORY. 

A D. 

Ist or 2d century. Marius King of the Britons defeated Ro- 
deric or Rothinger, a Pictish general from Scythia, upon 
the mountain now called Stanemore. 

791. Ethred slew Elf and Edwin, sons of Elfwald,at Win- 
dermere. 

946. Edmund wasted Cumbria, and having put out the eyes 
of the two sons of Dunmail, gave that province to Mal- 
colm King of Scotland. Dunmelwreys is supposed to 
have been erected in memory of it, or as a boundary of 
DunmaiFs dominions* 

1 175. King William of Scotland surprised Appleby castle, 
and utterly destroyed the town. In this inroad he sacked 
Brough castle. 

1^88 Tlie Scots by a second conflagration destrpyed the 
town of Appleby. 

1412. Brougham castle suffered considerably from the 

$C0t8. 

1598. At Kendal, 2,500 persons died of the plague. 

1617* James 1. resided one night at Stricklandgate in 
Kendal, on his way to Scotland, and on his return in 
August, was magnificently entertained by Francis Earl of 
Cumberland at Brougham castle for three days. 

1635. The river Kent overflowed, and 48 persons drowned 
in Windermere lake. 

1641. Anne Countess of Pembroke, "in spite of her dis- 
loyal simpleton,'" fortified Appleby castle for the King, 
tind gave the government of it to Sir Philip M usgrave, 
who held out till after the battle of Marston Moor. 



16 COUNTY HISTORY — WESTMORLAND. 

A. D. 

1645. Colonel Briggs besieged Holme house, Winder- 
mere, eight or ten days, until the raising of the siege of 
Carlisle brought Mr. H. Philipson of Crooke, to whom it 
belonged, to the relief of his brother Robert. The next 
day Mr. Robert, with three or four companions, went to 
Kendal, to have revenge. Passing the watch, he rode 
into church, in expectation of finding Colonel Brigg8« but 
was disappointed. On his return he was unhorsed by the 
guards, but being relieved by a desperate charge of his 
companions, he vaulted into the saddle without a girth, 
and killing a sentinel galloped away. For this and other 
adventures, he obtained the appellation of '* Robin the 
Devil.'' 

1648. October 16, Appleby castle surrendered to the Far* 
liamentarian General Ashton. 

1651. General T. Harrison was at Appleby with his forces. 
The war was then hot in Scotland, and many places in 
this county were full of soldiers. Charles If. halted and 
dined at Crosby Gilt, and partook of the waters of Black 
Dub. 

1663. A few partizans of the Commonwealth met on Ka- 
bergh Rigg, and endeavoured to stir up an insurrection 
against the Restoration : but being dispersed by the mili- 
tia, Captain Atkinson suffered the extremity of the law at 
Appleby in 1664. 

1715. At Kendal, about 1600 Scotch rebels stayed one 
night on their way southward. 

1745. At Clifton Moor, an engagement between the rebel 
forces and the Duke of Cumberland, in which the former 
were driven from their advantageous posts. — A party of 
rebels!:, to the number of 110, entering Kendal, were 
assaulted by the inhabitants with clubs, stones, and any 
thing they could get. 



17 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Addison, Lancelot, learned Dean of Lichfield, partisan of 

the Stuarts, author, and father of the poet, Vrothy Ra- 

Tensworth or Mauld*s Meaburn, 1632 (died 1703). 
Airey, Dr. Adam, Principal of Edmund HaU, Oxford, one 

of the founders of Barton school in 1649, Barton. 
Dr. Henry, Provost of Queen's coU^e, Oxford, author 

of some calviiiistic works, Kentmere, iSdO. 
Appleby, Boger de, Bishop of Ossory (died 1404). 

Thomas de. Bishop of Carlisle (died 1395). 

Askew, Anthony, physician, greek scholar, and collector, 

Kendal, 1722 (died 1774). 
Bainbridge, Christopher, Cardinal, Archbishop of York, 

Barton (poisoned at Rome in 1514). 
Barlow, Dr. Thomas, time-serving Bishop of Lincoln, 

Langdale near Orton, 1607 (died 1691). 
Barwick, John, D.D. divine, royalist, and author, Wither- 

slack, 1612 (died 1664). 
— — Peter, M.D. brother of the above, whose life he wrote 

m elegant latin, U'^itherslack, 1619 (died 1705). 
Bellingham, Sir Edward, Lord Deputy of Ireland in the 

time of Edward VI. warrior. 
Bl^thwaite, Richard, facetious and eccentric author of 

"Drunken Barnaby,'' Burneshead (died 1673). 
Buckle, Sir Cuthbert, Lord Mayor of London in 1593, 

Stanemore. 
Bam, Dr. Richard, author of the "Justice'* and the " Ec- 
clesiastical Law,'' &c. Kirkby Stephen near Winton 

(died 1785). 
v»hamber8, Ephraim, mathematical instrument maker, author 

of the Encyclopedia, Milton (died 1740). 
Chambr^, Sir Allan, one of the justices of the Common 

Pleas, Abbot Hall, near Kendal (died 1823). 
Clifford, Georee, third Earl of Cumberland, scholar, soldier, 

and sailor. Brougham castle, 1558 (died 1605). 



IS COUNTY HISTORY — ^WESTMORLAND. 

Close, Nicholas, Bishop of Lichfield, Btrbeck (died 1453). 
Crackenthorpe, Richard, controversial divine, Strickland, 

1667. 
Cunren, Hugh, Archbishop of Dublin, and Bishop of Oxford 

(died 1667). 
Dawes, Lancelot, Prebendary of Carlisle, and one of the 

founders of Barton school. Barton, 1680. 
Dawson, Robert, Bishop of Clonfert in Ireland, Kendal 

(died 1643, and buriea at Kendal). 
Fothergill, Dr. George, Principal of St. Edmund Hall, 

Oxford, author of sermons, Lockholme in Ravenstone- 

dale, 1705 (died 1760). 
-«— Henry, brother of Oeoree and Thomas, joint bene- 
factor with his brothers, Lockholme. 
Dr. Thomas, Provost of Queen's college, Oxford, 

brother of preceding, benefactor to his native parish, 

Lockholme. 
Garnett, Dr. Thomas, physician and natural philosopher, 

Casterton, 1766 (died 1802). 
Gibson, Edmund, Bishop of London, scholar and antiquary. 

High Knype, 1669 (died 1748). 
——Thomas, uncle of the bishop, and son-in-law to the 

Protector Richard Cromwell, physician and author. High 

Knype. 
William, farmer, and self-taught mathematician of most 

wonderful powers, Bolton near Appleby, 1720 (died 1791). 
Gilpin, Bernard, scholar, divine, ana ecclesiastical reformer, 

called the << Apostle of the North,'' Kentmere, 1517 

(died 1583). 
Hudson, William, surgeon, one of the earliest Linnsen bota- 
nists in England, and author, Kendal, 1730 (died 1793). 
Keadal, Richard de, excellent grammarian (flourished in 

the time of Henry VI.) 
Kirkby, John, Bishop of Carlisle from 1332 to 1352, Kirkby 

Lonsdale or Kirkby Stephen. 
Lancaster, Dr. William, Provost of Queen's college, Oxford, 

and one of the founders of Barton school in 1649, Sock- 
bridge, 17 th century. 
Langbaine, Dr. Gerard, divine, linguist, antiquary, scholar, 

and one of the founders of Barton school, Barton Kirke, 

about 1608 (died 1657). 
Langhorne, Dr. John, brother of William, divine, poet, and 



EMINENT NATIVES. . 19 

critic, voluminoas author, Kirkby Stephen or Winton, 
1735 (died 1779). 

— William, brother, and joint translator of Plutarch's 
Lives, Winton. 

Mill, Dr. John, divine and biblical critic, Hardendale in 

Shap, 1645 (died 1707). 
Monkhouse, Dr. Richard, divine, Winton. 
Morton, Charles, learned physician and antiquary, 1716. 
Otway, Sir John^ lawyer, Middleton. 
Parr, Catharine, the last wife of Henry VIII. daughter ot 

Sir Thomas Parr, and widow of the first Lord Latimer, 

Kendal castle. 
Philipaon, Robert, for his military achievements surnamed 

" Robin the Devil," Crook hall. (See p. 16). 
Potter, Bamaby, puritanical Bishop of Carlisle, Kendal, 

1578 (died 1642). . 
Christopher, nephew of above. Vice Chancellor of 

Oxford, loyal divine, who sent his plate to the King, 

saying he would drink as Diogenes did, in the hollow of 

his hand, before the King should want, Kendal, 1591 

(died 1645). 
Robertson, Joseph, learned and industrious critic. High 

Knvpc, 1726 (died 1802). 
Saunaerson, Randal, divine, benefactor to his native village, 

Reagill. 
Seed, Jeremiah, author of sermons, Clifton (died 1747)* 
Shaw, Dr. Thomas, learned divine and eastern traveller, 

Kendal, 1692 (died 1751). 
Smith, George, founder of the school in his native parish, 

Ashy. 

Dr. Bishop of Carlisle, cousin of the above, Ashy. 

— -^ John, editor of Bede, divine, versed in septentrional 

literature, and in antiauities, Lowther, 1659 (died 1715). 

— Joseph, Provost oi Queen's college, Oxford, brother 
of John, divine, learned in politics and the law of nations, 
Lowther, 1670 (died 1756, aged 86). 

Stephenson, William, benefactor to his native place, Bamp> 
ton. 

Strickland, William de. Bishop of Carlisle, benefactor. Great 
Strickland, 1396. 

Sutton, Dr. Thomas, founder of Bampton school in his na- 
tive parish of Bampton, Sutton Gill in that parish. 



20 COUNTY ai8TORT-»WBCTMORLAND. 

Viteripont, Thomaa de, Ksfaop of Garlulein 1255, Applebj. 

Walker, Adam, natural and experimental philowmher, lec- 
turer, and author, Windermere, 1731 (died 1821). 

— ^ William, lecturer on astronomy, son of above, Kendal, 
1766. 

Wastal, Simon, learned author of "AficrobWon, or an 
epitome of the Bible in verse,** 1629, Wastelheadin Shap, 

Watson, RiGliani, Biriiop of Llandaff, apologist for toe 
Bible and Christianitj, chemist and politician, Hevtfdiam, 
1737 (died 1816 at Calgarth, and buried at Windermere). 

Wharton, Sir George, baroaet, astronomer and lofalist, 
Kendal (died 1681). 

Whitehead, George, learned and xealous qnaker, Newbigg, 
near Orton, about 1636 (died 17^2-3). 

Wilson, John, botanist, author of a '* Synopsis of Brlfisb 
Plants,** originally a stocking knitter, Aendal (died about 
1750). 



21 



MISCELLANfiOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

AppLBBT Castle was the regidence of the Clifford family, 
of whom the high-B{4rited Countess of Pembroke frequently 
redded here. Here k a eopy of the great family picture, 
the original of which is at Skipton Castle, in Yorkshire. 
There are foibr half-lengths of the Countess in the drawing- 
room. Here is also preserved the magnificent suit of armour 
worn by the Earl of Cmmberland in the tiltyard as cham- 
pion to his royal mistress Elizabeth ; and his horse armour, 
of equal splendour, lies by it. — In St Lawrence Church, 
among noble monuttii^nts to the Cliffords, is one to the 
Countess of Pembroft:e.^— The School has produced a num- 
ber of eminent charaeters in church and state. It has 
also furnished nearly half the students on the foundation of 
Queen*s College, Oxford. Upon the front of a little build- 
ing of stone, erected by Reginald Bainbrigg, the friend of 
ibe antiqiyiry Camden, in 1602, then master of the school, 
were placed by him t#enty-four titones With Roman inscrip- 
tions. 

Bampton church, vh:aitiig« honse^ and school house were 
rebuilt by the very learned Bp. Gibson, who also erected a 
monument in the Church to his parents, with a modest latin 
inscription. — In the Free Grammar Sehool were educated 
nUfneroUs eminent persons, and among them Dr. John Mill, 
famous for his edition of the New Testament ; and Bishop 
Gibson:-- At Measand School, in this parish. Bishop Law 
obtained his classical rudiments. 

Of BBf HAM was Vicai*, William Hutton, who wrote a 
folio book of collections for a history of the parish, which 



22 COUNTT HISTORY — ^WESTMORLAND. 

he deposited in the restrj for the information of posterity, 
with blank pag;es to be filled up as materials should occur. 

At Brougham, on the road from Penrith to Appleby, is 
the Countess's Pillar, erected by the eminently distinguished 
Anne Countess of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery, to 
commemorate the last parting with her mother the Countess 
of Cumberland, April 2, 1616. It was erected in 1659, is 
decorated with the family achievements, and has an inscrip- 
tion stating the purpose of its erection, and concluding by 
informing us that " in memory whereof she also left an 
annuity of four pounds to be distributed to the poor within 
this parish of Brougham, every 2d day of April for ever, 
upon the stone table here hard by. Lavs Deo." The table 
no longer remains. 

Caloarth was the property of. the learned Bishop Wat- 
son of Llandaff, who added considerably to the natural 
beauties of the estate, and here the good Bishop died in 1816. 
Some of the rooms of the old hall have remains of their 
former elegance. Amongst the spirits which haunted these 
melancholy walls, was one, it is related, that had the custody 
of two sculls, which could neither be broken to pieces, nor 
carried to any place, but tiieir guardian would be able to re- 
unite them, or recover them to. their dormitory on one of 
the window sills. 

Cross Fell is reported to have been formerly called 
Fiend's Fell, from evil sprits haunting its top, till St. Aus- 
tin erected there a cross and and an altar, by which they 
were exorcised — and hence its present name. 

Farlton Knot is considered to bear a strong resem- 
blance in form to the rock of Gibraltar. 

At Heversham Free Grammar School were educated 
Bishops Watson and Preston ; Ephraim Chambers, author 
of the Encyclopedia ; &c. Bishop Watson^s father was head 
master for forty years, and educated Chambers. The Bishop 



MI8CBLLANE0US OBSERVATIONS.- 23 

was born here, and his father, grandfather, &c. at Harden- 
dale, in the parish of Shap. — In the Church is interred the 
mother of Chambers the Encyclopedist. — Levens Hall 
abounds with rich oak carvings of the time of Elizabeth, 
That in the north dining room has been enormously va- 
lued. The chimney-piece, supported by large figures of 
Hercules and Samson, contidns, in compartments, emblem* 
atical representations of the five senses, the four elements, 
and four seasons, with a poetical inscription. The principal 
apartments are hung with rich tapestry, in all the splendour 
of colour. 

At HoFP Row, the family of Hall have been resident up- 
wards of 400 years, and have been remarkable for longe- 
vity. John Hall died in 1716, aged 109; his son John died 
in 1794, aged 89 ; and his grandson in 1821, aged iOl years. 

At Kbndal died, in 1802, the celebrated painter George 
Romney. — Among the eminent men educated at the Free 
Grammar School may be mentioned Bishop Law, Dr. Fo<- 
thergill, and Dr. Shaw, the celebrated traveller. — Kendal 
was one of the first provincial towns that printed a News- 
paper, commencing in 1811. — Kendal was celebrated for its 
buckram or green druggets, at one time the common clothing 
of the poor in London. Shakspeare places the following 
allusion to this favorite costume in the mouth of Falstaff : — 
'* But, as the devil would have it, three misbegotten 
Knaves, iu Kendal green, came at my back, and let 
Drive at me.** 

At Kentmere Hall lived the Gilpin family, of whom was 
Bernard Gilpin, "the Apostle of the North.*' It is a tower- 
like edifice, under a mountain browed with mighty crags. 
When it was building, the " Cork Lad of Kentmere,'' a 
man of the name of Hugh Herd, lifted the chimney beam of 
the kitchen into its place, six feet from the earth, which 
ten men could not move. It still remains, is thirty feet 



24 COCICTT mSTORT— imTMOmi.AKD. 

long, and tlurteen inches bj twelve and a half tliick. At 
the age of ^ tint man kilM hiniadf with the Herculean 
task of tearing op treet bj the itwtt! 

At KuKET Lom»Ai.B Free Grammar Sdiool was edu- 
cated Mr. Bdl, the late eminent chaneerj barrister. 

LowTHBm College was eonverted into a manoiactorj for 
most beantifiil carpels, of stren g th and lustre litde inferior 
to those of Persia; intanded chieij for the owner s use, but 
a few were sold at prices from riztj to a hundred guineas. — 
Tlie Chnnft contains seieral tombs of the Lowtfaer lamilf . 

MiLLTHonpB b the onlj town in the oountj risited hy 
the tide, which lows from the estuaiy of the Kent up the 
rirer Betha; thus making dn the onlj seaport town in the 
countT. 

Of MomLANB, Dr. Brown, author of the essay on *' Cha- 
racteristics,** was Vicar. 

At MosoRATB Is oon&nnd die rural amusement of 
** Rush-bearing,** an anient custom of Old Midsummer Day- 
Hie ceremony is p erfo rmed by from twelve to dghteen couple 
of females drened in their holiday attire, and eadi beainng a 
gariand of flowers, &c. to the rillage green, whence, after 
dancing with their swains, Aey proceed to the cfanrdiy where 
they hang up their garlands, and take down those placed 
there on the preceding anniversary. After hearing a ser- 
mon, the youthfol merry-maknrs are regaled wkh wine and 
cake at the rectory, and the day is closed with rustic sports. 
The same ceremony is obserred at Wareop on St Peter's 
Day, and also at Shap. — Septimus CoHinson, DJ>^ Provost 
of Queen*s College, Oxford, bom at Huntsonby, Cumber- 
land, by his will, in 189I7» founded at Muag^ve a school on 
the Madras system. — ^At little Mu^rrave died, in 1819, Mrs. 
Hutchinson, aged 103b 

NswaiGesN Hall stands in a sequestered vale. It is a 
low unique building, with apoetical inscription over its front 



UI8CBLLAN£0Ua OBSERVATIONS. 25 

door. — The Church is small, and contains but little remark- 
able. In one of the windows is a monk with a pastoral 
staff. — Upon the rocks, at a place called Crawdundsde, were 
formerly found characters and inscriptions, now obliterated 
and mouldered away. Camden mentions one or two, but 
Bum doubts their authenticity. 

Old Hutton Free School has a library of several hun- 
dred volumes, established in 1757 by Dr. Bray, and others. 
Near Pbndraoon Castle is a well said to commemorate 
a piece of history respecting Uter Pendragon, It is related 
that the treacherous Saxons, who dared not face him in 
the field, poisoned this well* He drank of his favourite 
spring, and with a hundred of his courtiers fell victims to 
the villainy. 

One of the customs at Ravbnstokbdalb is peculiar. 
If a tenant, of the age of sixteen, die, not having a child 
bom in Wedlock, and without a will attested by at least four 
tenants of the manor« his estate escheats to the lord* The 
Earl of Lonsdale offered to enfranchise the tenants, but 
such was their attachment to antient. customs thai the 
offer was refused. — The churchwardens informed Bishop 
Nicholson in 1703, that they had not had a beggar in the 
parish within the memory of man, and had never a gentle^ 
man amongst them, ''except only the curate and school- 
master.'' 

Rerbcross, on Stanemore, is the boundary between 
Westmorland and Yorkshire. Only a fragment of it now 
remsuns. At the neighbouring turnpike house is a cylindri- 
cal stone with COH. V., probably a Roman miliary, and 
near the road strong remains of a Roman walled fort com- 
manding the pass into Westmorland. 

Of Shap Abbey became one of the tenants at the disso- 
lution the Hoggerd family, ancestors of the inimitable artist 



26 COUNTT HISTORY — WESTMORLAND. 

Hogarth, and some of the fomily continue in the neighbo^ir- 
hood. 

At SiZBROH Hall are several ejccellent portraits, and the 
tapestry and carvings are exceedingly curious. Here is a 
room called the Queen's room, from a tradition that here 
Catharine Parr spent several nights after the death of Hecrjr 

vin. 

Ulls WATER, or Ousemere, when the day is uniformly 
overcast, and the air perfectly still, like many other lakes, 
has its surface dappled with a smooth oily appearacce, which 
is called a held. 

Of the Pearsons of Whinfell, the learned John Bishop 
of Chester was descended. — The forest was famous for its 
prodigious oaks, one of them nearly 300 years old. The 
hart's horn tree, which grew by the wayside near Hornby 
Hall, had its name from a pair of horns hung up in it about 
the year 1333 or 1334, after, a memorable chase, llie stag 
was started by a greyhound, and was chased to a consi- 
derable distacce and back, when it vaulted the park paling, 
and instantly died. The dog, in attempting to clear it, 
fell backwards and expired. One of these horns were 
broken out of the tree in 1648, and the other in 1658. On 
the east side of the park is Julian's tower, celebrated for 
being the residence of the mistress of Roger de Clifford, in 
the time of Edward III. 

Windermere is the greatest piece of standing water 
in England. On Longholme Island is a remarkable echo. 
— Rayrigg Hall is said to resemble Ferney, the seat of Vol- 
taire on the Lake of Geneva. — ^l^he Church contains mocu- 
ments and inscriptions to the Philipsons of Calgarth, &€. 
and a tablet to Bishop Watson of Landaff, who was buried 
here in 1816, aged Id, with an inscription merely. recording 
his name, age, and death. Its chancel window belonged to 
Furness abbey. It consists of seven apartments, represent- 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 27 

ing the Crucifixion in the third, fourth, and fifth. In the 
second is St. George ; in the sixth, St J Catharine ; and in 
the seventh, two mitred abbots and two monks. The colour- 
ing is fine. 

At WiNTON Free Grammar School the author of Burn's 
''Justice*^ was educated. — One of the rooms of the Hall is 
hung with very beautiful tapestry; and amongst the pictures 
18 a good one of the late Countess of Desmond. 

Upon Wrbynose Hill are placed the Shire Stones, in a 
triangle a foot from each other, where Westmorland, Cum- 
berland, and Lancashire meet in a point. 



23 



LUt of Works consulted. 

1 . The history aad aatiqnities of the covntieB of Westmorland 
and Cumberland. By Joseph Nicolson, esq. and Richard 
Bum, LL.D.— 2 toIs. 4to» 1777. 

^. An essay towards u natural histoiy of Westmorland and Cum- 
berland. By Rev. Thomas Robinson. — Svo, 1709. 

3. Remarks made in a tour from London to the Lakes of West- 
morland and Cumberland in 1791. By A. Walker. — 8to, 
1791. 

4. Beauties of England and Wales. By the Rey. John Hodg- 

soe. — 8vo. 

5. Westmorland, Cumberland, &c. By Thomas Rose.— 4to. 



YORKSHIRE. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Boundaries. North, Westmorland and Durham, separated 
• by the river Tees: East, the German Ocean: South, 
Lincolnshire (whence it is separated by the river Humber), 
Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Cheshire: West, Lan- 
cashire and Westmorland, whence it is separated by hills 
And moorlands which have been termed the English Apen- 
nines. 

Greatest length, 100 ; breadth, 75 ; circumference, 360. — 
Some accounts give the length as 130, breadth 90, and 
circumference 460; and others, length 100, breadth 80, 
and circumference 320 ; but the first is deemed the most 
accurate. The Parliamentary Returns give 5,836 square 
mites, and 3,735,040 statute acres. This County far ex- 
ceeds in size any other in the kingdom. 



u 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

Roman Roads. WatliDg Street, passed through Catterick, 
Aldborough, York, Tadcaster, Castleford, Pontefract 
Park, East Hardwick, Barnsdale, Pighurn Leas, Scawsbj, 
and Doncaster, to the vicinity of Bawtry, where it entered 
Nottinghamshire : Ermine street, from Lincolnshire to 
Mulgrave Castle, crossed the WatHng street: Ryknield 
Street, from the south-west, crossed the Watling Street : 
a road from Manchester to York passed through or near 
Halifax, Dewsbury, Wakefield, and Pontefiract, where it 
joined the Watling street : a road from Chesterfield, by 
Sheffield, Bamsley, Hemsworth, and Ackworth, also joined 
the Watling Street near Pontefract: a road from York 
to Malton, and thence to Dunsley Bay, by one branch 
called Wade's Causeway, and to Scarborough and Filey 
by another; a road through the range of towns called 
Street towns, viz. Appleton-le-Street, Barton*le -Street, 
&c : from York to Bridlington Bay or Filey, and another 
to Patrington or Spurn Point at the mouth of the Hum- 
ber : a vicinal way through Pontefract from Castleford, 
southward to Darrington, Wentbridge, Smeaton, Camp- 
sal, Hatfield, &c.: a military way crossed the river 
Wharfe at Wethcrby. 



• •• 

lU 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers, Aire, rises at Malham among the Craven Hills, 
floffs by Skipton and Leeds, and receives the Calder from 
Wakefield at Castleford, whence their united streams, 
increased subsequently by the Don, roll to the Ouse near 
Airmyn. Calder, rises on the borders of Lancashire, goes 
by Dewsbury and Wakefield to the Aire at Castleford. 
Cock. Colne. Dearn, rises above Penistone, in the West 
Riding. Derwent, rises in the eastern moorlands, near 
Scarborough, runs southward by New Malton, forms the 
boundary of the North and East Ridings, and falls into 
the Ouse near Barmby. Don, rises on the borders of 
Cheshire, goes to Sheffield, receives the Rother by Rothcr- 
ham, thence to Doncaster and Thorne, and joins the Aire 
below Snaith. Eden. Esk, rises in the east moorlands, 
and falls into the German Ocean at Whitby. Foss, 
goes to the Ouse at York. Foulness. Hertford, rises on 
the eastern coast and joins the Derwent. Hobden. Hull, 
rises near the foot of the Wolds. Humber, formed by the 
confluence of the Trent, Ouse, Derwent, Aire, &c., is a 
mile broad, runs toward the east, washing the port of 
Hull, and receiving the Hull river; thence toward the 
south-east, widening into an estuary nearly seven miles 
across, and emptying itself into the German Ocean. 
Hyde. Idle. Kebeck. Nidd, from the Craven Hills. 
Ouse, a continuation of the Ure, flows by York to the 
Humber, after receiving many smaller streams. Revel. 
Ribble, rises among the Craven Hills, and goes into Lan- 
cashire. Riburn. Rother. Rye. Sheaf, joins the Don 
near Sheffield. Skill. Swale, rises in the north-western 



\V COUNTY HISTORY — Y0RK8HIRB. 

moorlands, and passings through Swaledale, flows eastward 
by Richmond to Kirkby Fleth^n, whence it takes a wind- 
ing course south-eastward to its junction with the Ure at 
Myton, a littk beyond which it takes the name of Ousej 
from a small stream which there unites with it; after 
receiving the Nid, it flows on to York, and turning south- 
ward, after being joined by the Wharfe above Cawood> 
flows by Selby and Ooole, and receiving the Derwent goes 
into the Humber. Tees, belongs to Westmorland but 
skirts the northern boundary of the county. Ure, rises 
on the borders of Westmorland, flows eastward by Askrigg 
and Middleham, then scuth-eastward by Mashamand 
Ripon, and meets the Swale below Aldborough. Wash- 
brooke : Went ; Wharfe, rises among the Craven Hills, 
flows south-eastward through Wharfedale, by Otiey, 
Wetherby, and Tadcaster, to the Ouse near Cawood- 
Wiske, rises near Osmotherley. 

Inland Navigation, Aire river, navigable to Leeds, where 
it joins the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. Aire and Calder 
Canal, from the river Ouse at Selby to Leeds. Barnsley 
Canal, from the river Calder at W.ikefield to the Dove 
and Dearn Canal, fourteen miles, affording a communica- 
tion with all parts of the kingdom. Bradford Canal, from 
the Leeds and Liverpool Canal to Bradford. Calder 
river, from the confluence of the Calder and Aire at Castle- 
ford to Manchester in Lancashire, with a branch to Ha- 
lifax. Chesterfield Canal, to the Trent at Stockwitb 
completed 1777. Derwent river, to Mai ton and Yed- 
dingham. Don river, made ncivigable to Tinsley in 1751> 
whence a canal was cut in 1821 to Sheffield, forming a 
direct communication with the German Ocean ; the basin 
of the canal will accommodate about 40 vessels of 50 tons 
burden. Dove and Dearn Canal, from between Swinton 



PRESENT STATE AND APFEARANCE. V 

and Mexborough, to near Barnsley, where it joins the 
Baruslej Canal, nine miles. Foss river, for about 13 
miles. Goole Cut, from Goole to the Aire and Calder 
Navigation. Canal from Halifax to Salterhebble, opened 
1828. The Humber, as it receives all the waters of 
Yorkshire from the Ouse, and most of those of the mid- 
land counties from the Trent, commands the inland navi- 
gation of the Mersey, Dee, Ribble, Severn, Thames, and 
Avon. Hnddersfield Canal joins Sir John Ramsden's 
Canal, and runs to Ashton, nineteen miles, where it joins 
the Ashton and Oldham Canal. Hull river, by Beverley 
to Driffield. Leeds and Liverpool Canal, from the Mer- 
sey to Leeds, a distance of 127 miles. Ouse river, to 
York, where in a spacious quay vessels of ninety tons 
burden may be moored. Pocklington Canal, from Pock- 
lington to the Derwent near Cottingwith. Ramsden*s 
Canal, from Huddersiield to the Calder, three miles. 
Ripon Canal, from Ripon to the Ure. Rochdale Canal. 
Stainford and lieadby Canal, from the river Don near 
Fishlake to the river Trent, 15 miles. Ure, from its 
junction with the Swale to Ripon, by Acts 1767 and 1820. 

Railways, Hull and Selby, 31 miles in length, engineer 
Walker and Burges, estinated cost £485,000, in progre^rs. 
Manchester and Leeds, 61 miles long, engineers Stephen- 
son and Gooch, estimated cost £1,485,000, in progress, 
York and North Midland, e:?gineer O. Stephenson, esti- 
mated cost £370,000. 

Representatives returned to Parliament, For the North 
Riding, 10 ; East Riding, 6 ; West Riding, 20 :— total. 
36. The Reform Act increased the number of Repre- 
sentatives from 32 to 36. 



M 



POPULATION IN ia3L 



RidingSy 3 ; JVapentakes^ 25 ; Liberties, 4 ; Soke, 1 ; 
Citj^ and Ainsty, 1; Boroughs ^ VI \ Market Toums, 
56 ; Parishes^ 5S3. 

Hoii«<;<» Inhabited, 26r,685; Uninhabited, 16,596; Build- 
ing, 2,135. 

Inhabitants, Males, 677,667; Females, 693>692; total. 
1,371,359, 

Males 'Hd years ofage^ 328,976. 

Families, Employed in agriculture, 63,503; in trade, 
144,746; all other, 75,821 ; total, 284,070. 

Baptisms in 1830. Males, 18,692: Females, 18,443: toUl, 
37,135. Annual average o/1821 to 1830, 37,418, 

Marriages, 10,544; annual average, 10,466, 

Burials. Males, 12,305 ; Females, 11,744; total, 24,049. 
Annual average, 24,016. 



vu 



EMINENT NATIVES.—Riding unknown. 

Arden, R. Pepper, Lord Alvanley (died 1804). 
Barton, Robert, public orator at Oxford (died 1310). 
Bajnes, Ralph, divine, greek and hebrew scholar (died in 

1559). 
Bridgwater, or Aqua Pontanus, John, Rector of Lincoln 

College, Oxford, theological writer (living in 1594). 
Cartwrighr, Christopher, author of Sermons and Commen- 
taries (17th century). 
Fisher, John, Jesuitical writer and controversialist (livins: 

1641). 
Garth, Sir Samuel, poet and physician (died 1719). 
Geree, John, puritanical divine and author, 1600(died 1649). 
Grev, Dr. Zachary, divine and miscellaneous writer, about 

1687 (died 1766). 
Hall, John, humourous writer, and the "Eugenius"' of 

Sterne, 1718. 
Harrison, Thomas, architect, 1744. 
Langtoft, Peter, author of a metrical chronicle of England 

in five books, in the French language (flourished in the 

14th century). 
Parsons, John, 'learned physician, 1742. 
Roberts, Francis, puritanical divine, author of ** Clavis Bi- 

bliorum,'' &c.; 1609 (died 1675). 
Rokeby, William, divine, and Chancellor of Ireland (died 

1521). 
Sharp, ]2r. Thomas, Archdeacon of Northumberland, son 

of the Archbishop, author, about 1693 (died 1758). 
Sharpe, Dr. Gregory, Master of the Temple, learned divine, 

1713 (died 1771). 
Stokesley, John, Bishop of London, who boasted of having 

burnt fifty heretics (died 1539). 
Thoresby, John, Cardinal, Archbishop of York, and Lord 

Chancellor (I4th century), 
Wasse, Joseph, learned divine and philosopher, 1672 (died 

1738). 
Ungate, Edmund, writer on arithmetic, 1593 (died 1656). 



I 



NORTH RIDING. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

« 

Boundaries, North, Durham, irom which it is separated 
by the river Tees ; East, German Ocean ; South, the 
East and West Ridings; West, Westmorland. 

Greatest length, 85; greatest breadth, 44; circumfe" 
renee, 280; square, 2,055 miles; statute acres, 1,315,200. 

Province, York. Dioceses, York and Ripon. York has 
an Archdeaconry of Cleveland, with Deaneries of Bulmer, 
Cleveland cum North AUerton peculiar, and Rydale. 
Ripon has an Archdeaconry of Richmond, with Dean- 
eries of Boroughbridge, Catterick, and Richmondt 

Circuit, Northern. 



2 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

Antediluvian Remains* Kirkdale Cavern, which contained 
bones of the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, hyaenas 
of extinct species, tiger, bear, wolf, fox, weasel, horse, ox, 
three species of deer, hare, rabbit, water-rat, and mouse ; 
and of birds, those of the raven, pigeon, lark, small duck, 
and one about the size of a thrush. This cavern is situ- 
ated on the estates of the Venerable Archdeacon Wrang* 
ham and Thomas Smith, M.D. 

British Inhabitants, Brigantes. Encampments and Sta- 
tions, Cloughton, called Dry Heads, a cluster of pits ; 
Cropton ; Danby Moor ; Egton Grange ; near Goad- 
land chapel; Orinton; Harwood Dale; Scamridge, 
near Ebberston ; Stone Haggs, on Blakey Moor, 1400 
feet long, and 300 broad*. Earthworks, Gristhorpe Cliff, 
near Scarborough, a barrow, wherein was found, in 1834, 
a coffin seven feet six inches long, and three feet three 
broad, made from the trunk of an oak, with the bark on 
it, and rouglily hewn at the extremities : it contained a 
human skeleton, quite perfect, and of an ebony colour, 
and various weapons of war. Scarborough, on Weapon- 
ness, four bowl barrows, one of them, thirty yards in cir- 
cumference at the base, was opened in 1835, and found 
to contain an urn of ashes and bones, &c. over the ori- 
ginal tomb, in which were the bones of a man and a 

* For an account of these remarkable stations of the Aborigines, 
the reader will do well to consult Young*s History of Whitby. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 3 

drinking cup. Remains^ Ringingkeld, urn ; Roseberry 
lapping Hill, in 1826, copper celts and other implements, 
once gilt. 

Druidical Remains, BlakeyMoor; Clough ton, near Scar- 
borough, circle of stones thirty-six feet in diameter, with 
the altar- stone remaining, and other eridences ; Free- 
burgh Hill. 

Roman Province, Maxima Csesariensis. Stationsy Derveri- 
tio, Aldby Park; Bracchium, Bainbridge; Cataracto- 
tonium, Catterick ; Dunus Sinus, Dunsley; Camulo- 
dunum, Malton ; Lavatrae, Bowes ; Peak. Encamp- 
ments, Bainbridge; Borough Hill; Bowes; Greta 
Bridge ; HuttonBushell Moor, square; Kirkby Wiske; 
Peak; Kawcliffe Hill, Pickering Moor, called Barrows 
camps, of great strength ; Rokeby ; Scamridge ; Seamer 
Moor, Cawthorne camps, which remain as perfect perhaps 
as any in the county, four in number, the largest an area 
of 550 by .560 feet; Spital. — There are some extraordinary 
encampments at Castle Hill, near Catterick, but doubtful 
whether British or Roman. Earthworks, Gristhorpe, 
near Scarborough, tumuli ; Pickering, many tumuli on 
the moors ; Sheriff Hutton, near the church, six oblong 
tumuli ; the heights near Troutsdale, Basin Howe, a 
tumulus. Remains discovered, Bainbridge, statue of 
the Emperor Aurelius Commodus; inscriptions. Bromp- 
ton on Swale, coins. Catterick, coins, pottery, brass pit, 
and altars. Eastness, inscription. Filey inscriptions. 
Greta Bridge, altars and coins. Gristhorpe, urns. Mal- 
ton, inscription. Pickering, urns. Rokeby, altars and 
inscriptions, Stainton Dale, urns. Well, a pavement. 
Wensleydale, in 1832, urn of coins, in number 1100. 
Whitby, inscribed stone. 



4 GOUMTT HISTORY — TOEKtHlRB (NORTH RIDINO). 

Sa^on Octarchy 9 Deirs; and fiemicia in the Heptarchy. 
Encampm^niSy Eston ; Ouisborou^h, near ; How Hill ; 
Pickhill, Earthwork*, Scamridge, near the western end 
of Troutsdale, a continuation of Oswy^s Dyke, or Six 
Dykes. 

Danish EncampmmUs, Castlehill, Kirk Levington ; Kirk- 
lington ; Thomborough Moor. 

Abbeys, Byland, founded in II77; Easby, St. Agatha, 
in 1152, by Roald, Constable of Richmond, besides the 
parish church, the remuns are extensive, beautiful, and 
of architectural value and interest ; Eggleston, by Ralph 
de MultoD, about the time of Henry H.; Fors, in the 
time of Stephen, by one Akar, a tenant of the Earl of 
Richmond, removed about twelve years afterward to 
Jervaulx, where are some picturesque ruins ; Rievaulx, 
in 1131, by Walter D^Espec; Whitby, by the celebrated 
Lady Hilda, in 658, destroyed by the Danes in the ninth 
century, afterward a priory, and refounded as an abbey 
by William de Percy, !n the time of William II. very con- 
siderable and interesting and picturesque ruins. 

Priories, Coverham, founded by Ralph Fitz-Robert in 
1214; Egton, about 1200, by Johanna wife of Robert 
de Tumham, cell to the abbey of Orandimont in France, 
no visible remains ; Gilling, by Eanfleda, wife of Oswin, 
in the 7th century; Ouisborough, by Robert de Br us, 
in 1129; Kirkham, by Walter D^Espec; St. Martin\ 
by Wyomer lord of Aske, about 1100; Marton, by 
Bertram de Bulmer, in the time of Stephen ; Mount 
Grace, in Arncliffe, in 1396, by Thomas de Holland, 
Duke of Surrey; Newburgh, by Roger de Mowbray, 



▲NTIBNT STATE AND RBHAIN6. 5 

in 1 145 ; Rosedale, in 1 190 ; Scarborough, by Edward 
II. in 1320. 

Gunneries, Ellerton, founded in the time of Henry II. by 
Wamerus, steward to the Earls of Richmond ; Handale, 
in 1133, by Richard de Percy; Hackness, by Lady 
Hilda, abbess of Whitby; Keldholme, by Robert de 
Stuteville, in the time of Henry I. ; Marrick, by Roger 
de Aske, 1165; Nunthorpe, in the time of Henry II. ; 
Richmond; Wykeham, by Pain Fitz Osbert, about 1153. 

Friaries. North Allerton, Austin, founded by William de 
Alrerton, 14 Edward III.; White, by Thomas Hatfield, 
Bishop of Durham, about 1354. Kildale, Crutched, 1312. 
Richmond, Orey, in 1258, by Ralph Fitz Randolph, 
Lord of Middleham. Scarborough, Black, by Sir Adam 
Say, in the time of Henry III. ; White, by Edward 11. in 
1319; Grey, built 1240. Yarm, Black, by Peter de 
Br us, 13th century.. 

Colleger, Lazenby, founded under Edward I. by John de 
Lythegranes and Alice his wife ; Middleham, by Richard 
Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III., in 1476; 
Richmond, St. Osyth*s. 

Hospitals, Bagby, founded ante 1200. Brough, St. Giles, 
by a Marmion as early as Edward I. Catterick, in the 
time of Henry III. Hutton Lowcross, for lepers; some 
mutilated arches remain. North Allerton, St. James, by . 
Hugh Pudsey, Bp. of Durham, in the time of Hen. II. ; 
Maison Dieu, by Richard de Moore, 1476. Richmond, 
St. Nicholas, in the time of Henry II. Scarborough, St. 
Nicholas, very early; and St. Thomas, in the time of 
Henry II. Well, in 1342, by Sir Ralph de Neville, Lord . 



6 COUNTY HMTORT — YORKSHIRE (NORTH RIDING). 

of Middleham. Whitby, before 1160; St. John, before 
the time of Edward II. Yarm, St. Nicholas, bj the 
Brus family, before 1185. 

Churches. Bowes, Norman; Danby Wiske, a Norman 
doorway ; Downholme, late Norman ; Egton ; Filey, 
cathedral form, early pointed, with a mixture of Norman ; 
Oilling; Grinton, Norman piers ; Hawkswell ; Kirkby 
Wiske, beautiful Norman doorway ; Kirkdale, built be- 
tween 1056 and 1065 ; Kirk Levington ; Old Maltou, 
a fine specimen of Norman architecture; Marske; 
Northallerton ; Scalby, circular pillars with square capi- 
tals and pointed arches ; Startforth, Norman ; Thornton 
Steward, Norman ; Skeltou ; Topcliffe ; Well. 

Chapels, Askrig; Boldon; Easby ; Eskdale, in ruins; 
Eston; Forsett; Hutton Longvilliers, picturesque ap- 
pearance; Keld, in Grinton; Kneetun; Lartington, 
founded by the Fitz Hughs, in the 15th century; Rich- 
mond, Trinity, considered to have been the antient parish 
church ; Tocketts ; Wykeham. 

Fonts, Bowes ; Brignall ; Catterick, curious and handsome ; 
Danby Wiske; Downholme; Easby, very beautiful; 
Kirkby Hill; Marske; Rave iis worth ; Smeaton; South 
Kilvington; Thornton Steward ; Wycliffe. 

Crosses. Scarborough, remains of one at the Low Con- 
duit, called the Butter Cross. 

Castles. Ayton, belonged to the Evers; Bedale, built by 
Brian Fitz Alan, temp. Henry 111. no remains ; Bolton, 
by Richard le Scroope, Chancellor of England, in the time 
of Richard H. ; Bowes, by Alan Niger, 2d Earl of Rich- 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 7 

mond; Castleton; Clifton, by Geoffrey le Scroope, now 
no remains; Cotherston; Crake; Danby, in the 11th 
century, by Robert de Brus ; Gilling, no remains ; 
Harlsey, by Judge Strangways; Helmsley, by Robert 
de Ross; Hornby; Kildale, belonged to the Earls of 
Northumberland ; Killerby, by Brian Fitz Alan, in the 
19th of Edward f. ; Kilcon, belonged to the family of 
Thwengs ; Malton ; Middleham, by a Robert Fitz- 
Ralph ; Mulgrave, said to have been built 200 years be- 
fore the time of William I. ; Northallerton, by Rufus, 
Bishop of Durham ; Pickering, in the time of Edward 
the Confessor, several towers remain ; Ravensworth, re- 
sembling in its external forms the Norman castles; Rich- 
mond, by Earl Alan, nephew of William I. ; Scarbo- 
rough, in 1136, by William le Oros, Earl of Albemarle, 
rebuilt by Henry II. the keep in picturesque ruins; 
Sheriff Hutton, by Bertrand de Bulmer, in the time of 
Stephen, ruins extensive and interesting; Skelton, by 
Robert de Brus; Slingsby; Tanfield, by the Mar- 
mions; Snape, by the Nevilles; Thirske, demolished in 
the time of Henry II. ; Upsall ; 'Whorlton ; Wilton. 

Mansions, Boultby, the seat of the Conyers, now a farm 
house ; Mortham, the antient seat of the Rokebys ; 
Ruswarp Hall, near Whitby ; Thornton Bridge ; Top- 
cliffe, called Maiden's Bower, the antient house of the 
Percies. 



8 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Lmke, Simmer, near Afikrig. 

RaUroodM. Whitby and lackering, act 1833, Steplienson 
engineer, opened 1836, cost £4^400 a mile, length 24 
miles. Great North of England, act 1837, from the Tees 
at Croft, to York, now in progress. 

JG^MMiefice^ and Viewt, Aske, delightfully situated; Ain- 
derby, the steeple of the church is a conspicuous object; 
Bolton Castle; Botton Head, or Greenhoe, 1485 feet 
above the level of the sea; Brignall, the vicarage-bouse 
considered by Whitaker as one of the most pleasing re- 
tirements he had ever seen ; Brotton, the chapel com- 
mands an extensive prospect ; Cam Fell, west of Askrig, 
2245 feet above the level of the sea : Cotter Hill, on the 
borders of Westmorland, the highest part, called Shunner 
Fell, is 2329 feet high ; Danby Beacon, 966 feet above 
the level of the sea; Easington Heights, 681 feet; £b- 
berston, delightfully situated at the foot of an eminence 
decorated with a vast amphitheatre of plantations, &c. ; 
Hackfall, deservedly celebrated for its sylvan beauties; 
Hackness Hills, sublime and beautiful, and the road from 
Hackness to Ayton delightfully romantic; Handale 
Cliffs ; Jervaulz Abbey ; Kirk Lfevington, from the 
church is an extensive and pleasing prospect ; Middle- 
ham Castle, whence the views up and down Wensleydale 
are delightful ; Rievaulx Abbey, hardly to be surpassed 
in picturesque beauty; Richmond Hills, magnificent 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 9 

prospects; Rokeby, the scene of Sir Walter Scott's 
poem, the junction of the Tees and Greta is highly pic- 
turesque: from Roseberry Topping^, near Guisborough, 
1022 feet high, views of great beauty and grandeur; 
Scarborough, and its environs, including Filey, Hun- 
manby, &c., afford many charming prospects; Sheriff 
Button Castle commands extensive prospects ; Sleights 
Moor, 700 feet high ; Stoupe Brow, 893 feet high, few 
views more awfully grand than that from its summit, 
when a thick fog is rising from the sea ; the Swale and 
Swaledale ; Wensleydale ; Whisson Cliff, near Thirsk ; 
Whithy, the Peak Cliff, 700 feet high, and the village of 
Robin Hood's Bay, very romantic ; the course of the 
railway from Whitby to Pickering affords many beautiful 
and singular views and scenes. 

J^atural Curiosities, Aysgarth Force ; Brimham Craggs, 
an assemblage of vast perpendicular masses of grit stone ; 
Cloughton Wyke, petrifying springs ; Hackfall ; Har- 
draw Fall, a grand column of water ; High Force, or 
fall of the Tees, in Romaldkirk; Mallin Spuut, Egton, 
a remarkable waterfall ; Mossdale Fall ; Richmond, St. 
Osyth's well ; Scarborough, mineral waters, discovered 
accidentally in 1620; Thomason Foss, romantic water- 
fall. 

Public Edifices, Egton, bridge. Kirkby, free school, built 
in 1683, by Henry Edmunds, esq. Kirkleatham, hospi- 
tal, founded in 1676, by Sir William Turner, kt. Rich- 
mond, grammar school, founded by Queen Elizabeth in 
the ninth year of her reign. Ravensworth, school, by 
Dr. John Dakyn, 1556. Rudby, school, erected 1740. 
Scarborough, amicable society's schools, &c. built 1817; 
cliff-bridge, built 1826: sea-bathing infirmary, founded 



10 COUNTY HISTORY — YORKBHIRE (NORTH RIDING). 

in 1811 : seamen'B hospital, erected in 1752, by the ship- 
oirners of the town: piers. Well, grammar school, 
founded in the time of Henry VII I. : hospital. Whitby, 
dispensary, instituted 1786 : piers : poor house. Yarm, 
bridge over the Tees, originally built about 1400, re- 
moved in 1805, and one of iron, of 180 feet span, com- 
menced, but which falling down just before completion, 
the present substantial stone bridge was built : free school, 
founded by Queen Eiizabeth in 15S8, and endowed by 
Sir Thomas Conyers. 

SeatSy Hornby Castle, Duke of Leeds, 

Lord Lieutenant. 

Acklam Hall, Thomas Hustler, esq. 
Airy Hill, near Whitby, R. Moorsom, esq. 
Aislaby, Mark Noble, esq. 

John Benson, esq. 

Aldburgh, J. H. D'Arcy Hutton, esq. 
Aldby Park, Henry Darley, esq. 

Alne House, Strangewaves, esq. 

Arden Hall, D'Arcy Tancrea, esq. 
Arncliffe Hall, — Mauleverer, esq. 
Aske Hall, Lord Dundas. 
Barningham, Mark Mil bank, esq. 
Bedale, Mis8 Pierse. 

Grange, Hon. and Rev. Thomas Monson. 

Beningbrough Hall, Viscount Downc. 

Bolton Hall, Hon. Thomas Orde Powlett. 

Bowes Hall, Thomas Harrihon, esq. 

Brandsby Hall, Francis Cholmeley, esq. 

Brawith Hall, Peter Consett, esq. 

Brompton, Sir George Cayley, Bart. 

Brougb Hall, William Lawson, esq. 

Busby Hall, Rev. George Marwood. 

Camp Hill, William Rouks Leeds Serjeantson, esq. 

Carlton Hall, Captain Samuel Adlam Cooke. 

Husthwaite, Valentine Kitchingman. esq. 

Castle Howard, Earl of Carlisle. 
Cliffe, Wilson, esq. 



6£AT8. 11 

Clifton Castle, Timothy Hutton, esq. 
Clin is, Michael Erring ton, esq. 
Constable Burton, Marmaduke Wyville, esq. 
Cote Bank, Kskdale, D'Oyley Saunders, esq. 
Cowsby Hall, George Lloyd, esq. 
Crake Hall, Mrs. Pulleine. 
Croft, Sir William Chaytor, Bart. 
Crosby Hall, Rev. William Dent. 
Danby Hall, Simon Thomas Scroope, esq. 

Hill, Rev. William Cust. 

Doe Park Hall, William Hutchinson, esq. 
Duncombe Park, Lord Feversham. 
Earby Lodge, William Hutchinson, esq. 
Easby, Robert Jaques, es(j. 

Hall, Robert Champion, esq. 

Easthorpe House, Edivard Taylor, esq. 

Eg-ton Bridge, Richard Smith, esq. 

Esk Hall, Sleights, John Campion Coates, esq. 

Field House, Christopher Richardson, esq. 

Forcett Hall, Charles Mitchell, esq. 

Hackness, Sir John Vanden Bempde Johnstone, Bart. 

Halnaby Hall, Sir John Peniston Milbank, Bart. 

Haudale Abbey, Edward Turton, esq. 

Harlsey, East, John Charles Maynard, esq. 

Hartforth, Sheldon Cradock, esq. 

Hawxwell East, Mrs. Gale. 

Highthorn, William Hotham, esq. 

Hildenley, Henry Darley, esq. 

Holly Hill, Richard P. Strangways, esq. 

Hovingham, William Worsley, esq. 

Hutton Bushell, George Osbaldeston, esq. 

Hall, W. Battie Wrightson, esq. 

Lodffe, General M'Leod. 

Ingleby Alanor, Sir William Foulis, Bart. 
Jervaulx Abbey, Earl of Aylesbury. 
Kildale, Robert Bell Livesey, esq. 
Kilvington, North, Thomas Meynell, esq. 
Kiplin Hall, Earl Tyrconnel. 

Kirkby Hall, Favell, esq. 

Misperton, Rev. F. W. Blomberg. 

Kirkleatham, Henry Vansittart, esq. 
Langton Lodge, Mrs. Redfearn. 



12 COUNTY HIBTORY— Y0RK8HIRB (NORTH RIDING). 

Larpool Hall, Edmund Turton, esq. 
LartiDgton, Henry Thornton Maire Witham, esq. 
Layton, East, Thomas Barker, esq. 

West, Lord Rokeby. 

Leven Grove, Viscount Falkland. 
Loft House, Sir Robert Lawrence Dundas, Bart. 
Long Hall, Robert Chaloner, esq. 
Low Row, Ralph Parke, esq. 
Marrick Park, Francis Morley, esq. 
Marske Hall, John Hutton, esq. 
Marton Lodge, Bartholomew Rudd, esq. 
Maunby, Thomas Stubbs Walker, esq. 
Meadow Field, Henry Simpson, esq. 
Middleton Lodge, George Hartley, esq. 
Mount St. John, Charles Elsley, esq. 
Mulgrave Castle, Earl of Mulgrave. 
Myton Hall, Martin Stapylton, esq. 
Ness, East, Thomas Kendall, esq. 
Newbiggin Hall, Henry Walker Yeoman, esq. 
Newbrough Park, George Wombwell, esq. 
Newby Hall, Earl de Grey. 

Park, Francis Beaumont, esq. 

New Houses, Robert Lodge, esq. 
Newton House, Duke of Cleveland. 
Normanby, William Ward Jackson, esq. 
Norton Conyers, Sir Belli n^ham Graham, Bart. 
Nunthorpe Hall, Thomas Simpson, esq. 
Oran, Sackville Fox, esq. 
Ormesby Hall, Sir William Pennyman, Bart. 
Patrick Brompton, Miss Elsley. 
Peak, Sunderland Cook, esq. 
Pepper Hall, Hon. Colonel Arden. 
lynching thorpe, James Lee, esq. 
Raithwaite, Israel Hunter, esq. 

Raven Hall, near Whitby, Rev. Willis. 

Rokeby Park, John Bacon Sawrey Morritt, esq. 
Rounton Grange, John Wailes, esq. 
Ruswarp, Miss Pennyman. 

Joseph Campion, esq. 

-^— John Mellar, esq. 
Sandhutton, James Walker, esq. 
Scruton Hall, Mrs. Coore. 



SEATS. 13 

Sedbary Hall, Rev. John Gilpin. 
Sessay Hall, Viscount Downe. 
Sheriff Hutton Park, G. L. Thompson, esq. 
Sinnington Lodge, Pudsey Dawson, esq. 
Sion Hill, Joshua Crompton, esq. 
Skelton Castle, John Wharton, esq. 

Cottage, Mrs. Thompson. 

Grange, Edward Place, esq. 

Skinningrave, John Easterby, esq. 
Sleights Hall, Mrs. Bateman. 

Snape Hall, 

Sneaton Castle, Whitby, Miss Wilson, 
Stakesby, Hiffh, John Blackburn, esq. 
, Low, Abel Chapman, esq. 

Stanwick St. John, Lord Pruahoe. 

Startforth, T. H. Hill, esq. 
StillingtOD, William Croft, esq. 
Hall, Harry Croft, esq. 

Stokesley, Rev. Thomas Cator. 

Sutton on the Forest, William Charles Harland, esq. 

Swinethwaite, William John Anderson, esq. 

Swinton, Mrs. Danby. 

Theakstone, Edward Carter, esq. 

Thirkleby Hall, Sir Robert Frankland Russell, Bart. 

Thornton, Richard Hill, esq. 

Watlass, Sir Edward Dodsworth, bart. 

Thornton-Ie-Moor, Thomas Beckett, esq. 

Thorpe Perrow, Mark Milbank, esq. 

Tolesby Hall, Thomas Rudd, esq. 
-Upleatham Hall, Hon. Thomas Dundas* 

Warthill, Benjamin Agar, esq. 

Well, Richard Strangways, esq. 

Whitby Abbey, George Cholmley, esq. 

Wigginthorpe, William Garforth, esq. 

Wilton Castle, Sir John Lowther, Bart. 

Wood Hall, Christopher Alderson, esq. 

Wood End, Samuel Crompton, esq. 

Woodlands near Whitby, Henry Walker Yeoman, esq. 

Wyciiffe Hall, George Clifford, esq. 

Wykeham Abbey, Hon. Marmaduke Langdale. 



14 COUNTY HISTORY — YORKSHIRE (NORTH RIDING). 

Caves. Ebberston, called Elfwiu's or Elfrid's Hole, but 
more correctly Alfred's Hole ; Kirkdale, incrusted with 
stalactites, where a large collection of antediluviau bones 
were found (see p. 2) ; Maze Holes, near Sedbusk. 

Peerage. Aske, Dundas of, barony (1/94). Bolton Cas- 
tle, Bolton of, barony (1797) to Paulett. Carlton, ba- 
rony (1714) to Boyle. Danby, earldom C1626) to Dan- 
vers; extinct 164.3; re-created 1674 in theOsbomes, Dukes 
of Leeds. Loftus, barony (1801) to Tuttenham-Loftus. 
Mulgrave, earldom (1626) to Sheffield; extinct 1735; 
barony (1790) and earldom (1812) to Phipps ; Rich- 
mond, earldom (1 William I.) to Fergaunt Earl of 
Brittany; carried by marriage to the Dreux about 1220; 
extinct 1341 ; re-created in John Plantagenet, 1342; re- 
signed 1372, and again conferred on the Dreuxs, who for- 
feited it in 14 Ric. II. ; revived in the Plantagenets, 1414, 
and extinct 1435; re-created in the Tudors 1452, and ex- 
tinct 1536; re-created in the Stuarts 1613, made a duke- 
dom in 1623, and extinct 1672; dukedom re-created in 
the Lennoxes, 1675. Scarborough, earldom (1690) to 
Lumley -Saunderson. 

Baronetage, Brompton, Cay ley, 1661 ; Croft, Chaytor 
1831; Hackness, Vanden Bempde Johnstone, 1795; 
Ingleby Manor, Foulis, 1619 ; Norton Conyers, Gra- 
ham, 1662; Ormesby, Pennyman, 1663; Thirkleby, 
Frankland, now Russell, 1660 

Representatives returned to Pariiatnent, for the Riding, 2; 
Malton, 2 ; Northallerton, 1 ; Richmond, 2; Scarbo- 
roug^h, 2 ; Thirsk, 1 ; total, 10.-— The Reform Act gave 
2 to the Riding, and disfranchised Northallerton of 1 and 
Thirsk of 1. 



PRESENT STATE. 15 

Produce. Iron, very rich and extensive in the Vale of 
Goadland ; limestone, at Flamborough ; alum, the first in 
Britain was procured in 1595 at Bellman Bank, and at 
Whitby are the finest rocks in Europe ; whinstone, in the 
Vale of Goadland; ironstone; free stone; marble; coal; 
amber; jet, near Whitby; copper; lead. The largest 
harned cattle in England, and singularly fine horses. 
Hawks, of a large size, celebrated for ages at Killingnoble 
Scar in Newton Dale, and the inhabitants were obliged 
to attend to the breed of them, for the king's use. Fish. 

Manufactures, Hutton, Osmotherley, &c. weaving of linen 
yarn. Startforth, carpets. Whitby, sailcloth, sackcloth, 
and jet ornaments. 



16 



POPULATION IN ia3L 



fFapentakeSy 10; Liberties, 2; Boroughs, 5; Market 

Towns, 19 ; Parishes, 167 ; Parts of Parishes, 5. 
Houses. Inhabited, 38,116; Uninhabited, 2,026; Buildingf, 

117. 
Inhabitants. Males, 93,203; Females, 97,553; total, 

190,756. Maies under 20 years of age, 47,396. 
Families. Employed in Agfriculture, 17>964; in Trade, 

1 1 ,298 ; all other families, 1 1 ,498 ; total, 50,760. 
Baptisms in 1830. Males, 2,834; Females, 2,778; total, 

5,612. Annual average of 1821 to 1830, 5,599. 
Marriages, 1,237. Annual Average , 1,307. 
Burials, Males, 1,635: Females, 1,669: total, 3,304. 

Annual Average y 3,319. 

Places having not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 

Houses. lohab. h 

8,369 Helmsley 

7,765 Reeth 

4,173 Melbecks 

3,900 Arkengarth Dale 

3,004 Danby 

2,835 Masham 

S,555 Bedale 

1,980 Muker 

1,988 OldMalton 

1,967 Lythe 

1,922 Great Ayton 

1,802 Osmotherley 

1,698 Egton 

1 ,636 Lofthoufle 

1,559 Hutton 

1,535 Glaisdale 

1,510 Leyboum 



Scarborough 


1,898 


Whitby 


1,503 


New Malton 


787 


Richmond 


803 


Northallerton 


656 


Thirsk 


629 


Pickering 


690 


Ruswarp 


498 


Guisbrongh 


496 


Stokesley 


460 


Easingwold 


406 


Kirkby Moorside 419 


Hinderwell 


378 


Yarm 


410 


Hawes 


321 


Fylingdales 


459 


Brompton 


322 



ouses. 


Inhak 


303 


1,485 


332 


1,456 


330 


1,455 


309 


1,446 


304 


1,392 


274 


1,276 


226 


1,266 


292 


1.247 


244 


1,204 


246 


1.116 


272 


1,103 


226 


1,087 


197 


1,071 


253 


1,038 


251 


1,027 


243 


1,004 


152 


1,003 



17 



HISTORY. 

A. B. 

520. King Arthur gained a complete victory over the Saxons 
at Badun Hill. 

620. Paulinus is said to have baptized in the Sirale near 
Topcliffe upwards of 10,000 persons on one day. 

6.51. Oswyn, King of Deira, basely murdered by Oswin 
Kiug of Bernicia, at Gilling. 

664. The famous synod was held at Whitby Abbey, during 
the abbacy of Lady Hilda, for fixing the time of the cele- 
bration of Easter according to the Roman custom. 

769. Catterick burnt by the tyrant Eanred, or Beanred. ' 

800. Mulgrave castle, after the battle of Whalley, fortified 
by the Saxon Duke Wada, who was compelled to fiy 
thither for refuge. 

876. Hinguar and Hubba, having collected a great band of 
adventurers, set sail for England with a nujierous fleet, 
and landed in two divisions. Hubba debarked about two 
miles westward of Whitby, and erected his standard on 
Raven Hill; and Hinguar at Peak, about seven miles 
south-east of Whitby. 

948. In the Earl of Northumberland's house at Topcliffe, 
the States of Northumbria assembled, and took the oaths 
of alledance to Edred of Wessex. 

1066. Harfager, King of Norway, along with Tosti 
Earl of Northumberland, and a numerous host, sailed 
along the coast to Scarborough, which they plundered 
and burned. They then re-embarked, and with 500 
ships entered the Humber, but were finally defeated at 
Stamford Bridge, September 25, by HaroM King of 
England. 
1138. At Standard Hill, near North Cowton, was fought 
the bloody battle of "the Standard,'' between the Scots 

q 



18 COUNTY HIBTORY — YORKHfIRE (NORTH RIDINO). 
A.D. 

under their King David, and the English commanded by 
Thurstan Archbishop of York and other powerful 
northern barons, in irhich the Scots were defeated. 

1273. Edward 1. kept a splendid court at Scarborough, 
attended by a large train of nobles. 

1312. The Earl of Pembroke besieged I^ers de Gavet»ton 
in Scarborough castie, but several of his assaults were 
repulsed with great bravery ; and it was the want of pro- 
vitiions only which obliged him, after a noble defence, to 
surrender himself. 

1318. llobert Bruce, King of Scotland, reduced Scarbo- 
rough, Skipton, Northallerton, Boroughbridge, &c. &c. 
to ashes, and returned to his own countr; with vast plan, 
der, and many prisoners. 

1319. The Scots, under the command of Randolph Earl of 
Murray and Sir James Douglas, entered England, and 
wasted all with fire and sword till they came to the very 
gates of York. Among the rest. Kirk Levington fell a 
prey to their rapacity. They destroyed the suburbs of the 
city of York; after which, they drew off their men, and 
inarched back to Scotland. The Archbishop of York 
assembled 10,000 men, and pursued the enemy to Myton, 
where a dreadful engagement ensued ; the Yorkists, owing 
to their ignorance, being defeated, and above 2,000 of the 
English, with the Mayor of York, killed. 

1377* A daring Scottish freebooter, of the name of Mercer, 
being committed prisoner to Scarborough castle, his son 
entered the harbour, and carried away a number of mer- 
chant-vessels in triumph. 

1467. Edward IV. confiriCd in Middleham castle by the 
Earl of Warwick,frorii which he afterward escaped. 

1471. The Bastard Falconbridge beheaded in Middleham 
castle. 

1484. A battle off Scarborough between the French and 



HISTORY. 19 

A. D. 

£ngli8fa fleets, when several ships were taken bj the 
former. 

1485. During the reign of Richard III. he twice visited 
lackering and Scarborough castlea, and made the latter 
town a county of itself, a privilege discontinued very soon 
afterward. 

1489. Henry, the fourth Earl of Northumberland, having 
incautiously communicated to the populace the determina* 
tion of the king not to remit any portion of the subsidy 
granted for the war in Bretagne, and being suspected of 
influencing the monarch, was dragged from Topclifie by 
the populace, and murdered at Thirsk. Some authorities 

' fix the scene of his death in his house at Cockledge, near 
Topcliffe. 

1503. The Princess Margaret visited New burgh on her 
road to Scotland to be married to James IV. 

1536. Aske, with his fanatical army, in their '* Pilgrimage 
of Grace,'' made an attack on Scarborough castle, but was 
obliged to abandon tfie enterprise with confusion and 
disgrace. 

1548. At Seamer, Thomas Dull and others rope, undertbe 
pretence of reforming the abuses of religion, but were 
soon put down. 

1553. At the time of Wyat's rebellion, Thomas Stafford, 
second son of Lord Stafford, obtained possession of Scar- 
borough castle by stratagem ; but did not hold it long, 
being dislodged by the Earl of Westmorland. He was 
soon afterward decapitated: hence the origin of the 
phrase, a " Scarborough warning ; — a word and a blow, 
and the blow comes first.'' 

1568. Mary Queen of Scots confined in Bolton castle. 

1 569. Thomas the seventh Earl of Northumberland took up 
arms against Elizabeth, and was nearly seized in his house 
at Topcliffe. 



20 COUNTY HISTORY — ^TORKSHIRB (NORTH RIDINO). 
A D. 

1572« Charles of France sent a fleet, under Verarcque, to 
foment the differences between the Scots and Queen Eli- 
zabeth; but contrary winds drove them Into Scarborough, 
where Verarcque was apprehended, and thence sent to 
London. 

1642. The Earl of Newcastle forced his passage across the 
Tees with 6,000 troops. 

1642-3. January 16, Colonel Slingsby and about 600 of the 
King's troops defeated Sir Hugh Cholmley at Guisborough. 

1643. Yarm, garrisoned by four hundred Parliamentarians, 
was taken by the Royalists under the Earl of Newcastle. 

1644. Sir Thomas Fairfax besieged Helmsley castle, which 
surrendered November 21, and was dismantled. — ^Scarbo- 
rough castle besieged by the Parliamentarians under Sir 
John Meldrum, who took the town and church by as- 
sault, Feb. 18, and after several attempts to storm the 
castle, regularly invested it on the 17th of May« 

1645. The besiegers made a general assault, but were re- 
pulsed with great loss, Sir John Meldrum dying of his 
wounds on the third of June. Sir Matthew Boynton 
succeeded him in the command, and prosecuted the siege 
with such vigour that the Royalists, under Sir Hugh 
Cholmley, were obliged to surrender, an honourable 
terms, July 25, 1645.— Bolton castle also surrendered on 
honourable terms to the Parliamentarians, November 5. 

1646. The Scotch army quartered at Topcliffe, aud Charles 
was confined in the house of the Earls of Northumberland 
there, where also was paid the sum of £200,000 to the 
Scottish Commissioners for giving the King up to the Par- 
liament. 

1648. Colonel Boynton, son of Sir Matthew, having de- 
clared for the King, Scarborough castle was again besi^ed 
in the middle of September ; and, when the garrison grew 
mutinous, surrendered to Colonel Bethell on Dec. 15. 



21 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Ascham, Roger, author of the ** Toxophilus,'" Sic and tutor 

and Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth, Kirkby Wiske. 

1515 (died 1568). 
Balguy, Thomas, Archdeacon of Winchester, author, North- 
allerton, or Coxclose near Ravensworth castle, 1716 

(died 1795). 
Barnes, Barnabv, author of " The Devil's Charter,'' a tra- 
gedy, Yarm, 1569. 
Baston, Robert, carmelite friar, historian, and poet laureate 

to Edward I. Scarborough (died about 1310). 
Baynes, John, lairyer, miscellaneous author, Middleham, 

1758 (died 1787) > 
Blackburn, Francis, divine, author of the ''Confessional,'^ 

&c. Richmond, 1705 (died 1787). 
Brompton, John de. Abbot of Jervaulx^ historian, Bromp* 

ton, temp. Edward III. 
Brown, Thomas, the hero of Dettingen, Kirkleatham, 1712 

or 1715. 
Burnet, Dr. Thomas, divine and philosopher, author of the 

"ITieory of the Earth," &c. Croft, 1635 (ob. 1715). 
Bushell, Captain Brown, an active royalist, excepted from 

mercy, 1650. 
CalvertC George, first Lord Baltimore, Kipling, 1582 (died 

1632), 
€«dmon, a monk, sacred poet, Whitby abbey (died 679). 
Clarke, John, divine and learned schoolmaster, Kirkby Mis- 

perton, 1703. 
Cholmley, Sir Huf h, baronet, royalist general, Roxby or 

Flamborough, ImK). 
Cook, Captain James, circumnavigator, discoverer, im** 

prover of geographical science, and author, Marton, 1728 

(killed by the natives of Otaheite, 1779). 
Coverdale, Miles, pious and learned Bishop of Exeter, 

translator of the Bible, and author of many religious 

works, Coverdale, 1487 (died 1568). 
Coulson, Christopher, benefactor, Newby. 
Craven, Dr. William, Master of St. .fohn's college^ Cam- 



22 COCNTT HISTORY — TORKfHIRB (NORTH RIDING). 

bridge, and professor of Arabic, Gowthwaite Hall, 1/28 
(died 1814). 

Cuitt, George, ingeoious artist, Moidton, 1743. 

Dean, John, brave seaman, the only survivor of the crew of 
the Sussex when deserted by Captain Gosling, Scarbo- 
rough (died 1747). 

Dodsworth, Roffer, antiquary, topographer, and inde&tiga- 
ble collector, Newton Grange, 1585 (died 1654;. 

Ealread, Abbot of Kievaulx (died 1166). 

Edward, only son of Richard the Third, Middleham (died 
1484). 

Fothergtll, John, physician, botanist, and author, Carr End, 
1712 (died 1780). 

Gale, Thomas, D.D. Dean of York, Greek scholar, critic, 
and antiquary, Scruton, 1636 (died 1702). 

GowBR, John, father of English poetry, styled by Chaucer 
<*tlie moral Gower,'* Stittenham, 1320 (died 1402). 

Greathead, Henry, inventor of a life-boat, Ridimond. 

Hickes, Dr. George, dean of Worcester, antiquary, author 
of the ••Thesaurus,*' Newsham, Kirkby Wiske, 16^ 
(died 1715). 

^— John, brother of the above, nonconformist, adherent 
of the Duke of Monmouth (executed 1685). 

Hilda, Lady, Abbess of Whitby and Hackness (died 680). 

Hinderwell, Thomas, historian of Scarborough, Scarborough, 
1744 (died 1825). 

Hornsey, John, author of "English Grammar,'' &c. Scar- 
borough (died 1820). 

Hutchinson, John, philosopher and theologian, author of 
••Moses' Principia," in which he laboured to explode the 
doctrine of gravitation, Spennithorne, 1674 (died 1737). 

Hutton, Matthew, Archbishop of York, Marske, 1546. 

Jackson, John, divine, learned Hebraist and polemical 
writer, Lensy, 1686 (died 1673). 

Jenkins, Henry, bom at Ellerton on Swale in 1500, and 
died in 1670! 

Johnson, Bartholomew, musician, Wykeham near Scarbo- 
rough (died in 1814, aged 104). 

Kettlewell, John, divine and author, Northallerton, 1653 
(died 1695). 

Lascelles, Peregrine, distinguished military officer, Whitby, 

LawBon, Sir John, admiral, Scarborough or Hull (died 1665, 




EMINENT NATIVES. 23 

from a wound in the action off Lowestoft, in Suffolk, 
against the Dutch). 

Nicholson, Francis, Governor of South Carolina, Down- 
holme (17th century). 

Palliser, William, Archhp. of Cashell, 1694, Kirkby Wiske. 

Perceval, John, first Earl of Egmont, statesman, genealo- 
gist, and author. Barton, 1683 (died ^74S\ 

Rievallensis, Gulielmus, Rievaulx (died 114o). 

Robinson, John, Bishop of London, statesman, Cleasby, 
1650. 

Roddam, Robert, admiral, Richmond, about 1724 (died 
1808). 

Rymer, Thomas, historiographer royal, critic, antiquary, 
and dramatist, editor of the " Foedera,'' Northallerton 
(died 1713). 

Scardeburgh, Rorer de, Benedictine, Abbot of Whitby, 
Scarborough (died 1244). 

Robert de, ecclesiastic, Scarborough (died 1290). 

Shaw, Cuthbert, player, satirist, and miscellaneous writer, 
Ravensworth, 1738 (died 1771). 

Simpson, David, author of '< Plea for Religion,'* &c. Arn- 
cliffe (died 1799). 

Stonehouse, Christopher, undaunted naval officer, Yarm 
(living 1808). 

Taylor, Henry, philanthropist, projector of lighthouses, &c. 
Whitby, 1737 (died 1823). 

^— - Thomas, learned puritan, Richmond, 1576. 

Topbam, John, antiquary. New Malton (died 1803). 

Travis, John, surgeon and icthyologis^ Scarborough or 
Yarm, 1724 (diei 1794). 

Tunstall, Cuthbert, Bishop of London and Durham, mode- 
rate catholic, refused the oath of supremacy to Queen Eli- 
zabeth, Hackforth, 1474 or 1475 (died 1559). 

James, D.D. public orator at Cambridge, author, 

Aysgarth, 1710 (died 1772). 

Walton, Dr. Brian, learned divine and critic, editor of Poly- 
glott Bible, Seamer in Cleveland, 1600 (died 1661). 

WiCKLiPPB, John, theological and political writer, " the 
morning-star of the Reformation,*' Hipswell, 1324 (died 
1384). 

Wittie, Robert, physician and author, Scarborough (living 
1660> 



IM 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

At Ayton, the circumnavigfator Cook received his school 
education, at the expense of Thomas Scottowe, esq. 

In Bolton on Swale Chapel^ a handsome pjramid, 
erected in 1747 with a suitable inscription, marks the ^ave 
of Henry Jenkins, who died in 1670, aged 169. This extra- 
ordinary individual was born at Ellerton on Swale in 1500; 
carried arrows to the battle of Flodden Field, being then 
eleven or twelve years old ; and was the only one who, in 
the time of Charles II., survived to tell the tale of the disso- 
lution of monasteries. 

Whitaker says, *< could Brimham be transported to Salis- 
bury Plain, Stonehenge itself would be reduced to a pour 
and pigmy miniature." 

At Castle Howard is a fine collection of paintings, 
statues, antique busts, &c. In the park is a stately obelisk, 
upward of 100 feet high, in the centre of four avenues. 
The magnificent mausoleum is a circular edifice crowned 
with a dome, and surrounded by a handsome colonnade of 
Doric pillars. Over the vault is an elegant circular chapel, 
34 feet in diameter. 

At DuNcOMBE Park is a fine piece of sculpture, called the 
Dog of Alcibiades, said to be the work of Myron, and ranked 
among the five dogs of antiquity. Here is also the famous 
Discobolus, esteemed the finest statue in England. Among 
the splendid collection of paintings, is a candle-light scene 
(Old Woman and Girl; by Rubens, which cost 1500 guineas. 

At Easby, in 1790, a very singular inscription was dis- 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 25 

covered, beautifully written in English, Hebrew, Greek, and 
Latin, to the mcfniory of Richard Swale, 1538. It was 
found pasted, between two boards, which were for manjr 
years used to cut the sacramental bread upon. Whitaker 
supposes it to have been written by Miles Coverdale. 

At GuiSBOROuoH the first alum- works in England were 
erected by Sir T. Chaloner, who procured workmen from 
the Pope*B works, in the time of Elizabeth, for which 
the Pope Culminated a dreadful anathema against Sir Tho- 
mas and his workmen. — In the Cbapel belonging to Turner^s 
hospital is a fine painted window, representing the offerings 
of the Magi at the birth of Christ, 

The Fall of Hardraw in the great frost, 1739-40, be- 
came a hollow column of ice, through which the unfrozen 
current was distinctly seen to precipitate itself, while the 
country people, surprised and delighted by so novel an 
appearance, danced around it. — Near this place, in 1805, a 
perfect specimen of the Swallow-tailed Falcon was taken 
alive, and the only instance of this species being seen in 
Great Britain ; and in 1807 was shot the '* Rallus pusillus,'* 
a bird unknown to Linnieus. 

At KiRKBY MooRSiDE, in his own house, died April 16, 
J688, in extreme misery, George Villiers, the younger, 
Duke of Buckingham, the witty, profligate, and unprinci- 
pled favorite of Charles II. ^fhe statements in the well- 
known lines of Pope, of his dying in want, and at an inn, 
are poetical embellishments. 

At OxNUp died, in 1764, George Kirkton, esquire, of 
Exnup Hall, aged 124. 

At Pickering Castle, Richard II, was immured before 
going to Pontefract. 

Richmond Castle presents some majestic ruins ; the shell 
of the keep is almost entire. — The rich stalls in St. Mary's 
choir were removed from St. Agatha's abbey. Here are 



26 COUNTY HISTORY — ^YORKSHIRE (NORTH RIDIKG). 

some very laconic inscriptions in both Latin and English 
verse ; and a monument to Archdeacon Blackburne. 

Robin Hood*8 Bay was so called from its being tradi- 
tionally said to have been the retreat of the famous outlaw. 
Here he had always a number of fishing vessels, on board 
of which he could take refuge if pursued. 

At RoKBBY Pftrk b some of the finest needle-work in the 
kingdom ; and a good collection of paintings, busts, statues, 
sculptures, elegant sepulchral urns, altars, inscriptions, &c. 

Of RoMALDKiRK were Rectors, William Knight, Rishop 
of Bath and Wells, 1541 ; John Best, Bishop of Carlisle, 
1560 ; and Richard Barns, who died Bp. of Durham 1570. 

At Saltwick, about 1762, the petrified skeleton of a 
horse was found, at the depth of thirty yards below the sur- 
face of the ground. 

ScALBY was the Vicarage of William Mompesson, whose 
benevolent exertions at the period of the plague in 1665, at 
his rectory of Eyam in Derbyshire, are noticed in the "Mis- 
cellaneous Observations'' of that county. He died in 1708. 

At Scarborough resided the gallant Admirsd Sir John 
LawsoD. — In the Castle was imprisoned above twelve months, 
for his religious opinions, George Fox, the first of the peo- 
ple called Quakers. His sufferings here were very great. 
He was released September 1, 1666.— On February 8, 1738, 
died the celebrated Dicky Dickinson, governor of the Spa ; 
a character disting^uished by his deformity of person, and 
the uncommon brilliancy of his wit; — circumstances, which 
originated these lines : 

*' Samos, unenvied, boasts her ^sop gone, 
Aud France may glory in her late Scarron, 
While England has a living Dickinson/' 
In 1775, died, aged 103, William Allanson, governor of the 
Spa; and in 1811 a jubilee was celebrated to commemorate 
the 100th year of Mr. Benjamin Johnson. 



MI8CBLLAN£OU8 OB8BRVATION8. 27 

AtSoRUTON the indefatigable Dean Thomas Gale, and 
his son Roger, resided. 

Sbdbury is supposed to have been a palace of King Os- 
win. 

At Sheriff Hdtton Castle was confined for several 
months, bjr order of Richard III., Elizabeth of York, 
who healed the feuds of the Roses bjr her union with Henry 
VII , and who was the mother of Henry VHI. and Marga- 
ret of Scotland ; and here also was imprisoned for upward 
of two years, by the same monarch, the youthful Edward 
Earl of Warwick, the last heir male of the Plantagenets. 

Skblton Castle, while in the possession of John Hall, 
esquire, author of the "Crazy Tales,'' &c. was frequently 
visited by Sterne. 

At Staiths, Captain Cook was put apprentice to a shop- 
keeper. 

At SwiNTON is a fine collection of pictures, ancient and 
modem. 

In Tanpield Church are several tombs and effigies of the 
Afarmions. 

At Wbnslby are many fine sepulchral memorials of the 
Scropes, &c. 

At Whitby, in the early part of the last century. Dr. 
Woodward dug up the petrified arm and hand of a man, in 
which all the bones and joints were visible; about 1743, the 
Rev. Mr. Borwick found a complete petrified skeleton, broken 
into several pieces by digging up ; and in 1758 a fossil cro- 
codile, likewise broken ; beside many other rarities, now in 
the museum of the Philosophical and Literary Society here. 

Yarm Church has a beautiful painted window of Moses 
delivering the Law from Mount Sinai. 



] 



1 




EAST RIDING. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Boundaries, North, the rivers Hertford ' and Dernrent: 
East, the German Ocean: South, the HuniiVer: M''est, 
the Ousc. 

Greatest length, ^5 ; greatest breadth, 33 ; circumference, 
175; square, 1119 mWes ; statute acres, 716,160.. 

Province, York. Diocese, York. The East Riding h aa 
Archdeaconry, with the Deaneries of Buckrose, Dickering, 
Harthill cum Beverley and Howden peculiar, and Hol- 
der ness. 

Circuity Northern. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Parisi and Brigantes. This divisioti 
of the county was called by the Britons Dwy vawr or Deify r. 
Encampment, Barnby Moor. Earthworks, Arras, near 
Goodmanham, tumuli : Bishop Burton, tumuli, ten in one 
field. Remains^ Arras, near Goudmanham, urns, brass 
and jet ornaments ; Bishop Burton, urns ; Swlfie, brass 
celts, fragments of spears. 



30 COUNTY HIBTORr-^TORKSHIRB (£A8T RIDING). 

Druidicai Remainsy Drenrlon, gigantic upright stone, a 
rock idol ; Rudston, in the churchyard, similar to that 
at Dre\Fton. 

Roman Province, Maxima rsesariensis. Stations, Delgovitia, 
Londesbrough, or Market Weighton, or Goodmanham ; 
Derventio, Stanford Bridge, or Aldby; Ocellum Pro- 
montorium, Spurnhead ; Petuaria, Brougfa, or Beverley ; 
Presidium, Ravenspurne (a town since swallowed up by 
the sea). Encampments, Hemborough ; Swine, called 
Woodhouse, with double ramparts from two to fire yards 
in height. Remains discovered, at Beverley, pavement ; 
Metham, remains of a pottery, with broken urns and cin- 
ders; Millington, foundations, tiles, and pavements; 

' South Benton, two tessellated pavements; Walton, jar 
of coarse pottery, but elegant in form. 

Saxon Octarch^y Deira. Temple, Goodmanham, destroyed 
by Ctifi; on its site now stands the church. 

Danish Earthworks, Dane*s Dike, near Flamborough ; 
near Huggate, very extensive. 

Abbey. Meux or Melsa, near Hull, founded in 1150, by- 
William le Gros, Earl uf Albemarle, and Lord of Holder- 
ness. 

Priories. Beverley, founded by St. John de Beverley, 
Archbishop of York ; Bridlingtcn.by Walter de Gaunt, 
in the time of Henry T., the fortified gatehouse, and the 
nave of the church are all that remains of this (tpacious 
and magnificent monastery ; Burstall, in 1115, by Ste- 
phen Earl of Albemarle, cell to St. Martin de Alceio, near 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 3' 

Albemarle in Normandy ; Cottingham, in 1322, by Tho- 
mas Lord Wake of Lyddel ; Ellerton, by William Fitz- 
Peter, about 1221 ; North Ferriby, in 1200, by Lord 
Eustace Broraflete de Vesci ; Haltemprice, about 1324, 
by Thomas L ;rd Wake of Lyddel, removed from Cotting- 
ham; Hull, in 1378, by Sir Michael de la Pole, having 
been begun by his father Sir William ; Kirkham, in 
1121*2, by Sir Walter d^Espec and his wife Adeline 
the beautiful gateway, and a fine Norman dootway, with 
part of the cloisters, remain ; Nuukeeling, by Agnes de 
Arches, temp. Stephen; and, Warter, in 1132, by GeoiFrey 
Fitz-Pain. 

Gunneries, Nunburnholme, founded by Roger deMorley, 
lord of the barony of Morpeth; Swine, by Kobert de 
Verli, temp. Stephen; Thickett, in the time of Richard 
I., by Roger Fitz-Roger ; Watton, ante 686, re-founded 
in 1150, by Eustace Fitz-John, considerable remains of 
work done in the time of Henry VIII.; Wilberfoss, in 
1153, by Helias de Catton; Yedingham, ante 1168, by 
Roger le Clerc. 

Friaries. Bevrrley, Black, as early as 1311 ; Grey, in 1297, 
by William Liketon and Henry Wighton. Cottingham, 
by ITiomas de Wake, in the 14th century, removed to 
Haltemprice. Hull, White, by theP^rcies ; Augustine, by 
Sir Jeffrey de Hothaui, in the beginning of the fourteenth 
century ; Black. Sutton, White, in the time of Edward I. 

Preceptory. Beverley, founded by Sybilla de Valoniis, in 
1201, temp. John. 

Commandery. North Ferriby, founded by Lord Eustace 
Bromflete de Vescy. 



32 COUNTT BISTORT — ^TORKSHIRB (BAST •RIDING). 

Colleges. Beverlej, founded bj St. John of Beverlej, 
about 700; Hemingsborough, in 1246, by tbe Monas- 
tery of Durham; Howden, by Robert, Bishop of Dur- 
ham, 1266; Lowthorpe, in the time of Edward III. by 
Sir John Haslaxton ; Sutton. 

Hospitals, Beverley, St.. Giles, founded before the time of 
William I.; St Nicholas, before 1286; Trinity; and 
another. Flixton, in the time of Ethelstan, by one Ace- 
horne, a knight. Hedon, in the time of John. Hull, 
Maison Dieu, in the ISth of Edward III. bv John Kings- 
ton; Pole*8, by Michael dc la Pole, 1384; Selby's, in the 
time of Edward 111. by Robert de Selby, and Richard de 
Ravenser. Mitton, ante 1407* Newton, by William 
Earl of Albemarle, who died in 117d. Norton, in the 
time of Henry II. by Roger de Flamvill. Sutton. 

Churches, Aldborough, a mixture of the Norman and' 
early pointed styles ; Bempton, Norman south doorway, 
ornamented; Beverley, Si. Mary, very handsome and 
large, some portions as old as 118S, and styles to the 15th 
century ; Bridlington, belonging to the priory, exhibits 
many interesting details of the best period of pointed ar- 
chitecture ; Filey, Norman and early pointed, very beau- 
tiful ; Flamborough, some parts Norman ; Goodman- 
ham, fine specimen of the Norman ; Great Driffield, part 
Norman; Hcmingborough, with a beautiful spire; 
Howden, beautiful chapter-house, 14th cent. ; Hull, Holy 
Trinity, the largest parochial edifice in England, being 272 
feet long from east to west, and in breadth of nave 172ft. 
the transept, of brick, is considered the oldest brick build- 
ing, not Roman, in Britain; Kilham, very elaborate 
semicircular south doorway; North Newbald, some 
excellent Norman remains; Swine, massive circular co- 
lumns and pointed arches. 



i 



ANTIENT STATB AND REMAINS* 33 

Chapeh, Dunnington, some of the foundations remain ; 
Great Hatfield, wholly dilapidated ; Holme on Spalding 
Moor, erected before the 14th century ; Skirlaugh, built 
by Bishop Skirlaugh, in the 14th century, a very perfect 
and beautiful building ; Speeton, Norman remains. 

Fonts. Barmston, circular, with cable moulding, &c. ; 
Beverley, St. Mary's, octagonal, sculptured with splendid 
tracery, date 1530 ; Carnaby ; Everingham, Saxon, 
removed from the church ; Flamborough, circular, simi- 
lar to Barmston ; Goodmanham, in which Coifi was 
baptized ; Hull, Trinity church, of great beauty, on five 
columns; Righton, square, with Norman sculptures; 
Rudston, circular, rudely ornamented. 

Castles. Aldborough, belonged to the Saxon nobleman 
Uif, and subsequently to William le Gros, Darl of Albe- 
marle, 1138 ; Aughton ; Cottingham, fortified about 1200: 
Flamborough, some remains of walls near the church ; 

• Hull, erected in 1378, by the Mayor, &c., and another 
built by Henry VIII.; Hunmanby, no remains; Leck- 
onfield, fortified 1308, taken down in the time of James I.; 
Skipsea, built by Drogo de Bruer, a Fleming, who came 
over with Wiiliam I. whose niece he married, and was the 
first lord of Holderness; Wressle, built by Thomas 
Percy, Earl of Worcester, in the time of Richard II., de« 
molished in tht time of Charles I. 

Mansions. Barmston Hall, used as a farm-house ; Garton 
Blue Hall, converted into a farm-house ; Howden, a 
palace of the Bishops of Durham, now a farm-house ; 
Hunmanby Hall, considerably modernized. 



H 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 
La^e^ The Men^ near Horneea. 

Eminences and Views. Bessingby; Bridlington Quay, 
a delightful view of Flamborough Head and the bay; 
from Burton Agnes an extensive view of the level coun- 
try at the foot of the Wolds ; Filey Bay, beautiful and 
picturesque; Flamborough Head, extending nearly five 
miles in length, and in some places 300 feet high, in nio- 
derate weather covered with sea-birds ; from Patrington 
churchyard are delightful views of the Humber ; Sle4* 
mere, novel and striking ;^ Sewerby )|4Kise, magnificent 
- view of Bridlington bay ; the views from Swanland and 
Brantinghamthorpe are greatly admired for their grandeur 
and variety ; the Wolds, a magnificent assemblage of chalk 
hills, originating near Hunmanby, about 600 feet high, 
afford delightful prospects, particularly from the southern 
edge. 

JVaturai Curiv^ities.. Bishop Qurton, an immense elm, of 
the species called Witch elm, 48 feet in circumference; 
Bridlington Quay, chalybeate spring; the Gipa and 
Gipsey springs, on the Wolds; Harpham, St John*s 
well, commemorative of St. John of Beverley. 

Public Edifices. Beverley, grammar school : hospital, esta- 
blished by William Temperon, in 1723: another, founded 
in 1636, by Fox Thwaites, esq.: sessions hall and house 
of correction, begun 1803, enlarged 1819, cost £42,000. 



r&ESBNT 8TATB AND AFPEARANCB.^ 35 

Eastrington, free school, founded in 1727» bjrMr. Joseph 
Hevrsley. North Ferriby, school, founded in 1778, by- 
Luke Lillingston, esq. Flamborough, lighthouse, erected 
1806. Gate Fulford, quakers* retreat: York barracks. 
Halsham, free school, founded by Sir John Constable,, 
knight, in 1579- Hull, charity hall, or house of indus- 
try: charter house, or Maison Dieu, founded by Michael 
de la Pole, in 1384, rebuilt in 1780: equestrian statue of 
William HI. erected 1734: old dock, made by Act 1774, 
opened 1775: Humber dock. Acts 1802 and 1805, opened 
1809, cost £220,000: junction dock, commenced 182G^ 
opened June 1, 1829, the whole forming a series of works 
for marioe accommodation not excelled throughout the 
kingdom: female penitentiary, opened in 1811: general 
infirmary, built 1782 : grammar school, founded by John 
Alcock, Bishop of Ely, in 1486 : master mariners' alms- 
house, finished 1834: marine school, established 1786: 
new gaol r Postemgate hospital, founded by John Gregg, 
in 1416: public rooms, foundation laid June 28, 1830, 
large and handsome, architect Mountain: theatre, erected 
]^Q «»apQ4»;miQ ar^^ifA^f Mouutalu : Trinity house, a spa- 
cious building, erected 1753^: Trimty almshouse, built 
1828. Skipwith, school, founded by the will of Dorothy- 
Wilson, 1710. Spumhead, lighthouse, built in 1677 by- 
Mr. Justinian Angel, of London. 

r 

Caves, Dovecote; Flamborough; Kirk Hole; Jtobin' 
Lyth's Hole. 

Seats. — Anlaby, William Vause, esq. 
Bessingby Half, Harrington Hudson, esq. 
Beverley Hall, John Yorkc, esq. 
Birdsall, Henry Willoughby, esq. 
Bolton Hall, John Preston, esq. 



^ 



36 couNTt HUTomy«i»TDm&nuBi (aast m»iNo). 

Boirtliorpe, naar Howdtn, — — * 

Aoynton Hall, ^r Georf e Strickland, Bart 

Burton AgoeS) Sir Henry Bojnton, Bart. 

Burton Constable, Sir Thomas Aston Clifford Constable, 

Bart 
Bishop Burton, Fraaois Watt, esq. 

HalU Richard Watt. esq. 

Cave Castle, Henry Gee Barnard, esq. 

Cherry Burton, David Fowler, esq. 

Cottiogham Castle, lliomas Thompson, esq. 

IHlton (South) House, Lord Hotham. 

Bsorick Hall, Paul Beilby Thompson, esq. 

Everinsiuun Park* William Constable Maxwell, esq. 

Firby, Rev. Thomas Harrison. 

Ganton Hall, Sir Thomas Digby Legard, Bart. 

Garrowby, Sir Francis i^ndley Wood, Bart. 

Grimston Garth, — ^ 

Heslinffton Hall, Major Yarburgh. 

Hessle Wood House, Jos. Robinson Pease, esq. 

Hessle Mount, James Kiero Watson, esq. 

Hirh Paghill, Blaydes, esq. 

Holme on Spalding Moor, Hon. Philip Stourton. 
Houghton, Hon. Charles Langdale. 
Howsham Hall, George Cholmley, esq. 
Hull Bank, Benjamin^lades Haworth, esq. 
Hunmanby, Bertram Mitford Osbaldeston, esq. 
Kilnwick Percy, Robert Denison, esq. 

, Charles Grimston, esq. 
Kirk Ella. Mrs. John Sykes. 
Langton, Lieutenant Colonel Norcliffe. 
Lowthorpe Hall, William Thomas St Quintin, esq. 
Marton House, Miss Crevke. 
Melbourne House, Sir Henry Maghull Mervyn Vavasour, 

Bart. 

■ Lodge, General Wharton. 
Illelton, Henry Thompson, esq. 

Hill House, Henry Broadley, esq. 

Meiham, PhilipScholfield, esq. 
Moreby, Rev. Thomas Preston. | 

Newton, Sir George Strickland, Bart. f 

Octon Cottage, Robert Prickett, esq. i 



Painstborpe, Captain Richardson. 

Raywell, Mrs. Daniel Sykes. 

Riccali Hall, Toft Richardson, esq. 

Rise, Richard Bethell, esq. 

Saltmarshe, Philip Saltmarshe, esq. 

Scampton Hall, w ilHam Thomas St Qnintin, esq* 

Settnngton» 

Sevrerby House, John Greame, esq. 
Skipwiw, Mrs. Jane Hudson. 
Sleamere, Sir Tatton Sykes, Bart* 
S|>aldinffton Hall, Lord Howden. 
Stilling^fleet, Joshua lofham, esq. 

Sunderlandwick, Keynard, esq. 

Swanland, Nicholas Sykes, esq. 
Thorpe Brantingham, Colonel Shawe* 
Thorpe Hall, Alexander Bosville, esq. 
Warter Hall, Lord Muncaster. 
Wassand, Rev. Charles Constable. 
Welham, Robert Bower, esq. 
Welton, Robert Raikes, esq. 
West Ella, Richard Sykes, esq. 
West Heslerton, Mark Foulis, esq. 
Winestead, Arthur Maister, esq. 
Wood Hall, John Mabter, esq. 

Peerage. Beverley, earldom (1790) to Percy; Howden 
and Orimston, barony (1819) to Cradock, orCaradoc; 
Settrington, barony (1675) to the Duke of Richmond* 

Baronetage, Barmston,Boynton, 1618; Boynton, Strick- 
land, 1641 ; Oanton, Legard, 1660; Sledmere, Sykes, 
1783; Spaldington and Melbourne, Vavasour, 1801. 

Representatives returned to Parliament. For the Riding, 
2; Beyerley, 2; Kingston-upon-Hull* 2;— total, 6. The 
Reform Act gave two to the Riding, and entirely disfran- 
chised Hedon. 



3d COUNTY U18T0EY — TORK8HIRB (BA8T RIDING). 

Produce, The best road-horses in England. Limestone^ 
at Flamborough Cliffs. 

Manufactures, Hull and Sculcoates, linseed oil cakes, for 
the feeding of cattle ; sugar; soap; white lead; ships; 
turpentine ; sail cloths ; ropes ; earthenware ; breweries ; 
boilers for steam engines, and iron founderies* 



3d 



POPULATION IN 1831. 

fl^apenlakes, 6 ; Boroughs , 2 ; Market ToumSy 6 ; i*a- 

rUhes, 184; Parts of Parishes y 5. 
ZTou^e^, Inhabited, 32,681 ; Uninhabited, 1,970; Building, 

268. 
inhabitants. Males, 82,142; Females, 86,749 ; total, 168,891. 

Males 20 years of age, 41 , 1 84. 
Families. Employed in agriculture, 13,025; in trade, 

10,825; all other, 13,110; total, 36,960. 
Baptisms in 1830. Males, 2,489 : Females, 2,315: total, 

4,804. Annual average of 1821 to 1830, 4,716. 
Marriages, 1,373; annual average, 1,359. 
Burials. Males, 1,573; Females, 1,332; total, 2905i 

Annual average, 3,082. 

Places having not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 

Houses. Inhab. Houses. Inhab. 

Kingston-upon- Drypool 431 1,821 

Hull 6,026 32,958 Holme on Spalding 

Scnlcoateft 2,700 13,468 Moor 247 1,438 

Beverley 1,805 8,302 Norton 296 1,425 

BridUngton 1,035 4,792 Patrington 283 ],29(< 

Sutton and Stone- Hessle 246 1,172 

ferry 910 4,383 Southcoates 226 1,114 

Great Driffield 541 2,660 Hedon 195 1,080 

Cottinghad 550 2,575 Hunmanby 218 1,079 

Howden 448 2,130 Hutton Cranswick 236 1,053 

PockUngton 451 2,048 Kilham 200 1,042 

Market Wcighton 371 1,821 Nafferton 232 1,032 



40 



HISTORY. 

A. D. 

547* At Flamborough Head Ida, a Saxon prince, landed 
with twelve of his sons and numerous followers, and deso- 
lated the country. He assumed the title of King of Ber- 
nicia. Ella, who landed with him, became King of Deira, 
with York for the capital. 

860. Beverley Priory destroyed by the Danes. 

867. Hinguar and Hubba, two Danish princes, at the soli* 
citation of Earl Bruern, entered the Humber, and, des* 
troying the churches and towns of Holderness and Be* 
verley, marched to York. 

993. Sweyne, King of Denmark, entered the Humber with 
a large fleet and army, and plundered the inhabitants of 
Holderness, as they did also in 1013 and 1060. 

1066. Harfager, King of Norway, with a fleet of nearly 600 
sail, came up the Humber, landed their forces at Hull, 
and proceeded to York. In their way thither, they de« 
feated the Northumbrians at Gate Fulford. A bloody 
battle fought at Stamford Bridge, nine days previous to 
the landing of William 1., between Harold If. and Harfa* 
ger, in conjunction withTosti the banished Earl of North- 
umberland, in which the Norwegians were obliged to 
retire. 

1070. The Danes, under their king Sweyne, again entered 
the Humber, and having destroyed the country on both 
sides of the river, took and plundered York. 

1202. John entertained at Cottingham castle. 

1296. Edward I. having conquered Scotland, and removed 



HISTORr* 41 

A. D. 

the crown, sceptre, &c. was entertained bj Lord Wake 
at Cottingham, for several days. From this visit the town 
of Hull derived great additional consequence. 

1298. At Cottingham castle, Edward I. kept his Christmas, 
as a guest of Lord Wake. 

1299. Edward I. in November, was present at the return 
to the church of Beverley of the standard of St. John, 
which had been carried into Scotland at the head of the 
English army, and believed to have mainly contributed to 
his conquests. 

1300. The king at Hull, and Beverley, in May. The royal 
party were two days crossing the H umber by the royal 
ferry betweien Barton and Hessle. 

1306. Edward I. in his wars with Scotland compelled Ro* 
berf Bruce to take shelter in the Hebrides, and seized his 
queen, who was confined at Burstwick in Holdemess, 
where she appears to have been well entertained. — Edward 
s^ain at Beverley. 

1316. Edward at Beverley made preparations for attacking 
the Scots; and again, in 1319, removing thence to York. 

1332. On his journey to Scotland, Edward III. sumptuously 
entertained at Hull by William de la Pole, a merchant, 
who received the honour of knighthood, and procured the 
title of Mayor for the principal officer of the town. — Ed- 
ward Baliol, with an army of 2500 men, embarked at 
Raveni^urne for Scotland, to assert his right to the 
throne. 

1346. Immediately after the battle of Creci, the King b^. 
sieged Calais by land and sea. To aid this, the town of 
Hull furnished sixteen ships, and Ravenspurne one. 

1392. The inhabitants of Cottingham and other neigh« 
bouring towns, to the number of about 1000, assembled 
in a tumultuous manner to obtain satisfaction from Hull 
for depriving them of their fresh water. They laid siege 



4i COUNTY HISTORT — YORKSHIRB (eA8T RIDING). 
A. D. 

to the town of Hull, diverted the course of the canals, and 
filled them up ; but not being able to intimidate the inha- 
bitants, retired and encamped at Cottingham. 

1 399. Henry of Boli ngbroke, Duke of Hereford, (subsequen tly 
Henry IV-,) landed at Ravenspurne, and was there joined 
by the fiarls of Northumberland and Westmorland,- &c. 
He soon afterward appeared before Hull, and demanded 
admittance ; but being resolutely refused, retired to Don- 
caster. He was received at Beverley. 

1448. Henry VI. makirg a progress into the North, and 
having passed some days at the Earl of Northumberland's 
house at Leckonfield, went to Beverley, and thence to 
Hull. 

1471. Edward, Duke of York (afterward Edward IV.) 
landed at Ravenspurne with Lord Hastings and others, 
to the number of 2000. Richard, Duke of Gloucester, 
landed about four miles from that place. 

1536. Hallam, one of the leaders of the '* Pilgrimage of 
Grace,'' took Hull by surprise, but did not long retain 
possession. 

1537. Sir Francis Bigod, and the rebels under his com- 
mand, attacked Hull, but were defeated. Sir Robert 
Constable and others, however, subsequently made them- 
selves masters of the place by stratagem ; but after retain- 
ing it only a month, were compelled to surrender. — Sr 
Robert was hung in chains over Beverley Gate, Hull. 

1541. Henry VIII. and his Queen paid a visit to Hull, and 
were splendidly entertained ; thence he proceeded to York, 
And on his return lodged at Leckonfield, being entertained 
by Henry, fifth Earl ot Northumberland; and thence 
again to Hull. 

1639. Charles I. was entertained at Hull and Beverley. 

1642. Hull garrisoned by Sir John Hotham, Member for 
Beverley, was the first town the Parliament secured 



flisTORir. 43 

A D. 

for themselves. Charles I.» demandiog admittance, April 
23, was resolutely refused, and obliged to retire to Bever- 
ley; and this is by many deemed the first act of hos- 
tility between the parties. After much fruitless negotia- 
tion with the Governor and the Parliament, and an at- 
tempt to procure admission by treachery, he commenced 
the siege of the town, but was obliged to raise it. — July 
4, the King removed his court to Beverley, and took up 
his residence at Lady Oee's house. The Earl of Lindsey 
was invested with the command of his army, which con- 
sisted only of 3,000 foot and 1,000 horse, with a small 
train of artillery. After being considerably endangered 
by a skirmish in the streets, he retired to York. — ^Tbe 
Royalists dislodged from Beverley by Colonel Boynton. 
1643. Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I., landed at 
Bridlington Quay, having eluded the vigilance of the 
enemy^s navy. She had a narrow escape afterward from 
the shot of Vice-Admiral Batten, who had drawn up his 
ships during the night opposite to her lodging. Many 
shot passed through her chamber, and one attendant was 
killed close to her person, when seeking shelter in a ditch. 
— ^Tbe Marquis of Newcastle, after committing dreadful 
carnage at Beverley, and driving Fairfax out of it, drew 
up his forces against Hull September 2, but was com- 
pelled to raise the siege, and retire to York. During 
the siege, September 9, the Parliamentarians attacked the 
Royalists at Anlaby, but were repulsed and pursued to 
Hull ; and on the 28th, the Marquis of Newcastle's ma- 
gazine at Cottingham was blown up. The siege of Hull 
lasted six weeks, the Marquis retiring to York on the llth 
of October. — Sir John Hotham, on his flight from Hull 
to join the Royalists, was seized at Beverley, as he was 
making an effort to regain his house at Scarborough. 
His son Captain Hotham had been seized at Hull on the 



44 COUNTY HI8T0RT — ^TOEKSHIRB (bA8T RIDING). 
A. D. 

29th of Juiie« The Hothams weve origiDallf Parlia- 
meDtarians; but, engaging in a aeries of plots to fayour 
the RojalistSy their lives wwe terminated on the scaffold 
at Tower Hill. 

1688. Hull fortified by Lord liABgdale. 

1788. The jubilee, ia honour of WilUam IIL "of blessed 
memory/^ celebrated with great splendor at Hulk 



45 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Alcock, John, Bishop of Ely, founder of Jesus college, 
Cambridge, architect and comptroller of the works under 
Henry Vll. distinguished for his love of learning and 
of learned men, Beverley (died 1500). 

Alfredus, Alredus, or Aluredus, Abbot of Rievaulx, histo-< 
rian and theologian, Beverley (died 1128-9). 

Bridlin|^ton, John de. Prior of Bridlington, ornament to 
religion tind learning, canonized as a saint, Bridlington 
(died 1379). 

Bttbwith, Nicholas de. Bishop of Bath and Wells, who at- 
tended the Council of Constance, 1415, Bubwith. 

Burton, Henry, learned puritan divine and author, Birdsall, 
1579 (died 1648). 

Cholmlev, Sir H. royalist general, Flaroborough, 1600; but, 
according to some authorities, at Roxley, in the North 
Riding. 

De la Pole, Sir William, merchant, Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer, entertained Edward III. at Hull, Raveospurne 
(died 1356). 

Flddes, Richard, divine, author of a life of Cardinal Wolsey, 
and of a body of divinity, Hunmanby, 1671 (died 1725). 

Fisher or Fyssher, John, learned catholic. Bishop of Roches- 
ter and Cardinal, benefactor to learning, Beverley, 1459 ^ 
(executed 1535, for refusing to acknowledge the king^s 
supremacy in ecclesiastical matters). 

Foxe, Luke, raviver of an attempt to discover a north*west 
passage, and author thereon^ Hull, 1586. 

Green, John, Bishop of Lincoln, the only prelate who in. 
1772 voted in the House of Lords for the bill in favour 
of Dissenters, one of the authors of the ''Athenian Let- 
ters," Beverley or Hull, 1706 (died 1779). 

Hatfield, Thomas, Bishop of Durham, munificent pre 
tutor to the Black Prince, and founder of Trinity col 
Oxford; Holderness (1381). 



46 COUNTY BISTORT — TORESHIRB (BABT RIDING ). 

Hotham, Sir J. royalUt eenend (beheaded 1645). 

Hoveden, Rorer de, chapfain to Henry II., lawyer, and writer 
of annals from 731 to 1202, Howden, (l3th ceutury). 

Inrlebert, Philip, divine and benefactor, in the time of Ed- 
ward II. 

Ingram, Robert, divine, and writer on the Plagues and 
Prophecies, &c. Beverley, 1726-7 (died 1804). 

Johnson, lliomas, M.D. learned physician and botanist, 
author of the first local catalogue of plants in England, 
Hull (died 1644). 

Kent or Cant, William, celebrated painter, architect, and 
landscape gardener, Bridlington, 1685 (died 1748). 

LAmplueh, Thomas, Archbishop of York, Thwine;, 1616. 

Little, William, English historian, Bridlington, 1136. 

Marvel, Andrew, assistant to Milton as Latin secretary, 
member of parliament, incorruptible patriot, poet and wit, 
Winestead or Hull, 1620 or 1621 (died 1678). 

Mason, William, lyric and descriptive poet and dirine. Hall 
(of which town his father was vicar), 1725 (died 1797). 

Melton, William de, Keeper of the Seals, Provost of Bever- 
ley, and Archbishop of York in 1315, Holderness (died 
1340). 

Newburgh, Newborough, or Newbrigensis, William of, 
monkish historian from the Norman conquest to 1197a 
Bridlington, 1136. 

Patrington, Stephen, nominated Bishop of Chichester (died. 

1417). 
Percy, George, brother of Henry, dirine, Leckonfield, 1424. 

. Henry, third Earl of Northumberland, slain at Tow- 
ton Field in 1461, Leckonfield, 1421. 

■* Ralph, brother of Henry, brave Lancastrian com- 
mander, liackonfield, 1^5 (slain at Hedgeley Moor 1464). 

.^— Thomas, brother of Henry, created Lord Egremont 
by Henry VI., adherent of the house of Lancaster, Leck- 
onfield, 1422 (slain at Northampton 1460). 

•— William, brother of Henry* Bishop of Carlisle, Chancel- 
lor of the University of Cambridge, Leckonfield, 1428 
(died 1462). 

Puckering, Sir John, Lord Chancellor, Flamborough. 

Scribe, Robert le, author, Bridlington (flourished in 1180). 

Skirlaw, Walter, Bishop of Durham, architect, Swine (died 
1405). 



EMINENT NATIVES. 47 

Terrick, Richard, Bishop of London, Knell ington (died 
1777). 

Thew, Robert, historical engraver, Patrington, 1758 (died 
' 1802). 

Thompson, Benjamin, translator of the play of '' the Stran- 
ger,^' &G. from the German, Hull, 1774 (died 1816). 

— Captain Edward, R.N. dramatist, author of some 
highly popular sea-songs, Hull, 1738 (died 1786). 

Topham, John, antiquary, Malton (died 1803). 

Wandesforde, Christopher, Viscount Castlecomer, statesman, 
author of an autoniography. Bishop Burton, 1592 (died 
1640). 

Watson, Thomas, Bishop of St. David's, author. North 
Ferriby, 1637. 

Wilberforce, William, M.P. distinguished for his exertions 
to abolish Slavery, writer on v ital Christianitv, &c., 
Hull. 1759 (died 1833). 

Wilson, William, eccentric and penurious being, and bene- 
factor to Beverley, Etton near Beverley (died 1826, aged 
72). 



49 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

Aug H TON was the residence of Robert Aske, who headed 
the insurrection called the '< Pilgfrimage of Grace'" in the 
time of Henry VI IL 

Beswick was the residence of the ctlebrated fox-hunter, 
William Draper, esq. 

Bbverlet derives its name from Beverlac, the Lake of 
Beavers. — At the Priory the remains of St. John, Archbi- 
shop 'of York, were discovered. — At the Minster is an ele- 
gcant sepulchral monument called the Percy shrine, erected 
in honour of Lady Idonea, daughter of Robert Lord Clif- 
ford, and wife of Henry second Lord Percy of Alnwick. 
— In St. Mary's Church, the cieling of the chancel is deco- 
rated with painted portraits of forty kings of England, be* 
ginning with Brutus, and ending with Edward IV., about 
whose reign they were probably executed. — Here the Cor- 
pus Christi plays were performed, and on St. Nicholas* 
day the custom of electing a ''boy Bishop"' was observed. — 
In the Grammar School were educated Bishops Fisher, 
Alcock, and Green, all natives of the town. — The barbarous 
baiting of a bull, on the day upon which the Mayor is sworn 
into office, took place in October till within a few years, 
when Mr. Martin's Act against cruelty to animals effectually 
put a stop to it. — Here was printed, as early as 1509, the 
picture of a man on horseback, by Hugh Goes. 

Of Bridlington Priory Robert le Scribe, and Sir 
George Ripley, the indefatigable philosopher and alchemist, 
were canons: the former died in 1180, and the latter in 



MISCJBLLANBOUS OBSBRVATIOKS. 49 

1492. — In the Churchyard is a tablet to the memory of 
Thomas Newman, who died in 1542, a§^edl53. — ^The Quay, 
the safest anchoring place on the coast, is capable of eon* 
taining upward of 100 ships. 

At Gatb Castle is a valuable collection of pictures, in- 
cluding* a portrait of Washington, the hero of America, 
whose great-grandfather lived here previous to his emigra- 
tion in 1657. 

The inhabitants of Chbrry Burton believe in the ne- 
cessity of clothing the beti in mourning at the death of the 
head of a family, to secure the prosperity of the hive. An 
instance occurred in July 1827 in a cottager's family, when 
a black crape scarf was appended to each hive, and an offer- 
ing of pounded funeral biscuit, soaked in wine, was placed 
at the entrance with great solemnity. 

CoTTiMGHAM, Or Baynard, Castle is said to have been 
destroyed by Lord Wake in the time of Henry VIIL, in con- 
sequence of receiving a notice that the king intended paying 
him a visit; his lordship believing that the intentions of the 
monarch were directed to his beautiful and idolised bride. 

EecRiGK gave the title of Baron to Sir Thomas Knivet, 
who detected Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot. 

In Flamborough Church was buried Sir Marmadukt 
Constable, who commanded the left wing of the English 
army at the battle of Flodden. Here is a very fine roodloft. 

The Hall of Hbslikgton resembles that of a college, 
and the roof is particularly admired for its elaborate work- 
manship. Round the hall, on wainscot pannels, are ranged 
upward of sixty different shields, with the family arms and 
intermarriages ; and several royal and family portraits by 
Vandyck, Kneller, Lely, &c. 

At Holmb-ok-Spaldino-Moor Sir Marmaduke Lang- 
dale, one of the bravest generals under Charles I., had an 
estate. 

8 



50 COUNTY IlIflTORY — YORKSHIRE (EA8T RIDING). 

At HowDBN the Bishops of Durham had a palace. Here 
died Bishops Piidsey in 1195, Walter de Kirkhamin 1560, 
and Walter de Skirlaw in 1405. — ^This was the birth-place 
of Roger Hoveden, whose history was considered so correct 
that, in 1291, Edward I. caused diligent search to be made 
for it throughout all the libraries in England, in order to 
adjust the dispute about the homage due from the Crown of 
Scotland* 

At Hull the first structures of brick, after its revival in 
the time of Richard 11., are to be found. — In the Trinity 
House are numerous sea views, curiosities, and portraits ; 
among'others, one of Andrew Marvel, the patriotic senator. 
— Of the Theatre was for many years manager the eccen- 
tric Tate Wilkinson, who was instrumental in the introduc- 
tion of many of the most successful ornaments of the stage. 
— ^Mr. Wallis' museum contains a dagger, which belonged 
to the great Tamerlane; a sword of Edward the Black 
Prince; another of Henry VIII.; a large collection of an- 
tique spurs; and a goodly assortment of medals, minerals, 
shells, &c. 

The Vicarage house at Hunmanby is occupied by Arch- 
deacon Wrangham, who has improved it by buildings, and 
enriched it by a very large and valuable library. 

At LiTTLB Dripfibld the Northumbrian kings had a 
palace: here died a King Alfred Jan. 19, 705, and was 
buried in the churclu 

The site of North Fbrriby priory is said to have been 
in the possession of one hundred different persons in the 
space of 130 years. 

The once important town of Ravbnspurnb, which sent 
Members to parliament, was swallowed up by the sea in the 
sixteenth century. Henry IV. and Edward IV^. both landed 
at this port, when they came to claim the Crown of England. 

At RuDSTON is an immense pyramidal stone obelisk, 29 



BI16CELLANE0US OBSERVATIONS. 51 

feet high, and more than twelve feet below the g^round. It 
stands nearly 40 miles from any quarry where the rag-, or 
millstone grit, is found. 

The library at Sledmerb is called by Dr. Dibdin ''one 
of the finest rooms in the kingdom/' Here reposed all the 
editiones principes collected by the late Sir Mark Master- 
man Sykes, Bart., and among them the first Livy upon 
vellum. They were all dispersed by auction. 

At Swine are elegant sepulchral cfligies of the family 
of Hilton, some of as early a date as the fourteenth century. 

At Wold Newton fell, in 17^5, an extraordinary me- 
teoric stone, 36 inches in circumference in the largest part, 
and weighing 56 pounds. Major Topham, on whose estate 
it descended, erected a column in I7d9 to mark the spot. 
This stone, with the exception of some small portions, was 
in Mr. Sowcrby's very interesting museum of British curios- 
ities, at Lambeth, in the county of Surrey, and is now in 
the possession of one of the family. It weighs about 40 
pounds. One portion has found its way into the hands 
of the Emperor of Germany. 







. 




y ^^^^R^j 


: ^^^^ff^ 


" 



S3 



WEST RIDING. 



>«» 



SITUATION AND IfiXTENT. 

I 

Boundaries f North, the North Biding: East, the river 
Ouse and the Ainst y of York t South, lin^olnshire, Not- 
tinghamshire^ and Derhjshife) West, Cheshire and Lan- 
cashire. 

Greaieit length, 95; hteadth^ ^i stinare, %&7G miles; 
statute acres, 1,648)640« 

Provwce, iTork* Diocese, York. The West Riding is 
an Archdeaconry, with Deani^ries of Ainsty cum York 
city, Doncasteri and Ponteiract 

Circuit, Northern* 



ANttENT STATE AND REMAIN8. 

BriUsk inhoLUan^, Brigaates. 

Druidical Remains, Brimhain Crags. Near Borough^ 
bridge, four huge rough stones of a pyramidal form, 
called " The iJevirs Arrows/* In the parish of Ha- 
lifax are teTeral^ nz. a^ Aarkisland, a ietrcle of stones 



54 COUNTr HISTORY — T0RK8UIRB (W£8T RIDINO). 

called the Wolf Fold; in Hali^, a rocking-stone, ten 
feet and a half long, nine feet five inches broad, and five 
feet three inches thick ; Norland Moor, a ponderous stone 
called the Lad Stone ; Luddenden, called Robin Hood^s 
Penny Stone, of several tons weight; Sowerby, the Stand- 
ing Stone ; Soyland, called the Avrse (or Fairy) Hole ; 
Stansfield, called Bride Stones, one of them fifteen feet 
high, Hawkstones, l&c. ; and at Warley, a tolmen. Rish- 
worth. Saddleworth. 

Roman Province, Maxima Csesariensis. Stations, Adelo- 
cum, Chapel Allerton ; Burgodunum, Addle; Isuriunf, 
Aldborough, the capital of the Brigantes ; Danum, Don- 
caster ; Legeolium, Castleford ; Olicana, Ilkley ; Cam- 
bodunum, Slack, or Almondbury; Calcaria, Tadcaster; 
Eboracum, York. Encampments, Addle, near Leeds; 
Austerfield ; Castlcburgh ; Castle Cary, near Abcrford ; 
Counterhill, two ; Knaresborough ; Lee Hill, near 
Slack ; Mowbray Castle, near Hackfall ; Templeborough ; 
Wincobank; Woofa Bank. Temples, Huddersfield, 
extensive remains discovered in 1744; York, dedicated 
to Bellona, and stood near the present lunatic asylum, and 
another, dedicated to Serapis, discovered in 1770. Re- 
mains discovered at Addle, near Leeds, fragments of 
urns, and a large stone aqueduct. Aldburgh, of various 
kinds. Bradfield, inscribed brass plate and coins. Castle- 
ford, coins, and fragments of tessellated pavements. Clif- 
ton, near Halifax, coins. Clifton, near Doncaster, urn of 
roins of the Lower Empire. Clifton, near York, two stone 
coffins in 1813. Conisborough, pots of coins. Cookridge, 
coins. DonCastcr, altar. El am Grange, near Keighl^y, 
coins. Gargrave, pavement. Gigglcswick, coins. Gretland, 
a votive altar. Hetiton, cbins. Hipperholm, medals of Dio- 
cletian^ Alectus, &c. in a glass vessel. Hovinghamr hypo- 



ANTIENT STATE AND RENA1N8. 55 

caust, pavement^ and coins. Hudder&iield, ruins of temple, 
urns, and coins. Ilkley, coins and inscribed pillars. 
Kidal, copper coins. Leeds, copper coins, and a ford on 
the river Aire* Morton in Bingley, large quantity of 
denarii in a brass chesi. Rastrick, twenty urns with ashes 
and fragments of burnt bones. Slack, brick and tile kiln, 
with very perfect tiles. Sowerby, votive altar and coins. 
Wakefield, forty pounds weight of copper coin in 1812, 
and sixty pounds more in 1823; clay moulds, in Ivhicli 
coin had been cast, and crucibles for melting the metal, in 
1821 ; silver coins. York, urn of crystal^ pateras, iron 
flesh hook, vessel inscribed **0philas,'' and walls and but- 
tresses, in 1770; two urns in 1740, one of glass, and 
another of lead ; sepulchre with stone coffin, skeleton of 
a female, urn of ashes and bones, partly burnt, &c. 1807 ; 
tessellated pavement, with figures of stags, &c., coins and 
pottery, 1814; bronze figure of Bellona, preserved in the 
museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society; urns, 
penates, silver ring seal ; on the road from York to Hold- 
gate, in 1768, a sepulchre in form of an oblong room, 
with roof like a house covered with hollow tiles. 

Saxon Octarchy^ Deira. Encampments^ Almonbury; 
Bradfield, perfect ; Barwick in Elmet ; Conynggarth 
inScrivcn; Qipton near Leeds ; Kirkburton; Laugh** 
ton-en-le-Morthen ; Mexborough ; York, Bailey Hill. 

DofiUh Encampments, Armley, called Giant's Hill; Cas- 
tlehaugh, Gisburne ; Gateshill near Ripley. 

Abbeys* Bernoldswick, or Mount Si. Mary, founded in 
1147, by Henry de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract; Foun- 
tains, in 1132, covered nearly twelve acres of ground, 
the remains are perhaps the largest of the class in the 



56 CODNTY HISTORT— TOEKIHIRB (WBtT AIDING). 

kingdom ; KirksUll* removed from Bemoldswick in 1 153, 
ruini extensive, (lictttreique, and architectural of the 12th 
century ; Ripon, be; un by Eata, Abbot of Melrose, and 
St Wilfrid, about 661, destroyed about dSO ; Roche, in 
1147, by Richard de Bmlli and Richaid Fits Turgis; 
SaUay, in 1147» by William del^ivy; Sdby, by Wil- 
liam I. in 1069 ; York, St. Mary, by Wm. Rufiis in 1088. 

FrMet. Allerton Mauleverer, founded by Richard Man- 
leverer, in the time of Henry If. ; Bolton, removed from 
Bmbsay, by the founders, William Heschines and his 
wife Cecilia de Romeli, picturesqae ruins; Drax* by 
William Paganel, in the time of Henry I. ; Eccles- 
field, cell to St. Wandrille abbey ; Embsay, in 1121, by 
William Meschines and his wife Cecilia de Romeli, mnoved 
to Bolton ; Healaugh, in 1218, by Jordan and Alice de 
St. Maria; Monk Bretton, by Adam Fitz Swsun about 
1186; Nostel, in 1121, by Ralph Adlave, chaplain to 
Henry I. ; Pontefract, by Robert de Pontefract, son of 
Hildebert de Lacy, in 1090; York, three, one founded 
by Ralph Paganel, who came over with William the First ; 
another, in 1202, by Hugh Murdac; and the third, dedi* 
Gated to St. Nicholas, ante 1403. 

i^utuufries. Arthington, founded by I^ers de Ardyngton, 
12th century ; Esholt, by Simon de Ward, 12th century ; 
Hampole, in 1170, by William de Clarefai and A vicia de 
Tanai his wife ; Kirklees, in the time of Henry II. ; 
Nun Appleton, by Adeliza de St. Quintin, in the time of 
Stephen ; Nuii Monkton, in the time of Stephen, by 
William de Arches and Ivetta his wife ; Syningthwaitej 
about 1160, by Bertram de Haget; Walding Well, by 
Ralph de Chcurolcourt ; York, ante 1 145. 



57 

ANTIBNT 8TAT& AND RBHAtNS. 

Frwries. Bolton, white. Doncastcr, black ; white ; g/*y» 
founded 1316. Knaresborough, trinitarians, by ^^^2*"!: 
Earl of Cornwall, in the time of Henry III. Pontefrac , 
aiiitina, by William le Tabourer, in the time of ^^^V * 1 
black, ante 1266, by Edmund de Lacy, Constable ot ^^^^ 
ter; white, by Edmund Lacy, Earl of Uncoln, ^**^^yt 
in 1267. Tickhill, white, in the time of Edward I- * ^^j* 
ftiistins, before 1278; blaek, in the time o^ ^^^^'^'Lhite* 
by Bryan Stapleton, esq. ; grey, by Henry H^'J .^ ^^^ 
in 1265, by Lords de Vesci and Percy ; crutcbcd, 
time of Edward II. 

n?em^ 
Prteepiories. Newl and, by King John ; Ri^«*^^ \,y WiU 
pie Newsham, in the time of Henry II. ; Yorlsi* ^J 
liam Percy, in the time of Henry I. 

Commmdertes. Ribston, founded by Robert I^^ i«h^* 
in the time of Richard I.; Temple Hurst, by *^* ^ ^^ 
Hastings, 1252. 

Colleges. Pontefract, before the time of VTxVA^^ }' > ^Xi, 
other, by William de Lacy, in the time of Wilbam tj^ 
Ripon, the restored church of the abbey was *?^. . ^^ll^ 
g^iate by Archbishop Aldred, in the time of Wilaaoc| ^ 
Rotherham, by Thomas Scott, Archbishop of York, I^^ 
Tickhill, by Queen Alianor, wife of Henry U- ^0^.1! 
Vicars, by Archbishop Walter Gray, 1253; St. S^w ^ 
chre, by Archbishop Roger, before 1161; St* WiUj^l 
by George Neville, Bishop of Exeter, and his broth^^ ^ 
Earl of Warwick, 1460. ^^ 

Hospitals. Doncaster, St, James, in the time of Henry ^ 
St. Nicholas, ante Henry III. Otteley, in 4 Edw^ *^X 
Pontefract, before Wm. I. ; a lazar house, by H^^j^^ 1 



58 COUNTY HISTORY — YOBKSHIRB (WE8T AIDING). 

Lacy, in 1286 ; St. Mary, by Win. le Taboufer, temp. £d. 
L; St Mary Magdalene, before 1286$ St. Nicholas, by 
Robert de Laceio, in the tiUie of Henry I* Ripon, St. 
Anne ; St. John ; Magdalene, by Archbishop Thurstan, 
who died in 1139. TickhUl, in 1326. York, St An- 
tony» by Sir John Langton, about 1440; Bootham, 
about 1314, by Dean Robert Pykenng, and another, 
Kinaller, by the Frecentor John Gyseburgh, before 1481 ; 
Fossgate, by John de Rowcliff, clerk, in 45 Edward III. ; 
St. I^onard, before 1225; St. Nicholas, before the reign 
of Stephen ; St. Peter, rebuilt by VTilliam II. 

CAurches* Addle, beautiful Norman specimen, built before 
1100; Bardscy, excellent specimen of early Norman; 
fiirkin; Carlton; Coningsborough ; Doncastcr; Ec 
clesfield ; Fishlake, fine porch, like those at Thorpe Salvia 
chapel and St Margaret's at York ; Guiselcy, in the 
nave are semicircular arches springing from clustered 
columns with Norman capitals ; Halifax, erected in the 
timeof Hen. I.; Harewood; Hatfield; Horton, erected 
in the time of Henry I. ; Kirkburton ; Leeds, St Peter ; 
Linton, Norman ; Ponteiract ; Rotherham ; Sheffield, 
cruciform, with tower and spire, and much Norman work ; 
Sherburn, Norman nave ; Silkston ; Thornton-in-Lons- 
dale, early Norman ; Tickhill ; Wighill, beautiful Nor- 
man doorway; York, All Saints, St. Gregory, parts of 
the walls remain ; and St. Margaret, the porch has an 
interesting specimen of Normau sculpture. 

ChapeU* Beeston; Bolsterstonc, in 1412; Bolton bridge; 
Hartshead, Norman doorway ; Hubberholnie, Norman ; 
logleton, 12th century; Ingmanthorpe ; Knaresbo-i- 
rough, St. Robert, cut out of the solid rock ; Ripon, 
Bondgate, since used as a school; Swinton, beautiful 



ANTIENT 8TATB AND REAIAIN8. 59 

Norman remains ; Thorpe Salvin, handsome porch and 
Norman doorway ; Wakefield, on the bridge ; York, St. 
Sepulchre, underneath which is a prison for ecclesiastics. 

Fonts, Bolton; Ingleton, Norman, very curious; Liii- 
ton ; Thorpe Salvin, Norman, representing the seasons 
of the year. 

Cross. Pontcfract, called the Stump Cross, being the base 
of one ornamented with sculpture. 

Castles. Bingley ; Bradford ; Burton, built either by the 
Saxons or the Normans ; Cawood ; Couisborough, built 
by William the first Earl of Warren ; Denton ; Drax, built 
by Philip de Tallcvilla, before the time of Stephen; Els- 
lack, embattled by Godfrey de Alt^ Rip&, 12 Edward II. ; 
Harewood, built soon after the Norman invasion ; Ha- 
verah, supposed to have b^^en erected by John of Gaunt, 
about 1371 ; Kirkby Malzeard, belonged to the Mow- 
brays; Knaresborough, by Serlo de Burgh, who came 
over with William I. ; Leedsj built by the De Lacys, no 
vestiges ; Pontefract, by Ilbert de Lacy, in the time of 
William I.; Sandal Magna, by John Earl of Warren; 
Sedbergh ; Sheffield, by Thomas de Furnival, in the time 
of Henry III., no remains ; Skiptou, by Robert de Ro- 
raeli, 1090 ; Sowerby, belonged to the Earls of Warren ; 
Spoiforth, in the time ofEdwardlll. ; Tadcaster; Tick- 
hill, supposed to have been built by Roger de Busli, in 
the time of William I. ; York, two, built by William I. 
most probably that now called Clifford's Tower, and one 
on Bail or Bailey Hill ; a castle at York is said to have 
been erected by Athclstan, but it is very doubtful. 



60 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

MiMket. Gigglenrick Tarn ; Mallwm Tarn, the souroe of 
tlw riTer Aire ; Plumpton. 

Railroad, Leeds and Selby, completed 1834, the tunnel at 
Leeds 800 jards lonf . 

Emmeneei and Vkws, The Vale of Aire ; Allerton Maa- 
leverer, variegated landscapes ; Aldfield ; Bentham con- 
tains the softest and the wildest scenery of Evecross 
the Belvedere, Bilham House, considered the richest pros- 
pect of the riding ; Black Hambleton Down, 1246 feet 
high ; Brimham Crags ; Bolton Abbej ruins are situ- 
ated in a beautiful and picturesque country ; Bradfield 
Point, 1246 feet high; the Vale of Calder; Castleberg 
rock $ Chevin Hill, above Otlej, looks down over the 
rich vale of the Wharfe, Farnle j Hall, &c. ; Conisborough, 
many beautiful views; Dent Dale from the high grounds 
is exceeding beautiful ; Elland Edge ; Gisburne Park ; 
Gordale Scar, an awfully grand scene of rock and water ; 
Hackfall, sequestered and romantic spot; Halifax, the 
neighbouring sdinery is magnificent; Handsworth; 
Harewood House, extensive viciws; Haslewood, famed 
for extent and richness; Heath; Hubberholme, inte- 
resting scenes; Inolbborough Hill, 2,361 feet above 
the level of the sea ; Ingleton, from the churchyard is a 
fine view of the vale of Lonsdale; Kilnsey Crag, 810 
feet long, and 165 feet high ; Kirkstall Abbey ; Knares- 
borough, beautiful scenery ; Laughton, near Sheffield ; 
Malham Cove ; Micklehow Hill, striking prospect : Pbn- 
NiGENT Hill, 2270 feet above the level of the sea; Plumj^ 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 61 

ton Rock, singularly beautiful ; Raven Ree, 120 feet 
high, covered with evergreens ; Ribston Hall, extensive 
prospect ; Roche Abbey, luxuriant landscape ; Steeton 
Bank, near Skipton; Skipton, in Craven; Studlej 
Rojal Park, in which are the ruins of Fountains Abbey, 
one of the most beautiful in the kingdom ; Thornton 
Scar ; Thornton Force, a brilliant picture ; WharMale ; 
Wharnsidb, near Ingleborough, 2384 feet above the sea's 
level. 

JVaturai Ctiriosities. Aldfield, mineral springs; Askem, 
mineral springs; Boston (Thorp Arch), medicinal waters* 
discovered in 1744; Brimham Crags; Cowthorpe, an 
oak tree, sixty feet in circumference, and before mutila* 
tion by a storm in 1718, its branches extended over 
half an acre of ground ; Eshton, St. Helen's well ; Gig- 
gleswick Scar, an ebbing and flowing well ; Gilthwaite» 
mineral spring, discovered in 1664; Gisburne Park, herd 
of wild cattle, descendants of that indigenous race which 
once existed in the great forest of Lancashire ; Harro- 
gate, chalybeate wells, discovered in 1571 by Captain 
SHngsby, and sulphureous springs, discovered in 1783 
«nd 1819; Headingley, near Leeds, the Shire Oak, sup- 
posed to have been the original tree under which the shire 
meetings were formerly held; Horley Green, mineral 
water, the strongest known; Hulpit and Huntpit Holes, 
at the base of Pennigent Hill ; Ilkley, cold bath ; Kirk 
Heaton, in the churchyard, a gigantic yew tree, six cen* 
turies old ; Knaresborough, dropping well, and sulphur 
spa; near Knaresborough is a bed of strontian earth, 
which is very rare, if not unique, in this kingdom; Lo- 
versall, St. Helen's well; Malhani Cove; Stainforth 
Force, beautiful waterfall ; Thornton Scar and Force, a 
curious cascade. 



62 cor NTT UIRTORY — Y0RK8HIRB (WEST RIPING). 

PubHc EJifiees, Ackwortli, quaker school. Arksey, free 
grammar school, founded by the will of Bryan Cooke, esq. 
16(i0. Barkit»land, free Hckool, founded in 1657, by Sarah 
Gledbtll. Barnsley, free grammar school, founded 1665, 
by Thomas Keresforth, gent. Batley, free school, founded 
10 James I. by Rev. William Lee, rebuilt 1818. Beamsby, 
hospital, founded by Margaret Countess of Cumberland, 
35 Elizabeth. Bingley, free grammar school, founded 20 
Henry VIII. Bolton, free school, founded about 1698, 
by the Hon. Robert Boyle. Bradford, exchange buildings, 
opened 1830 : free grammar school, founded in the time^ 
of Edward VI. Braithwaite, school, founded in 1778, by 
will of Edward Yates. Bumtyates, fr^e school, founded 
1760, by Rear- Admiral Robert Long. Carlton, hospital, 
founded 1700, by Mr. Farrand Spence: free grammar 
school, founded in 1705, by Mrs. Elizabeth Wilkinson. 
Cawood, hospital, built by Mr, William James, in 1724. 
Cawthorne, free school, 1639, by a decree of the Duchy of 
Lancaster. Clapham, school, in 1815, by Henry Winter- 
burne. Darton, free grammar school, by George Beau- 
mont, 1675. North Deighton, free school, by the will of 
Sir Hugh Palliser, 1 791 . Doncaster, free grammar school : 
dispensary, established 1792 : mansion house, erected 1744. 

• Drax, free grammar school, in 1667, by Mr. Charles 
Read. Drighlington, free grammar school, by the will 

, of James M^u'getsou, Archbishop of Armagh, 1678. 
Eareby, school, in 1594, by Robert Hindle, esq. Giggles- 
wick, grammar school, by Edward VI. in 1553, for youth 
from every quarter of the globe. Halifax, blue coat hos- 
pital and almshouse, by the will of Nathaniel Waterhouse, 
1642 : dispensary: gaol : cloth hall or piece hall, erected 
by the manufacturers, cost £12,000, and opened 1779: 
Hemsworth, free grammar school, by the will of Archbp. 
Holgate, 1555: hospital, by Archbishop Holgate. Hep- 



PRBSEXT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 63 

tonstall, free grammar school, by tlie will of the Rev. 
Charles Greenwood, 1642. Hipperholme, free school, by 
the will of Matthew Broadley, esq. of London, 1647. 
Horsforth, iron bridge over the Aire, erected 1819, at the 
cost of £1500, by John Pollard, esq. Huddersfield, cloth 
hall, built 1765, by Sir John Ramsden, Bart.: dispensary, 
established 1814: infirmary, begun 1829: tunnel over the 
canal, cost £300,000, being at the rate of above one 
pound five shillings per inch. Hunslet, bridge over 
the river Aire, began 1829. Knare^borough, free schpol,- 
1616, by Rev. Robert Chaloner. Leeds, cavalry barracks, 
erected 1821, cost £28,000, occupying about eleven acres : 
central market, foundation laid November 26, 1824, ar- 
chitect Francis Goodwin: commercial buildings, first 
stone laid May 18, 1826, on the site of the old castle, 
opened 1829: corn exchange, commenced 1826: new 
shambles, commenced 1823: free grammar school^ by the 
will of Sir William Sheafield, 1562: general infirmary, 
built by subscription in 1768: hospital, founded in 1653, 
by John Harrison : house of recovery, built 1802: coloured 
cloth hall, erected by subscription in 1758: moot hall, 
erected 1713: new court house and prison, built 1812: 
philosophical hall, built 1820 : white cloth hall, built 1771. 
Linton,' hospital, by will of Richard Fountain, esq. 1721. 
Otley, grammar school, in 1611 , by Thomas Cave. Pool, 
bridge, built 1754. Pontefract, court house : town hall, 
erected 1656: monument iu commemoration of the battle 
of Waterloo, erected 1818. Ripley, free school, by Catha- 
rine and Mary Ingilby, in 1702. Ripon, free grammar 
school, founded in 1546, by Edward VI. : hospitals, one, 
founded by Archbishop Thurstan, who died 1144; Bond- 
gate, before the time of John ; a third, by one of the 
Nevils in the time of Edward IV. ; and a fourth, by Za- 
chariah Jepson, of York: town hall, built 1801, by Mrs. 
Allaiisony of Studley. Rotherham, free grammar school 



C4 COUNTT HIST01lY-*»Y0llRSHIftB (irBtT RIPINO). 

founded in 1584 by Lawrence Woodnett and Anthony 
CoUini, esq. Roytton, free grammar school, in the time 
of James I. Sedbergh, grammar school, founded bj Ed- 
ward in. ShefReld, two bridges of stone, over the river 
Sheaf: cutlers' hall, rebuilt about 1832: free grammar 
school, hj Thomas Smith of Crowland, in 1603: general 
infirmary, by subscription in 1793: hospital, in 1670, by 
will of Henry Earl of Shrewsbury: hospital and school, 
erected by Thomas HoUis, merchant, 1703: military bar- 
racks : town hall, erected about 1810. Sherbum, hospital 
and grammar school, in 1619, by Robert Hungate, esq. 
Skipton, grammar school, in 1548, by William Ermysted, 
derk. Skircote, free grammar school, by Queen Eliza- 
beth, 1585. Tadcaster, bridge, one of the finest in the 
county. Thomhill, grammar school, by the Rev. Charles 
Greenwood, rector, in the time of Charles I. Threshfield, 
grammar school, in 1674, by the Rev. Matthew Hewitt, 
rector of Linton. Tickhill, hospital, thirteenth century. 
Wakefield, bridge : cross : free grammar school, founded 
by Queen Elizabeth: house of correction: pauper lunatic 
asylum, opened 1818^ cost £40,000. Wetherby, bridge. 
Whixley, hospital, by will of Christopher Tancred, 1754. 
York, assembly rooms, erected 1730, from a design by 
Lord Burlington : cavalry barracks, erected 1795: county 
hall, opened 1777 : county hospital, erected about 1741 : 
county prison, formerly the castle : debtors' prison, com- 
pleted 1705: dispensary, instituted 1788: foss bridge, 
erected 1811: free school, erected 1804: gaol, begun in 
1802, and since greatly enlarged: grammar school, by 
Queen Mary : guildhall, a beautiful hall of the pointed 
style, erected 1446: house of correction, erected 1814: 
Hewley's hospital, in 1700, by Lady Sarah Hewley : 
lunatic asylum, established 1777 : mauRion house, erected 
1726: merchants' hall: Middleton's hospital, in 1659, by 
Mrs. Ann Middleton: museum, first stone laid October 



8BATS. 65 

24, 1827: Ouse bridge: retreatfor insane quakers, erected 
1794: theatre royal, erected over the an tient cloisters of 
St. Leonard's hospital, opened 1765. 

Caves. Ginglepot, Ingleton: Hurtlepot, Ingleton : Knave 
Knoll Hole, Thorpe: Weathercoate, sublime and ter^ 
rible : Yordas, singular place. 

Seats, Harewood House, Earl of Harewood. - 
Lord Lieutenant of the Riding, 

Ackworth Grange, Richard Wilson, esq* 

House, John Goldsworthy, esq. 

Lodge, Rev. George Mad:dison. 

Moor Top, Mrs. Gee. 

Park, John Gully, esq. 

Villa, Thomas St. Quintin, esq. 

Aikton Hall, Arthur Heywood, esq. 

Aldbrough Hall, Andrew Lawson, esq. 

Aldwarke Hall, Mrs. Edmunds. 

AUerton Mauleverer, Lord Stourton. 

Alverley Grange, Bryan William Darwin Cooke, esq. 

Ardsley Hall, John Micklethwaite, esq. 

Park House, B. Taylor, esq. 

Armley House, Benjamin Gott, esq. 
Arthington Hall, W. G. Davy, esq. 
Aston, Henry Verelst, esq. 
Askham House, Robert Swann, esq. 
Attercliffe Hall, John Milner, esq. 
Austhorpe Hall, Joseph Fields, esq. 
Austwick, Charles Ingilby, esq. 

Hall, Mrs. King. 

Badsworth Hall, Jos. Scott, esq. 
Banks Hall, Samuel Thorpe, esq. 
Bannercross, Rev. W. Bagshaw. 
Barbot Hall, Colonel Charles Newton, 
bambrough Hall, Mrs. GriMth. 
Bawtry, Robert Pemberton Milnes, esq. 
Becca Lodge, William Markham, esq. 
Bellwood, John Harrison, esq. 
Bentham High, T. H. Johnson, esq. 



66 COUNTY HISTORY — YORKSHIRE (WE6T RIDING). 

Bilham House, Rev. Godfrey Wrig-ht. 

fiilton Hall, Henry Hunter, esq. 

— ^ Park, Richard Fountayne Wilson, esq, 

Birkby. Thomas Holroyd, esq. 

Bishopthorpe Palace, Archbishop of York. 

Blake Hall, Mrs. Ingham. 

Bolton Abbey, Duke of Devonshire. 

Borouffhbridffe, Mrs. Lawson. 

Bowchffe, John Smyth, esq. 

Bramham Bigg^in, Sir George Musgrave, Bart. 

Park, Georee Lane Fox, esq. 

Bramhope Hall, William Rhodes, esq. 

Bramley, John Fullarton, esq. 

Bretton Park, Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, esq. 

Brodsworth, 

Broomhead Hall, James Rimmington, esq. 
Brotherton Hall, John Crowder, esq. 
Broufi^hton Hall, Charles Tempest, esq. 
Burgliwallis, Michael Tasburgh, esq. 
Byrora Hall, Sir John Ramsden, Bart. 
Camblesforth Hall, Sir Charles Blois, Bart. 

Carapsall, 

Cannon Hall, John Spencer Stanhrpe, esq. 
Cantley Lodge, John Walbanke Childers, esq. 
Carhead, Richard Bradley Wain man, esq. 
Carhouse, H. Cooke, esq, 
Carlton Hall, Lady Throckmorton 
Carrwood, Samuel Smith, esq. 
Cawthorne, Thomas West, esq. 
Chesnut Grove, — ,— 
Chester Cotes, Samuel Wilks Waud, esq. 
Chevet, Sir William Pilkingtou, Bart. 
Clapham Lodfre, James Farrer, esq. 
Clifton House, Mrs. Susan Walker. 

Colton, 

Conduit House, the Venerable Archdeacon Corbett. 
Conyngham House, Dr. William Harrison. 
Cononley Hall, John Swires, esq. 
Cookridge Hall, Richard Wormald, esq. 
Copgrove, Thomas Duncombe, esq. 
Cottingley Bridge, C. F. Busfield, esq. 
y House, Mrs. Sarah Ferrand. 



SEATS. 67 



Cowick Hall, the Rev. Lord Viscount Downe. 

Crofton, 

Croft House, John Atkinson, esq. 
Crook Hall, John £. Woodyear, esq. 
Crow Nest, Halifax, John Walker, esq. 
— ^— — , Dewsbury, John Hague, esq. 

Trees, Bradford, Joshua Pollard, esq. 

Cusworth, William Battie Wrightson, esq. 
Darrington, Robert Oliver, esq. 
Denbj Grange, Sir J. Lister Kaye, Bart. 
Denton Park, Sir Charles Ibbetson, Bart. 
Dewsbury Moorside, Abraham Greeuwood, ehq, 
Dinnington, Middleton Carver, esq. 
Eastbrook House, Charles Harris, esq. 
Eastwood House, Rotherham, Mrs. S. Walker. 
Elliott House, Ripon, Juhn Elliott, esq. 

Elmsall Lodge, 

Esholt Hall, William R. C. Stansfield, esq. 

Eshton Hall, Matthew Wilson, esq. 

Farfield Hall, William Cunliffe, esq. 

Famlev, Edward Armitage, esq. 

— riall, F. Hawkesworth Fawkes, esq. 

Ferham, Henry Hartop, esq. 

Field Head, H. W. Gates, esq. 

House, Robert Stansfield, esq. 

Firningley Park, John Harvey, esq. 
Firbeck Hall, Henry Gaily Knight, esq. 
Fixby Hall, Thomas Thornhill, esq. 
Flashy Hall, Cooper Preston, esq. 
Flockton Hall, George Horseington, esq.* 
Frickley Hall, Richard Kennet Dawson, esq. 
Fryston Hall, Robert Pemberton Milnes, esq. 
Gargrave House, John N. Coulthurst, esq 
Gawthorpe Hall, Joseph Heaton, esq. 
Gilthwaite Hall, John Outram, esq. 
Gisbume Park, Lord Ribblesdale. 
Gledhow, Sir John Beckett, Bart. 
Gledston House, Richard Roundell, esq. 
Grantley Hall, Lord Grantley. 
Grassington, Henry Brown, esq. 
Greenhead, Benjamip Haigh Allen, esq. 



t>8 COUNTY HISTORY — YORKSHIRE (WE6T RIDING ). 

Orimston Hall, Lord HowdcD, 

Grove Hall, WiUiam Lee, esq. 

Haiffh Hall, Robert Hodgfson, esq. 

Haldenby Park, John Jackson, esq. 

Halstead, Mrs. Jane Foxcroft. 

Halton Place, John Yorke, e8<}. 

Hambleton House, Samuel Smith, esq« 

Hanlith Hall, Colonel Serjeantson. 

Harden, Robert Parker, esq. 

Hatfield, W. Gossip, esq. 

Hall, Francis Maude, esq. 

Haughend, Major Priestley. 

Healaugh Hall, Benjamin Brooksbank, esq. 

Heath, near Wakefield, William Leatham, esq« 

Heaton Hall, John Wilmer Field, esq. 

Hellifield Peel, James Hamerton, esq. 

Hems worth Hall, 

Hickleton Hall, Sir Francis Lindlej Wood, Bart« 
Highfield, Greenwood, William Mitchell, esq. 
Highroyd House, Thomas Beaumont, esq. 
Hollin Hall, Henry Richard Wood, esq. 
Hooton Pagnell, Hon. Wm. Duncombe. 
Hope House, Halifax, Christopher Rawson, esq. 
Horton House, Mrs. Thorpe. 
Howgill, A. Wilkinson, esq. 
Howroyd, Thomas Horton, esq. 
Husthwaite, J. Bland, esq. 
Ingthorpe Gran&;e, J. Baldwin, esq. 
Ingmanthorne, Richard Fountayne Wilson, esq. 
Ingmire Hall, Johft Upton, esq. 
Kettlethorpe Hall, Joseph Charlesworth, esq. 
Kildwick Hall, Miss M. F. Richardson Currer. 
Killingbeck, F. Walker, esq. 
Kippax Park, Thomas Bland Davison Bland, esq« 
Kirkby Hall, Richard John Thompson, esq. 
Kirk Hammerton, William Thompson, esq. 
Kirkby Overblow, Hon. and Rev. Dr. Marsham. 
Kirklees Hall, Sir John Armytage, Bart. 
Lawkland Green, Thomas Ingilby, esq. 

Hall, John Ingilby, esq. 

Ledston Lodge, Granville William Wheler, esq. 



SEATS. 69 

Leventhorpe Hall, Thomas Ikin, esq. 
Linton Spring, William Middleton, esq. 
Little Horton, Francis Sharp Bridges, esq," 
Littlethorpe, Major Brooke, esq. 
Lofthouse Hall, Benjamin Dealtry, esq. 

Hill, Sir Charles Slingsby, Bart. 

Loversall, Rev. Alexander Cook. 
Low Laithes, Mrs. Smithson. 
Lupsett Hall, Daniel Gaskell, esq. 
Malham Water House, Lord Ribblcsdale. 
Maningham House, E. L. Lister, esq. 
Marsh Field, Rev. Richard Dawson. 
Melton-on-the-Hill, Richard Fountayne Wilson, esq. 
Methley Park, Earl of Mexborough. 

Middlethorpe, 

Middelton Lodge, William Middelton, esq, 

Milnsbridge House, 

Moor House, John Maude, esq. 

Mount Pleasant, Ecclesall, Samuel Broomhead Ward, esq. 

Mowbray House, Kirkby Malzeard, Tomyns Dickins, esq. 

Nether Hall, Doncaster,' E. J. Copley, esq. 

Netherside, Alexander Nowell, esq. 

New Hall, Brightside, Richard Swallow, esq. 

Newby Hall, Earl de Grey. 

Newhill, near Rotherham, Payne, esq. 

Newland Park, Sir Edward Smith Dodsworth, Bart. 
Newton Hall, Thomas Parker, esq. 

, Thomas Loddington Fairfax, esq. 

Newton Kyme, V^lliam Hatfield, esq. 

Nidd Hall, Benjamin Rawson, esq. 

North Deighton, John Brewin, esq. 

Northowram Hall, J. F. Dyson, esq. 

Norwood Hall, James Wheat, esq. 

Nostal Priory, Charles W. Winn, esq. 

Nun Appleton, Sir William Mordaunt Sturt Milner, Barl. 

OUey Manor House, Matthew Wilson, esq. 

Oulton House, John Blaydes, esq. 

Ouston Hall, Philip Davies Cook, esq. 

Oxton, John William Clough, esq. 

Park Lane, Hatfield, William Pilkington, esq. 

—— Lodge, William Hepworth, esq. 



70 COUITTT HI8TORY~TORK8HIR£ (WB8T RIDING). 

ParliDgtoii, Richard Oliver Gascoig^e, esq. 
Potterton Lodge, Edward Wilkinson, esq. 
Pjre Nest, Skircoat, H. Lees Edwards, esq. 

Rarenfield Hall, ^ 

Rawcliffe, Ralph Creyke, esq. 

Ribston Hall, F. Holyoake Goodricke, esq. 

Ripley Castle, Sir William Amcotts Ingilby, Bart. 

Rose Hill, Rawmarsh, Robert Leigfhton, esq. 

Royds Hall, Miss M. Dawson. 

Rudding Hall, Sir Joseph Radcliffc, Bart. 

St. Ives, Edward Farrand, esq. 

Sandbeck, Earl of Scarborough. 

Sawley Hall, Henry Wormald, esq. 

Scarthinewell, 

Scriven Park, Lady Slingsby. 
Sherwood Hall, — -r- 
Shooter's Hill, J. C. Hilton, esq. 

Skelbrook, 

Skellow Grange, Godfrey Higgins, esq. 
Skipton Castle, Earl of Thanet. 
Slenin|;ford Hall, Colonel Dalton. 

Grange, John Dalton, jun. esq. 

Snydall, Thomas Hodson, esq. 
Springfield House, John Mann, esq. 
Spring Wood, Huddersfield, Jos. Haigh, esq. 
Sprotborouffh, Sir Joseph Copley, Bart. 
Stansfield Hall, John Sutcliffe, esq. 
Stanley Hall, Arthur Heywood, esq. 
Stapleton Park, -— Barton, esq. 
Steeton Hall, William Sugden, esq. 
Stockeld Hall, Peter Middelton, esq. 
Streetthorpe Hall, George Parker, esq. 
Studley Royal, Mrs. Lawrence. 
Swillington Hall, Sir John Lowther, Bart. 
Tapton Grove, Mrs. Shore. 
'Thome, Henry Ellison, esq. 

R. Pemberton Milnes, esq. 

Thorns House, Benjamin Gaskell, esq, 
Thornton Lodge, John Horsfall, esq. 
Thorp Arch, Wilmer Gossip, esq. 
Thorpe Lodge, 



8BAT8. 71 

Thribergh Park, John Fullerton, esq. 
Thundercliffe Grange, Earl of £ffingham. 
Thurcroft, Captain Butler. 
Tburnscoe, Charles Palmer, esq. 
Tickhill Castle, Frederick Lumley, esq. 
Todwick Grange, George Fox, esq. 
Tonfi; Hall, John Plumbe Tempest, esq. 

TowTston Lodge, 

Towton Hall, Hon. Martin Bladen Hawke. 

Ulleskelf, John Shillito, esq. 

Undercliffe Hall, J. Hustler, esq. 

Wadworth, Sir George Scoveil, Bart. 

Walling Wells, Sir Thomas White, Bart. 

Walton Hall, Charles Waterton, esq. 

Wentworth Castle, Frederick Vernon Wentworth, esq. 

- House, Earl Fitzwilliam. 

Westbrook House, Richard Fawcett, esq* 
Weston Hall, William Vavasour, esq. 
Wharncliffe Lod^e, Lady Viscountess Erne. 
Wheatley, Sir William Cooke, Bart. 
Wighill Park, Richard York, esq. 

Winco Bank Hall, 

Womersley, Lord Hawke. 

Woodhall, John Garland, esq. 

Wood House, John Armitage, esq. 

— < — Hall, William Lister Fenton Scott, esq. 

Woodlands, Waterton, esq. 

Woodthorpe, Rev. William Wood. 

— — Hugh Parker, esq. 

WooUey Park, Godfrey Wentworth, esq. 

Worsbrough Hall, Martin, esq. 

Wortley Hall, Lord Wharncliffe. 
Wydale, Eldward Stillingfleet Cayley, esq. 



7i COUNTY HI8T0RT — ^TORKSUIRB (WB8T RIDING). 

Peerage, CraveD» earldom, (1663) to Craven; extinct 
1697; revived in 1801; and barony (1665) to Craven. 
Doncaster, viscounty (1618) to Hay ; extinct 1660; earl- 
<iom (1663) to James Fitzroy, Duke of Monmouth, natural 
»on of Charles 11.; forfeited 1685; restored 1743, and 
held by the Dukes of Buccleuch. Gisbume Park, Rib- 
blesdale of, barony (1797) to Lister. Harewood, barony 
(1790) to Lascelles; extinct 1795; revived 1796; earl- 
dom (1812). Keifhley, Cavendish of, barony (1832) to 
Cavendish Earl of Burlington. Leeds, dukedom (1694) 
to Osborne ; Markenfield, Grantley of, barony (1782) to 
Norton. Pomfret or Pontefract, barony (1674) to George 
Fitzroy, Duke of Northumberland, one of the natural 
sons of Charles IL; extinct at his death, 1716; earldom 
(1721) to Fermor. Rawdon, barony (1783) to Rawdon- 
Hastings. Ripon, earldom (1833) to Robinson ; Shef- 
field, barony (1802) to Holroyd Earl of Sheffield in Ire- 
land. Stittenham, Gower of, barony (1703) to Gower. 
Towton, Hawke of, barony (1776) to Harvey-Hawke. 
Wliarncliffe, barony (1826) to Stuart-Wortley-Macken- 
zie. Wortley, Mount Stuart of, barony (1761) to Mar- 
quis of Bute. 

Baronetage, Barnsley, Wood, 1784. Boroughbridge, Tan- 
cred, 1662 ; Burton or Monk Bretton, Broadhead, 1831 ; 
Byrom, Ramsden, 1689; Cowling Hall, Croft, 1818; 
Haslewood, Vavasour, 1828; Hickleton, Lindley Wood, 
1784; Kirkees, Armytage, 1738; Kirkstall, Graham, 
1808 ; Leeds, Ibbetson, 1748, and Beckett, 1813; New- 
land Park, Dodsworth (late Smith), 1784; Nostell, 
Wynne, 1660; Nun Appleton Hall, Milner, 1716; 
Ripley, Ingilby, 1781 ; Swillington, Lowther, 1824; 
Sprotborough, Copley, 1778 ; Wheatley, Cooke, 1661 ; 
Wombwell, Wombwell, 1778. 



FRB8EKT STATE. 73 

Representatives returned to Parliament. For the Riding, 2 ; 
Bradford, 2 ; Halifax, 2 ; Huddersfield, 1 ; Knaresbo- 
roiigb, 2; Leeds, 2; Pontefract, 2 ; Ripon, 2 ; Sheffield, 
2 ; Wakefield, 1 ; York, 2 ; total, 20.— The Reform Act 
disfranchised Aldborough and Boroughbridge ^ and gave 
two each to the Riding,^ Bradford, Halifax, Leeds, and 
Sheffield, and one each to Huddersfield and Wakefield ; 
increasing the number of Representatives from 12 to 20. 

Produce, Coal, the West Riding coal field is the longest, 
most valuable, and most regular in the kingdom : lead : 
silver : copper : zinc : oxide of zinc, peculiar to Malham : 
ironstone : pipe-clay : argillaceous schist : granite : lime- 
stone : and sandstone, at Bramley Fall, supplied part of 
the stone for the new London bridge; and at Wode- 
house. Oak and ash, very considerable: red wheat: 
oats: fiax: woad: teasels, in Barkston Ash, immense 
quantities, used by the cloth-dressers to raise the nap on 
the cloth before it is submitted to the operation of the 
shearing machines : mustard, in the Ainsty of York, con- 
siderable : liquorice, in great perfection round Ponte- 
fract, and from it are manufactured the celebrated *^ Pom- 
fret cakes'' and lozenges : a particular plum, called the 
winesour, is produced at Sherburn. 

Manufactures, This Riding is the great seat of the Wool- 
len manufactures. In the three Wapentakes of Agbrigg, 
Morley, and Skyrack, respectively, are found 17,000, 
22,000, and 29,000 males twenty years of age, thus em- 
ployed ; in all 63,000 — a number only surpassed by the 

Cotton manufactures of Lancashire. Almondbury, 

woollens. Barnsley, thread and linens. Bradford, wool- 
lens, employing 7,900 men. Darton, nails. Dewsbury, 
blankets: carpets: druggets, horse-sheeting, &c. made 



74 COUNTT HISTORY — T0AK8HIRB (WBftT RIDING). 

from old woollen rags torn to pitces and respun. Halifax, 
merinos, and the finer sorts of worsted : cottons : wool- 
lens, employing nearly 12,000 men : wire gauzes, Hud- 
dersfield, worsted and silks. Knaresborough, thread and 
linen. Leeds, woollens, employing 9,400 men: thread 
and linens: iron: tobacco: shears: machines: paper: 
silk: cotton: worsted: carpets: flax. Rotherham, iron. 
Saddleworth, woollens and cottons. Sheffield, edge-tools : 
hardware: wire: nails: silver plate and plated goods, 
&c. similar to those at Birmingham, and employing as 
many men as that town : carpets : horse-hur chair bot- 
toms. The manufacture of steel is carried on in this town 
to an amazing extent; one house alone producing a 
greater quantity of cast steel than was probably used in 
the known world 30 years ago, besides blistered and shear 
steel. Wibsey Low Moor, iron founderies, very exten- 
sive. Witch wood, glass and earthenware. York, linen : 
combs. 



75 



POPULATION IN 1831. 

IFapeniakes, 9 ; Liberties, 2 ; Soke, 1 ; City, 1 ; Jinsiy, 
1 ; Boroughsy 10 ; Market Towns, 31 ; Parishes, 232^ 
iVir^* of Parishes, 8. 

fTou^e^, Inhabited, 196,888; Building, 1,750; Uninha- 
bited, 12,600. 

Inhabitants. Males, 502,322 ; Females, 509,390 ; total, 
1,01 1,712 Maies 20 years of age, 240,396. 

Families, employed in Agriculture, 32,514 ; in Trade, &c. 
122,623 ; in neither, 51 ,213 ; total, 206,350. 

Baptisms in 1830. Males, 13,369; Females, 13,350; 
total, 26,719. Annuai average o/ 1821 to 1830, 27,103. 

Marriages, 7 y9M; annuai average, 7,800. 

Burials. Males, 9,097; Females, 8,743; total, 17,840. 
Annual average, 17,615. 

Places having not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 

Houses. Inhiib. Houses. lohab. 

Leeds 35,456 123,893 Pudsey 1,504 7,460 

Sheffield 13,144 59,011 North Bierley 1,349 7,354 

York, city and Almondbury 1,803 7»086 

Aiusty 6,405 85,363 Mirfield 1,388 6,496 

Bradford 4 044 33.328 Sowerby 1,195 6,457 

Huddersfield 3,613 19,035 Great and Little 

Saddleworth with Goraeriall 1,347 6,189 

Quick 3,613 15,986 Thornton 1,071 5,968 

Halifax 8,344, l,5d<^3 Bowling 1,115 5,958 

EoclesallBierlow 3,519 14,379 Hawarth 1,104 5,885 

Wakefield 3,486 13,383 South Ouram 1,113 5,751 

Keii;hley 3,143 11,179 Warley 1 070 5,685 

Doncaster 3,391 10,801 Bradfield 1,008 5,604 

Horton 3,131 10,713 Elland with 

Barnesley 8,031 10,880 Greetland 1,077 5,500 

North Ouram 3,006 10,U4 Idle 1,073 5,416 

BrightsideBierlow 1,790 8,968 Ossett 1,045 5,835 

Ovenden 1,783 8,8 '1 Knaresborough 1,167 5,396 

Dewsbury 1,631 8,373 Liversedge 1,047 5,365 

StansfieM 1,445 8,363 Wadaworth 995 5,198 

Biogley and Mickle- Stanley with Wren- 

thwaite 1,551 8,086 thorp 990 5,047 

Ecclesfield 1,484 7,911 Ripon 1,097 5.080 



76 COUNTY HISTOBT — Y0RK8HIIIE (WBST RIDINO). 



Housei. fnhab. 
Hipperholne with 

Brighoute 960 4,977 
Alverthorpe with 

Thornes 999 4,859 

Batley 970 4.841 

PoDtefirftCt 995 4,8S3 

HeptonsUll 984 4,661 

Nether Hftllam 905 4,658 

Selby 959 4,600 

Hoolej 885 4,588 

Clay too 846 4,469 

Skiptoa 880 4,181 

Rotherham 860 4,083 

Skircoat 808 4,060 

Kimberworth 881 4,031 

Wnoldale 748 3,893 

Thome 849 8,779 

Soothill 738 3,849 

Morlcy 783 8,819 
Atterdiffe with 

Darnall 784 3,741 

Soy land 641 3,589 

Manoingham 676 3,564 

KnottiDgley 838 3,666 

Lepton 684 3,380 

Horsforth 69 1 3,435 

Clackheaton 619 3,317 

Otley 660 3,161 

Golcar 561 3.143 

Lockwood 609 3,134 

Dalton 585 3,060 

Baildon 591 3,044 

Staioland 560 3,037 

Rastrick 608 3,081 

Slaithwaite 58S 3,892 

Liothwaite 526 9,853 

Bllton & Harrogate 4 6 ^ 8,813 

Kirkheaton 47t: 3,755 

Heckraondwike 564 3,793 

Melham 477 3,746 

YeadoQ 586 3,761 

Kirkburton 492 3,650 

Worsbrough 506 2,677 

Rothwell 587 3,631 



Houses. Inbab. 



CaWerley cum 

Farsley 580 

Shelf 494 

Ecclesbill 505 

Cumberworth 481 

Laogfield 455 

Clifton cum Harts- 
head 455 
Horbury 495 
Midgley 449 
ThorabiU 461 
Hands worth 473 
Marsden 418 
Lindsey 445 
Barki&land 423 
South Crossland 409 
Wilsden 419 
Cowling 398 
Thornton inCraTen401 
Sedbergh 
Bentham 
Addingham 
Hatfield 
SiUden 
Longwood 
Tickhill 
Rawden 
Tong 
Erriogden 
Shipley 
Wike 

Shitlington 
High aud Low Bi- 

shopside 
Dent 
Cartworth 
Allerton 
Barnoldwick 
Drighlington 
Goole 

Nether Hoy land 
Tadcaster 
Ack worth 
Glidersome 



483 
409 
433 
433 
410 
380 
430 
394 
415 
324 
387 
356 
343 

387 

339 

315 

306 

316 

341 

836 

294 

401 

363 

360 



8,687 
3,614 
3,570 
3,554 
3,514 

8,408 

2,400 

9,409 

9,371 

9,338 

3,340 

9,306 

9,393 

3,258 

9,252 

9,249 

9,946 

9,814 

9,179 

9,179 

9,148 

3,187 

3,111 

9,018 

9,057 

9,067 

1,983 

1,986 

1,918 

1,898 

1,849 
1,840 
1,786 
1,733 
1,682 
1,676 
1,671 
1,670 
1,666 
1,660 
1,658 







POPULATION. 




77 


Houses. 


Tnhab. 




Houses. 


Inhab. 


Upper Thong 


i96 


1,648 


Greaabrough 


287 


1,290 


Settle 


308 


1 ,627 


Deo by 


269 


1,295 


Norland 


308 


1.618 


Crigglestone 


265 


1,266 


Barwick 


340 


1 ,608 


Carleton 


246 


1,265 


Guisley 


305 


1,604 


Pannail 


211 


1,261 


Thurleatone 


318 


1,599 


Swinton 


247 


1,252 


Scriven with Ten- 






Bramham 


270 


1,237 


tergate 


333 


1,598 


Hepworth 


214 


1,229 


Methiey 


339 


1,693 


Ingleton 


266 


1,238 


Foulston 


277 


1,573 


East and West 






Famhill withCo- 






Morton 


241 


1,219 


nonley 


287 


1,567 


Dodworth 


223 


1,179 


Rish worth 


253 


1,536 


Bolton by Bowland 1 99 


1,174 


Rawmarsh 


307 


1,538 


Cawood 


245 


1,173 


Outton with Wood- 




ClifFord 


219 


1,166 


lesford 


311 


1,496 


Sherburn 


249 


1,155 


Cawthorne 


223 


1,492 


Sutton 


118 


1,153 


Brother con 


326 


1,482 


Bawtry 


218 


1,149 


Carlton with Loft- 


9 




Wath-upon-Dearc 


1 240 


1,149 


house 


296 


1,453 


Thurgoland 


223 


1,147 


Heaton 


278 


1,452 


Bentley with Ark8ey244 


11,44 


West Ardsley 


290 


1,450 


Castleford 


255 


1,141 


Rawcliffe 


333 


1,450 


Mexborough 


187 


1,140 


Temple Newsam 


298 


1,458 


Kippax 


232 


1,128 


Hurley 


218 


1,448 


Grindleton 


197 


l,lo3 


Emley 


286 


1,445 


Thurstonland 


186 


1,098 


Danton 


277 


1,466 


Great Sandall 


206 


1,075 


Brompton Bierlow 271 


1,463 


Grassington 


216 


1,067 


Austonley 


238 


1,420 


Gargrave 


218 


1,062 


Monk Bretton 


256 


1,394 


Swinefleet 


231 


1,055 


Wentworth 


258 


1,394 


Upper Hallam 


189 


1,035 


Cumberworth 


259 


1,374 


Ardsley 


199 


1,029 


Conisbrough 


275 


1,347 


Churwell 


196 


1,033 


Wetherby 


2'a7 


1,321 


Lower Whitley 


187 


1,012 


Shelley 


256 


1,319 


Silkstone 


174 


1,010 


Bewerley 


207 


1,810 


Nether Thong 


18L 


1,004 



Annuai Faiue of Real Property, 1815, £2,396,222. 



78 



HISTORY. 

A. D- 

50. Venutius, who opposed CaractacuB, bad a garnson 

at Aldborough. — About the same time a battle fought at 

Austerfield, between Ostorius and the Britons. 
70. Agricola, whose wisdom beamed a double lustre on 

triumphant Rome, after subduing the Brigantes, made 

York his head quarters. 
124. The Roman £mperor Adrian came to England, and 

took up his station at York. 
180. About this time, the Caledonians ravaged the country 

as far a8 York, but were successfully opposed by Mar- 

oellus Ulpius, the Roman gei:eral. 
007. The Britons, under Fulgenius, besieged York, but 

raised the siegpe at the approach of Severus and his two 

sons Caracalla and Geta, who came from Rome for that 

purpose. 

211. The Emperor Severus died at York, having held his 
court there for more than three years. 

212. Caracalla, at York, ordered 20,000 soldiers to be put 
to death under a pretence of mutiny, and with his own 
hands murdered his brother Oeta, in the arms of his 
mother. 

293 Carausius, who usurped the regal power in Britain,. 

murdered at York by Alectus or Chlorus, his successor. 
327. York taken from the Romans by the Scots, who there 

crowned Octavius King of all Britain. 
450. Hengist King of Kent took York from the Picts and 

Scots, with all the country south of the Tees. 



HISTORY. 79 

A.D' 

466. Ambrosius compelled Octa and Eosa, sons of Hengist, 
to surrender the city of York in a very suppliant manner. 

488. Hengist, after an obstinate battle fought at Conis- 
brough, was taken prisoner by Aurelius Ambrosius, who 
beheaded him. 

490. Uther Pendragon defeated the 'rebels Octa and Eosa, 
who had invested York, and took them captives. 

5(20. Colg^rin, the Saxon, shutting himself up in York, wa^ 
besieged by King Arthur, Baldolph, Colgrin's brother, 
having arrived within ten miles of York with 6,000 men, 
was defeated by a force sent by Arthur to oppose them. 
Great reinforcements arriving from Germany, Arthur 
raised the siege, and retired to London. 

521. To Arthur, who had gained a decisive victory over the 
Saxons on Badon Hills, slaying 90,000 of them, the city 
of York was delivered ^t his approach. There he cele- 
brated the nativity of Christ with great excess ; being the 
first Christmas festival held in Britain. 

560. Elmet conquered from the Britons by the Saxons. 

626. An attempt was made to assassinate Edwin at Der- 
yentio, seven miles from York, The following year, Ed- 
win was baptized at York. 

633. A bloody battle fought on Hatfield Heath, by Cad- 
wallo King of the Britons and Penda King of Mer- 
cia, against Edwin King of Northumbria, in which the 
latter, with his son Oflfrid, was slain. Oscrick besieged 
Cadwallo in York, but he was slain, j^nd his brother An- 
frid treacherously put to death in 634. 

655, A great battle fought Nov. 15, at Winmore, between 
Pjenda King of Mercia, and Oswy King of Northumbria ; 
in which the Mercians, though thirty times the number, 
were nearly all cut to pieces. 

678. Egfrid King of Northumbria entertained at Ripon. 

740, York considerably damaged by fire. 



80 COUNTY HISTORY — Y0RK8HIRB (WB8T RIDINO). 
A. D. 

7^* Aldborough burnt hy the Danes, who murdered a 
great part of the inhabitants. 

867. Osbert King of Northumbria sallied out of York 
against the Danes, but after great slaughter was defeated, 
and lost his life. The Danes routed the armj of Ella, 
and assaulted York. 

872. York fired by the Danes. 

937* Godfrey and Anlaf, having been driven from York by 
Athelstan, fled to Ireland, whence they returned with 600 
sail, and marched to York. Athelstan, approaching the 
city, was met by the Danes at Bromford ; where, after 
slaying six Kings of Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, Athel- 
stan gained a complete victory, and razed the castle of York 
to the ground. In the succeeding reign, Anlaf obtained 
possession of York, but was obliged to retire from it. 
950. Hipon abbey and town burnt by the Danes under 
' Edred, who also defeated the Northumbrians at York.— ^ 
The Danes entirely defeated by the Saxons at Castleford. 
1010. The Danes obtained a complete victory over the 

Saxons near the river Ouse. 
1066. Harfager King of Norway landed at Riccall, and 
marching against York, took it by storm. On the 23d of 
September, Harold commenced hostilities against them at 
day-break, and after a bloody battle entirely defeated him, 
killing their King and his own brother Tosti. 

1068. William I. opposed by Earl Gospatrick and Edgar 
Atheling, who were received by Earl Morcar and the in- 
habitants of York with great joy ; but finding themselves 
unable to withstand him, Edgar was sent back to Scot- 
land, and his party submitted to William.- After this cap- 
ture, Ripon was reduced to great distress. 

1069. The Danes entered the Humber, and marched to 
York, where they were cordially received by the citizens. 



HISTORV. 81 

A.D. 

The Norman garrisons burnt the cathedral, and great part 
of the city. 
1070. William T. visited Selby with his Queen, who waa 
there delivered of a son, afterward Henry L 

1138. David King of Scotland entered England with, a 
powerful army, and besieged York; but Archbishop 
Thurstan compelled him to retire, and overtaking him at 
Northallerton, killed 10,000 of his army. 

1139. Leeds castle besieged by King Stephen in his march 
toward Scotland. 

1160. Henry II. held a Parliament at York, which con- 
demned Malcolm of Scotland to do homage for his crown. 

1170. The Knights who murdered Thomas k Becket took 
refuge at Knaresborough castle, and remained prisoners 
there many months. 

1171* Henry called a convention of the Barons and Bishops 
at York, sind William King of Scotland did homage for 
his kingdom. 

1173. Kirkby Malzeard castle besieged by Henry the Bishop 
elect of Lincoln ; Roger de- Mowbray soon afterward 
surrendered it, with that of Thirsk, to the King. 

1190. The Jews plundered and murdered at York. Those 
who had retired to the castle, being besieged, killed them- 
selves, and fired the castle. No fewer than from 1500 to 
2000 fell victims to this persecution. 

1199. The Kings of Scotland and England met at Yor]c to 
prevent a war between their countries. 

1216. The Barons besieged York, but upon receiving a 
thousand marks granted a truce. 

1220. Henry III. held a convention at York, where the 
King of Scotland married Henry's sister. 

1230. Henry III. and the King of Scotland kept their 
Christmas at York in a magnificent manner. 



u 



82 COUNTY HISTORY — YORKSHIRB (WBST BIDING). 
A.D. 

1251. Henry and his Queen met Alexander ITf. King^ of 
Scotland at York, and solemnised the marriage of Alex- 
ander and Henry *8 daughter with suitable splendour. 

1291. Edward I. on his way to Scotland, stayed some time 
at York, when the famous welchman Rees ap Meredith 
was conveyed to that city, and tried and executed for high 
treason. 

1298. A Parliament summoned at York, in which the 
King*8 confirmation of Magna Charta and Charta de Fo- 
rests were read. 

1909. Edward II. visited York and Ribston in October. 

1311. Edward 11. kept his Christmas at York, and expect- 
ing an invasion of the Scots, fortified the city walls. 

1314. After the battle of Bannockburn, in which Edward 
II. lost 50,000 men, he narrowly escaped to York. 

1319. Edward II. attempted to raise an army at York 
against the Scots, but was obliged to complete his forces 
from other quarters. — The Scots wasted the country as 
far as the city gates, burning Ripon, Knaresborough, 
Skipton, &c. 

1321. Thomas Earl of Lancaster held a council at Doncas- 
ter, to oppose his cousin Edward II., who was then at 
Pontefract, and made a stand against the King's forces 
near Boroughbridge, but was taken by Sir Andrew de 
Harcla, and subsequently beheaded with much indignity. 

1322. Edward II. held another Parliament at York, and 
was surprised while at dinner at Byland abbey by the 
Scotch. 

1323 Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, having driven Ed- 
ward out of his kingdom, pursued him to the walls of 
York. 

1327. Edward III. had a general rendezvous of his army, 
consisting of 60,000 men, at York for six weeks^-^Knares- 



A. D. 

borough castle taken by John de Lilburn for the rebellioui 
Barons^ but he was soen compelled to surrender. 

1388. Edward III. married Philippa of H ainault, and kepi 

. his Christmas at York. 

1332. Edward III. assembled a Parliament^ and in 1334 
kept his Christmas at York. 

1333. Edward Baliol resided at Sandal Magna oastle, while 
an army was raisingf to establish him on the Scotisb 
throne. 

1347* While Edward III. arid the Black Prince wei-e en- 
gaged in the French wars, David Bruce invaded England, 
and burnt part of the city of York. They were, howerei^, 
defeated by Queen Philippa at Neville*s Cross, near Pur« 
ham. 

138.5. Richard II., being on an expedition against the Scots, 
stayed some time in York. 

1389. Richard IL at York, to efffect a reconciliation be- 
tween the clergy and laity of that city. He dignified the 
Mayor With the title of Lord. 

1399. Henry of Bolingbroke, after landing at Ravenspur 
in the East Riding, was met at Doncaster by several of 
his friends.-^Richard II. confined in Knaresborough and 
Leeds castles previously to his mysterious death in Ponte- 
fract castle. 

1405. The Archbishop of York, with other distinguished 
noblemen formed a conspiracy against Henry IV., and 
caused 20,000 men to resort to his standard at York. 
The King sent down 30,000 men under the Earl of 
Westmorland, who by his intrigues, induced that pre- 
late and the Earl Marshal to dismiss their troops, upon 
which he caused them to be seized and beheaded,-— The 
King kept his court at Ripon. 

1406. Henry IV., on his return from Scotland, witnessed r 



84 COUNTY HISTORY-— YORKSHIRE (WEST RIDING). 
A. D. 

martial combat at York, between two Eng^lish and two 
Foreiffn knight g ; the former of whom prevailed. 

1408. At Bramham Moor, the forces of the Earl of North- 
umberland (the chief instrument in deposing Richard II., 
and enthroning Henry IV.) were defeated by Sir Thomas 
Rokeby, and the Earl himself slain. After this defeat, 
Henry passed through York. 

1412. Henry V. and his Queen risited the shrine of St. 
John of Beverley at York, owing to the shrine having 
" exuded blood all the day on which the battle of Agin-, 
court had been fought.'' 

1417* The Duke of Orleans, taken at Agincourt in 1412, 

, and then resident at Windsor on his parole, was removed 
to Pontefract castle by order of Henry V. He obtained 
his liberty in 1440, 

1460. A bloody battle fought at Wakefield, Dec. 24, be- 
tween Richard Duke of York and Margaret Queen of 
Henry VI. The latter, at the head of 18,000 men, ap- 
peared unexpectedly before Sandal castle, and tauntingly 
upbnuded the Ihike of York with being afraid to meet a 
woman ! He drew up his men on the green facing Wake- 
field ; but was surprised by an ambuscade, in which he 

. and 1800 of his men fell victims. The Lord Clifford, with 
more than savage ferocity, stabbed the Earl of Rutland, 
a youth of about sixteen or seventeen years old ; and cut 
off the Duke's head to present to the Queen : 
Where York himself before hie castle-gate 

Mangled with wounds on his own earth lay dead ; 
Upon whose body Clifford down him sate 

-Stabbing the corpse ; and cutting off the head, 
Crowned it with paper, aiid to wreake his teene 
' Presents it so to his victorious Queene. — Drayton. 

1461. At Towton, the English Pharsalia, March 29, took 



iii^TORr. 85 

A.D. 

place the greatest battle ever fought in this country, be* 
tireen the fiancastrians, about 60,000 in number, and 
40,000 Yorkists. The former at length gave way, but 
endeavouring to gain Tadcaster bridge, so many fell into 
the small river Cock as quite choked its course, and the 
Yorkists went over their backs to pursue their brethren. The 
number slain was estimated at 36,776, and the blood shed 
amidst the snow, which at that time covered the ground, 
on the thaw ran down the ditches of the fields for twJ 
or three miles. — Spofforth castle laid waste by the victo- 
rious Edward IV. 

1464. Edward IV. arrived at York with a numerous army^ 
and most of his nobility, on their march against the Scots, 
French, and Northumbrians, who had united in favour of 
Henry, llie armies meeting at Hexham, a battle ensued, 
in which Edward was again triumphant. 

1469. Edward IV. visited Doncaster, deprived Sir Ralph 
Grey of the order of knighthood, and beheaded several 
other Lancastrians. 

1471. Edward IV. landed at Ravenspur, and marched 
to York ; where having sworn to preserve the liberties of 
the city and to obey Henry's commands, the citizens opened 
the gates. As soon as he had performed this ceremony in 
the cathedral, he assumed the regal title, and garrisoned 
the city. 

1478. Edward IV., in his progress to the north, was met at 
Wentbridge by the Lord Mayor of York and a large cor- 
tege, and escorted to Pontefract, where he remained a 
week, and thence to York. 

1483. On the accession of Edward V. Richard Duke of 
Gloucester, then at York, hearing of the command of 
the Queen Mother to Lord Rivers to bring the young 
King to London, quitted that city, intercepted the royal 



86 COUKTT HISTORY— TOEKtaiRB (WEST RIDINO). 
A.D. 

. partji MQt Lord Rir«r8 and his eomfNuiioBs prisoners to 

' Pontefract castle, where they were immediately executed, 
and took the young prince under his own protection. 
While at Pontefract* news was hrought him of his nephew's 
death. He moved thence to Doncaster and York> where 
be was erowned. 

I486* Henry VII. visited the County, staying a few days 
at Pontefract castlet 

iSia The city and alnsty of York raised 500 soldiers to 
go against the 8cots, The body of James IV«, slain at 
Flodden Field, was exposed to public view at York* 

1536. Robert Aske, the mover of the rebellion styled the 
Pilgrimage of Grace, encamped at Scausby Lees with 
40,000 well-disciplined troops, and many knights and gen- 
tlsmen in his train* He forced the Archbishop of York 
and others at Pontefract castle to take the oath ; reeeived 
the herald of the King in state ; made himself master of 
Hull and York j obliged all the northern nobility to join 
bid standard ; entered into treaty at Doncaster, and ob- 
tained a general pardon } was invited to court, and well 
reeeived ; but finally hung in chains at York. 

1540* Henry VIII. at Pontefract for several days ; was met 
on Barnsdale by the Archbishop and above 300 priests, 
who presented him with £600. At York he staid twelve 
days. 

1548* An insurrection at Seamer, promoted by the parish 
clerk, under the pretence of refbrmlDg abuses in religiou, 
but was soon suppressed. 

1570. Mary Queen of Scots removed from Tutbury to 
Sheffield castle, in custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury. 

1584. Mary Queen of Scots confined at Sheffield castle 
in the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury. 

1603. April 16, James I. visited York on bis way to take 
possession of the English crown. In the June following. 



HISTORY. 87 

A. D. 

the Queen and her two eldest children visited York, &c. 

on their waj to London* 
I6I7. James entertained at Pontefract, Ripon, and York 

on his way to Scotland. 
1625. Charles I., returning from Scotland, entertained at 

Pontefract. 
1633. Charles I. sumptuously entertained at Yoric on his 

journey to Scotland, and also at Ripon and Pontefract. 

1639. On the breakingc out of the Scotch rebellion, Charles 
made York the principal rendezvous of his army. The 
insurgents laid down their arms, and swore obedience to 
him ; but in the following year, 

1640. they again entered England ; upon the news of which 
Charles hastened to York, whither he was followed by Sir 
Jacob Astley with an army of 12,000 foot and 3,000 
horse. On Sept. 24, Charles held a great assembly of 
peers in the deanery at York, a meeting which induced 
the people to believe he meant to govern without the aid 
of the Commons. Their sittings lasted till the 18th of 
October; and Commissioners to negotiate a peace with 
the Scotch were at the same time meeting at Ripon. The 
King returned to London, however, without effecting any 
thing. 

1641. Nov. 20, Charles came to York on his way to Scot- 
land. 

1642. In March, Charles removed his court to York, where 
he was received with every token of attachment. From 
the resort of the nobility, &c. of the county, his court 
assumed a considerable degree of splendour. The King 
left York in September, when the city was garrisoned by 
the Earl of Cumberland, and subsequently by the Earl of 
Newcastle, who arrived November 30, with 6,080 men 
and 10 pieces of artillery. He made successful excursions 
against Tadcaster, Sheffield, Leeds, Halifax, and We- 



88 COUNTV HISTORY — YORKSHIRE (WBST RIDINC). 
A.D. 

therbjr, the Utter under the Earl of Newport with 2,000 
men. — Cawood castle garrisoned for the King. — Sir Tho- 
mas Olemham attacked Wetherby, but was twice repulsed 
by Sir Thomas Fairfax. — A battle fought on Adwalto^n 
Moor between the Ear! of Newcastle, who commanded 
the Royalists, and the Parliamentarians, in which the 
latter were totally defeated. Lord Fairfax and his son 
soon effected a junction of their forces at Bradford, but 
being closely followed by Newcastle, in 1642-3, escaped 
with connderable loss to Leeds, whence he retreated to 
Hull. In this engagement Lady Fairfax was taken pri- 
soner, but W!i8 generously sent back by Newcastle in his 
own coach, and with an escort. The head-quarters of the 
Earl were at Bowling Hall. 

1643. January 23, Sir Thomas Fairfiix captured Leeds. — 
Howley Hall stormed and plundered by the Parliament- 
arians. An engagement at Seacroft between Fairfax with 
a detachment of the Parliamentarians, and a large body 
of horse under Lord Goring, in which the latter gained 
a complete victory. -» The Royalists erected a fort at 
Whitgift, to prevent Hull during the si^e from re- 
ceiving supplies by water. — Ripon taken for the Par- 
liament by Sir Thomas Mauleverer.— Henrietta Maria 
came to York, when Sir Hugh Cholmley, late governor 
of Scarborough, joined the Queen's standard with 300 
men. 

1644. Charles I. at Doncaster. — ^Sir Thomas Fairfax, Les- 
ley, and the Earl of Manchester, with an army of 30,000 
men, commenced the siege of York ; but were, by various 
schemes of the Royalists prevented from making a vigo- 
rous attack till the 15th of June, when the siege was com- 
menced with great spirit. Prince Rupert coming to its 
relief, the Parliamentarians retired to Marston Moor, 
whither Rupert followed them, and where on the second 



HISTORY. 89 

A. D. 

of July, a most dreadful battle was fought, which termi- 
nated iu favour of the Parliament, and decided the destiny 
the house of Stuart. A few days previous to this battle, 
Ripley castle surrendered to the Parliament ; and Prince 
Rupert on his way to Marston encamped on Bolton 
bridge, and lodged at Denton park, which he was only 
prevented from destroying by the sight of a portrait of 
John Fairfax, slain while defending Frankendale in the 
Palatinate, 1621. — Colonel Lilburn besieged Tickhill cas* 
tie, and obtained possession in two days. — In July, Crom- 
well's Norwich troop of horse were quartered at Killing- 
hall. They had embroidered on their colours, ** La troupe 
des Vierges;" being raised by the voluntary subscription 
of the young ladies of^orwich. — Cawood castle surren- 
dered' to Sir John Meldrum. — The Marquis of Newcastle 
and others, disgusted with the rash conduct of Rupert, left 
York and embarked for Hamburg. York was consequently 
again besieged, and taken. — Sheffield castle honourably 
surrendered to the Parliament on August 10, under Major 
General Crawford. — Lord Fairfax, in November, took 
Knaresborough* — December 25, Sir Thomas Fairfax took 
possession of the town of Pontefract, and began the siege 
of the castle. On the 16th of January, the Parliament- 
arians were strengthened by the arrival of Ferdinand Lord 
Fairfax from Helmsley, who summoned the garrison. On 
the22d, Lord Fairfax set off for York, leaving the command 
to Major General Poyntz. On the 27th of February, Sir 
Marmaduke Langdale, ordered by the King to relieve Pon- 
tefract, arrived at Doncaster from Oxford. On the 1st 
of March, an action ensued which discomfited the Parlia- 
mentarians, and relieved the besieged. Langdale pro- 
ceeded to Doncaster, and thence to Newark. 
1645. March 21, the Parliament obtained possession of the 



90 COUNTY HISTORY— Y0EK8HIRB (WEST RIDINO). 
A.D. 

town of Pontefract, and after three moDtha' incessant siege 
and great privation, compelled the garrison to capitulate 
on July 20. Till the 12th of June, the besiegers were 
commanded by Sandys ; but the Parliament being dissatis- 
fied. Lord Fairfiix came from York to make inquiries, 
and on the 13th General Poyntz took the command. To 
him Governor Lowther delivered up the castle. The Par- 
liament, it is believed, lost in killed and wounded 469 sol- 
diers, whilst the besieged did not lose much above 50. — 
In October, Colonel Bonivant surrendered Sandal Mag- 
na castle, after a siege of three weeks, to the Parliament- 
arian Colonel Overton. — December 20, Skipton castle sur- 
rendered to the Parliament, having held out longer than 
any other castle in the north of England. 

1646. In the Red Hall, Leeds, Charles I. lodged, while in 
the hands of the Scots, on his way from Newark to New- 
castle. A maid servant entreated him to exchange clothes, 
and make his escape ; but the unfortunate monarch refused. 

1648. June 3, Colonel Morrice, by a long planned, and 
several times vainly attempted, stratagem, obtained 
possession of Pontefract castle, and made various success- 
ful and harassing sallies* Cromwell reached Pontefract 
on Aug. 4, and remained HW the eleventh, plundering the 
town. He then departed to join Lambert at Knaresbo- 
rough. On October 9, the Parliamentarians entered the 
town of Pontefract, and on the 27th summoned the gar- 
rison to surrender. Colonel Rainsborough was sent to 
command the besiegers, but whilst lying at Doncaster 
with a large body of soldiers, was slain by stratagem of the 
Royalists. Cromwell arriving soon afterward, commenced 
the siege with vigour, which held out till the execution 
of Charles, January 30, when they proclaimed Charles 
IL and made a vigorous sally* The castle surrendered 



HISTORY. 91 

A. D. 

to General Lambert on March 25, 1649. In this castle. 
Colonel Morrice struck the first silver coins in this king- 
dom which hore the name of Charles II. 

1650. Cromwell, on his way to Scotland in July, was re- 
ceived at York with a discharge of all the artillery. 

1660. General Monk entered York with his army. 

1663. An insurrection took place, to obtain a Christian 
magistracy and a gospel ministry. Their rendezvous 
in Farnley Wood being known, a body of troops sur- 
prised them, and took many prisoners, twenty^one of 
whom were executed. With this conspiracy, the name of 
Titus Oates is erroneously said to have been connected. 
A Captain Thomas Oates was concerned in it, and exe- 
cuted ; but he was not even related to the notorious lltus« 

1688. The Protestant militia of York attacked the Catholic 
partisans of James, seized the city gates, placed guards at 
each, and declared for the Prince of Orange. 

1689. The Duke of Wirtemberg, with a number of Danish 
soldiers amounting to 5,000 foot and 1,000 horse, passed 
the winter in York and the adjoining villages. 

1746. The Prince of Hesse and William Duke of Cumber* 
land, after the famous battle of Culloden, visited York on 
their return southward. 

1768. The King of Denmark visited York and Leeds. 

1812. The misguided Luddites, in their attempts to destroy 

. all the machinery in the clothing district, encountered a 
successful resistance in April at Rawfolds in Liversedge, 
on the part of Mr. William Cartwright ; who defended 
his mill by a small garrison consisting only of himself, 
four of his workmen, and five soldiers, against a host of 
assailants. Numbers of mills were destroyed, and many 
lives lost, beside those executed. 

1829. York Minster fired by an incendiary. (See p. 108.) 



92 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Adams, Thomas, learned divine, Leeds, 1701. 

Alcuinus, or Flaccus Albinus, pupil of Venerable Bede, and 
founder of the University of Paris, controversialist, York 
(died 780). 

Aram, Eugene, self-taught scholar, Ramsgill in Neiherdalc 
(execute in 1759 for munlcr under circumstances of such 
peculiarity as to have originated from the pen of Edward 
L. Bulwer a powerful romance). 

Atkinson, Richard, Provost of Eton Colleec in 1553, Ripley* 

Baron, Richard, dissenting minister and zealous political 
writer, Leeds (died 1768). 

Balguy, John, learned divine and author, Sheffield, 1686 
(died 1748). 

Bar tlett, Benjamin, celebrated antiquary and medallist, Brad- 
ford, 1714. 

Beckwith, Thomas, artist (died 1786). 

Benthara, Thomas, learned and pious Bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry, translated the bouk of Psalms at the com- 
mand of Queen Elizabeth, also the prophecies of Daniel 
and Ezekiel, Sherburn, 1513 (died 1578). 

Bentlev, Richard, celebrated classic, divine, and polemic, 
. Oulton, 1661 (died 1742^. 

Berkenhout, John, physician and miscellaneous writer, 
Leeds, 1730 (died 1791). 

Bingham, Joseph, divine and antiquary, author of the ^* Ori- 
gines Ecclesiastica5,'' Wakefield, 1668 (died 1723). 

Bingley, William, divine, author of ** Animal Biography,*' 
Doncaster, 1774. 

Boyse, Joseph, able dissenting divine, Leeds, 1660 (died 

Bradbury, Thomas, facetious dibsentiug divine and author^ 
Wakefield, 1677 (died 1759;. 



EMJXENT NATIVES. 93 

Bramhall, John, Prebendary of York, Siibdean of Ripon, 
and Archbishop of Armagh, learned author of *'The 
catching of a Leviathan/' a work directed agjunst Hobbes, 
Pontefract, j593 (died 1663). 

Brigges, Henry, mathematician and author, Halifax, 1556 
(died 1630). 

Brooke, John Charles, Somerset Herald, antiquary, Field 
Head* near Dudsworth, 1748. 

Brooksbank, Joseph, schoolmaster, Halifax, 1612. 

Brotherton, Thomas de, son of Edward L Brotherton, 1300. 

Burton, John, physician and learned ecclesiastical antiquary, 
the prototype of Sterne's **Dr. Slop," Ripon, 1697 (died 

William, physician, Wakefield (18th century). 

Calvert, James, learned nonconformist divine, and author, 

York (died 1698). 
Thomas, uncle to James, nonconformist divine and 

author, York, 1606 (died 1679). 

, Newcome, socinian divine and author, Leeds, 1732 
ied 1800). 
Carr, John, architect, Horbury (died 1807)* 
Castleford, Thomas de, historian of Pontefract. 
Cavendish, William, first Duke of Newcastle, royalist officer « 

writer on the management of horses, &c. Hansworth, 

1592 (died 1676). 
Cawthorne, James, divine and poet, Sheffield, 1719 (killed 

by a fall from his horse, 1761). 
Clapham, Samuel, divine and author, Leeds, 1755. 
Clarkson, David, controversialist and nonconformist divine, 

Bradford, 1622 (died 1686). 
Clifford, Anne, Countess of Pembroke, daughter of the third 

Earl of Cumberland, Skipton castle, 1589. 
Congreve, William, dramatic writer, Bardsey Orange, 1670 

(died 1728-9). 
CoNSTANTiNE THE Great, the first Emperor of Rome 
' who embraced Christianity, York, 272 (died 337). 
Cooke, Alexander, celebrated divine, Kirk Beeston, 1564. 
Robert, disputant and divine, brother of Alexander, 

Kirk Beeston, 1550. 
Craven, Sir William, Lotd Mayor of London 1610, father 

of the first Earl Craven, Appletrewick in Burnsal. 



^T^: 



M COUNTT HI8T0RT— TORKtHIEB (WB8T RIDING). 

Craren* Dr. William, divine and professor of Arabic at Cam- 
bridge, Gowthwaite Hall, 1731 (died 1814). 

Cressey, Hugh Paulin de, popish writer, convert from pro- 
testantism, Wakefield, 1605 (died 1674). 

Damleji Lord, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, Temple 
Newsam (murdered 1567). 

Dawson, John, learned surgeon and mathematician, Gars- 
dale, 1733. 

Deane, Edmund, physician and brother to the Bishop of 
Ossory, Saltonstall, 1572. 

^-— Richard, Fishop of Ossory, Salton Place. 

Earle, John, Bishop of Worcester and Salisbury, author, 
York, 1601 (died 1665). 

Erghom, John, learned divine, York (flourished 1490). 

Eusden, Jjaurence, poet laureat and divine, Spofforth or 
Spotsworth (died 1730). 

Fairfax, Edward, demonologist and poet, improver of versi- 
fication, translator of Tasso, Denton (died 1632). 

Fairfax, Thomas Lord, parliamentarian general, author, 
Denton, 1611 (died 1671). 

Fawcett, Sir W. military officer and writer, Shipdenhall, 1728 
(died 1804). 

Fawkes, Francis, divine, poet, and miscellaneous writer, 
near Leeds, 1731 (died 1777). 

Fawkes, Guy, concerned in the gunpowder plot, Bishopthorpe 
(executed 1605). 

Feme, Henry, Bishop of Chester, learned and pious royalist, 
York, 1602 (died 1661-2, within six weeks of consecra- 
tion). 

Perrar, Robert, Bishop of St. David's, martyr, Bsholt* 
(died 1555). 

Fitzwilliam, William, eminent naval commander, and Earl 
of Southampton (died 15^). 

Flaxman, John, R. A. sculptor, York, 1755 (died 1826). 

Fleming, Richard, founder of Lincoln College, Oxford, 
Croxton (died 1430-1). 

Flour, Robert, hermit of Knaresborough, 1132, York. 

Fothergill, John, quaker, physician, and author, Carr End, 
Askrigg, 1712 (died 1780). 

— Antony, learned physician and author^ Sedbergh» 
1732-3. 

• Wright's Halifax places his birth at Ewood in Halifax. 



EMINENT NATIVES. 95 

Fotherg^ill, Marmaduke, pious and learned, but eccentric 
divine, York, 1652 (died 1713). 

Fountain, Riehard, benefactor to his native place, Linton 
(died 1721). 

Frobisher, Sir Martin, enterprising navigator, made a voyage 
to discover a north-west passage, Altofts (died 1594). 

Gascoigne, Sir W. the judge who committed to prison Henry 
V. whilst heir apparent, Gawthorpe (died 1413). 

Gheast, Edmund, JBishop of Salisbury, Allerton (died 1576). 

Gibson, William, eccentric physician, Sand Hall, Halifax. 

Halfpenny, Joseph, architectural draughtsman. Bishop- 
thorpe, 1748. 

Harrison, John, inventor of a time-piece to ascertain the 
longitude at sea, &c. for which he received the parlia- 
mentary premium of £10,000, Foulby near Pontefract, 
1693 (died 1776). 

Hartley, David, physician and metaphysician^ author of 
" Observations on Man,'' and originator of the doctrine 
of association, Armlcy, 1705 (died 1757). 

Haygarth, John, physician and author, Garsdale, 1740. 

Henry I. King of England, youngest son of William L, 
succeeded William Rufus, Selby, 1070 (died 1135). 

Herbert, Sir Thomas, traveller in Africa and Asia, York, 
1606 (died 1682). 

Hill, Dr. Joseph, divine and editor of Schrevelius" Lexicon, 
Bramley, 1625 (died 1707). 

Holgate, Robert, Lord President of the North, and Archbi- 
shop of York, deprived in 1553 by Queen Mary, Hems- 
worth (died 1556). 

Hollis, Thomas, benefactor to his native toM'n, Rotherham. 

Holmes, George, learned antiquary, Skipton, 1662 (died 
1748-9). 

Vice-Admiral, gallant officer, York (died 1668). 

Hoole, Charles, schoolmaster of considerable note, Wake- 
field, 1610 (died 1666). 

Hopton, John, Bishop of Norwich in 1554, Blake Hall. 

Hoyle, Joshua, DD. Master of University College, Oxford, 
and Regius Professor of Divinity, Sowerby (died 1654), 

Hulme, Joseph, physician. Little Horton, 1/14. 

Nathaniel, physician and author, 1732 (died 1807). 

Huntley, Francis, melodramatic actor, talented but dissi- 
patea, educated as a surgeon, Barnsley, 1787 (died 1831) 



96 COIfNTV HISTORY — YORKSHIRE (WEST RIDING). 

KilHugbeck, John, learned and benevolent Vicar of Leeds, 

Headingley, lG49(died 1715.16). 
Lacy, John, dramatic writer, Doncaster (died 1681). 
Lake, John, BiKhop of Chichester, Leeds, 1624. 
Lister, Sir Matthew, physician, Thornton, 1565 (died 1657* 

aged 92}. 
Loogfe, William, distinguished engraver, Leeds, 1649, where 

he died 1689. 
Lund, John, a barber and a poet, Pontefract (18th century). 
Margetson, James, Archbishop of Armagh, Drigblington 

(died 1678). 
Marre, John de, carmelite and opponent of WicUiffe, Marr 

(died 1407). 
Metcalf, John, called ** Blind Jack of Knareaborough,*' a 

self-taught surveyor of roads, Knaresborough, 1717- 
Middleton, Dr. Conyers, learned divine and polemist, York,* 

1683 (died 1790). 
Mitner, Isaac, Dean of Carlisle, mathematician, and natural 

philosopher, near liCcds (died 1820). 
■ Joseph, brother of Isaac, divine and ecclesiastical his- 
torian, but oridnally a weaver, Leeds, 1744 (died 1797). 
Philip, generi 

the county in 1669, Heck. 



Monckton, Sir Philip, general, royalist, and high sheriff of 



Monteigne, George, Archbishop of York, son of a farmer, 
Cawood (died 1628). 

Montagu, Elizabeth, lively and ingenious writer, York, 
1720 (died 1800). 

Morton, Thomas, successively Bishop of Chester, Lichfield, 
and Durham, York, 1564 (died 1659). 

Nares, Robert, Archdeacon of Stafford, author, York, 1753 

Naylor, James, enthusiastic quaker, controversial writer, re- 
markable for his sufferings illegally inflicted, Ardsley 
near Wakefield, 1616 (died 1660). * 

Nettleton, lliomas, physician and miscellaneous writer, 
Dewsbnry. 1683 (died 1742). 

Oglethocpe, Owen, Bishop of Carlisle, crowned Queen Eli- 
zabeth, deprived 1560, President of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, Newton Kyme. 

Oley, Barnabas, President of Clare Hall, Cambridge, Warm- 
field (died 1686). 

* According to some authors, at Richmond, in the North Riding. 



EMINENT NATIVES. ^ 

Pearson, George, phj'sician, author, and experimental che-* 

mist, Rothcrham, 1751 (died 1828). 
Petty t, William, lawyer, keeper of the records in the Tower, 

Storithes, 1636 (died 1707). 
Plantagenet, Richard, Earl of Cambridge, grandfather to 

Edward IV. Conisborough (died 1415). 
Poole, Matthew, nonconformist divine, learned annotator on 

the Scriptures, York, 1624 (died in Holland, 1679). 
Porteus, Beilby, Bishop of London, poet and author, York, 

1731 (died 1808). 
Potter, John, Archbishop of Canterbury, antiquary, critic» 

&c. Wakefield, 1674 (died 1747). 
Priestley, Joseph, dissenting divine, experimental philo8o-> 

pher,*Fieldhead near Birstall, 1733 (died 1804). 
Proctor, Thomas, first sculptor of the English school, Settle. 
Pullen, Samuel, Archbishop of Tuam, Ripley. 
Radcliffe, John, eccentric and popular physician, bequeathed 

£4,000 for founding the Radcliffe library at Oxford, 

Wakefield, 1650 (died 1714). 
Ramsden, Jesse, optician and mechanist, Halifax, 1735 

(died 1800). 
Rawdon, Sir George, soldier in Ireland, Rawdon in Otley. 
Richardson, Richard, physician, botanist, and antiquary, 

Bierley Hall. 
Robertson, Thomas, Vicar of Wakefield, learned gram- 
marian, Wakefield, 1507 (died 1560). 
Robinson, Matthew, I^ord Rokeby, York, 1713. 
Thomas, divine and author, Wakefield, 1749 (died 

1813). 
Roebuck, John, physician, natural philosopher, and founder 

of the Carron and other works in Scotland, Sheffield, 

1718 (died 1794). 
, Romane, John le, Archbishop of York in 1285, York (died 

1296). 
Rotherham, Thomas de. Bishop of Lincoln, Archbishop of 

York in 1480, Lord Chancellor, and second founder of 

Lincoln College, Oxford, Rotherham (died 1500). 
Saltonstall, Sir R. Lord Mayor of London, great benefac* 

tor, Halifax (died about 1600). 
Sanderson, Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, royalist, Sheffield, 
. 1587 (died 1662-3), 

X 



M COUNTY HIBTOftr — TORKBHIRB (WEST RIDINO). 

SandjB, Oeor^, fonnseMt son of Archbishop Sandys, Hutlio^ 
of travels m the mly Land, and a noei, Bishopthorpe, 
1577 (died 1643). 

Saundenion, Dr. Nicholas, ,LL.D. professor of Mathematics 
at Cambridge/hlinded by the smidl pox in the first year 
of his life, 'Phuristotie, 1682 (died 1739). 

Savlle, Sir Henry, profbund and elegant scholar and author, 
Bradley near Haliiax, 1949 (died 1622). 

Saxton, Christopher, chorographer, Leeds (16th century); 

Peter, puntan divine, Bramlcy, about 1586. 

Scott, James, DDi eloquent preacher, author under the si^* 
nature of Anti-Seianus, Leeds, 1733 (died I<814). 

Thomas, Archbishop of York. F*ide R'otherham. 

Sharp, Abraham, mathematician, mechanist, and astronomer, 
LiUle Horton, 1651 (died 1741). 

John, Archbishop of York, author of Sermons, oppo* 

nent of Dean Swift, Bradford, 1644 (died 1714). 

ShiptoTJ, Mother, prophetess, Knan^b^rough, 14S7* 

Smeaton, John, engineer, builder of Eddystone lighthouse, 
and' author, Au6th6rpe, 1724, and where he died in 1792. 

Stapylton, Sir Robert, soldier, poet, and dramatist. Carle- 
ton (died 1669). 

Stocke, Richard, paritan divine, York (died 1626). 

Swinburne, Henry, ecclesiastical lawyer and author, York 
(died about 1620). 

Thompson, Richard, Dean of Bristol, Wakefield (died 1685). 

Thoresby, Ralph, learned and industrious antiquary, Leeds, 
1658 (died 1725). 

Tillotson, John, Archbishop of Canterbury, author of 
Sermons, Sowerby, 1630 (died 1694). 

Tilson, Henry, Bishop of Elphin, who, after being stripped 
of all his property, was obliged to escape to England on 
the breaking out of the Irish rebellion, and find shelter 
at Soothill Hall, Dewsbury; Halifax, 1576 (died 1655). 

Tonge, Ezreel, D.D. first discoverer of the popish plot in 
the time of Charles II. (died 1680). 

Wakefield, Henry de. Bishop of Worcester, Wakefield 
(died 1394). 

Waldby, Robert, Archbishop of York in 1396, lover of lite- 
rature, York (died 1398). 

Walker, Obadiah, learned divine, convert to popery, Wors- 
br^ugh, 1616 ((tied 1699). 



EMINENT NATIYBS. 99 

Wallis, George, physician and satirist, York, 17^ (died 
1802). 

Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, York, 1055. 

Watkinson, Henry, civilian, Leeds. 

Wilkinson, Henry, D.D. Principal of Magdalen Hall, Ox- 
ford, nonconformist, and author, Adwick, 1616 (died 
1690). 

Wilson, Benjamin, eminent painter, distinguished also for 
his etchings in imitation of^Rembrandt, L^eds (flourished 
1760). 

Ricbwd^ Bishop of Meath (living 1512). 

Wintringbam, Sir Cliflon, physician and author, York, 1716 
(diedl794). ^ . . . 

Woodhead, Abraham, ingenious Roman catholic author, 

Melthani, 1608. 
Wrsy, Dr. Thonas, divine, liow fioptham (died 1778). 
Zouch, Dr. Thomas, learned and amiable divine and poet. 

Sandal Magna, 1737 (died 1806). 



100 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

At Abberpord is a farm bouse said to have been for- 
merly the occasional retreat of the notorious Nevison, who 
here baited his favourite mare on his rapid journey from 
London to York. 

At Aldburgh Church, on the outside of the wall of the 
vestry, is a figure of Mercury; and in the churchyard a 
grave stone, with a half-length figure of a woman in a Saxon 
habit, cut in relievo. 

At Alwoodley resided Sir Gervase Clifton, the noted 
baronet, who outdid Henry VIII. in the number of his wives ; 
for, " whereas that King had wedded three Kates, two Nans, 
and one dear Jane, this baronet had three honourables, 
three right worshipfuls, and one well-beloved wife."' He 
died in 1666. 

At Aston died in 1797, the Rev. William Mason, the 
poet, who resided here for nearly forty years, devoting his 
time to the duties of his calling, and to the elegant pleasures 
of poetry, music, painting, and gardening. ^ 

^ At Atterclifpe were educated under Mr. JoUie, a dis- 
senting minister, Saunderson the blind professor, Bowes the 
Irish Chancellor, and Archbishop Seeker. 

At Bardsey Orange occasionally resided, and at last 
died, Francis Thorpe, the tyrannical Baron of the Ex- 
chequer. 

At Barnbrough is a tradition of '' a serious eonfl let that 
once took place between a man and a wild cat,'' which 
proved fatal to botlu 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERYATIOKS. 101 

Barwick in Elmet was a seat of the Kings of Nbtth- 
umberland, founded by Edwin. 

At Howley Hall, Batley, as tradition reports, Rubens 
visited Lord Saville, and painted for him a view of Ponte- 
fract ; and here Archbishop Usher condescended to assume 
the disguise of a Jesuit, in order to try the controversial 
talents of Robert Cooke, the learned Vicar of Leeds. 

At Bierlby was erected the second hot-house in the 
north of England. — Here is also one of the first cedars of 
Libanus planted in England, and a modern Druidical circle, 
the fallacy of which, if posterity were uninformed of its real 
history, might be unperceived« 

At BisHOPTON, near Ripon, died January 4, 1830, Fran- 
cis Wilkinson, in his 105th year* 

At Bolton, where Sir Ralph Pudsey sheltered his perse- 
cuted sovereign Henry VI. after the battle of Hexham, are 
still' preserved a pair of boots, a pair of gloves, and a spoon 
which the unfortunate monarch left behind. 

At Bracewbll, in the remains of an old house, is an 
apartment called ** the King's Parlour," undoubtedly one 
of the retreats of Henry Vh - 

At Bradford Free Grammar sj^hool was educated Dr. 
John Sharp, Archbishop of York. 

At Brodsworth was buried Peter Thellusson, who pur- 
chased the Kinnoul estate here, and died in 17^7, leaving 
his property by will to accumulate for a distant generation, 
and subject to certain conditions^ The will concluded in 
these words : — " As 1 have earned the fortunes which I now 
possess with industry and honesty, I trust and hope that 
the Legislature will not in any manner alter my will, or the 
limitations created, but permit my property to go on in the 
manner in which I hereby dispose of it." The will was for 
many years in the Court of Chancery, and a considerable 
amount of property thereby swallowed up. 



1€8 coiTNTr KirroBT— TOEKMnRx (WBST riding). 

BaoOK H0O8B Fann pajs yearly a sn&m batt at Ifid- 
suminer and a red rose at Christmas. 

CACVBaLBT is acBiorable for aflbrding' the plot of the 
«< Yorkshire Tragedy/* ascribed to Shakspeare. 

In the library of Cannon Hall is the bow of Littie 
John, the famous oatlaw. 

Two farms in CARLOOTBe pay, the one a right hand and 
the other a left hand glove yearly. 

The summit of Castlbbbbg rock once formed the gno- 
mon of a< rude but magnificent sun^lial, the ehadow of 
whiA, pBsring over some grey-slones upon ifts side^ marked 
the time to the inhabitants of Settle ; an instrument more 
untient than the dial of Ahaz. 

At Cawood, Cardinal Wolsey was arrested by the Earl 
i>f Northumberland. — Here died Archbishops Greenfield, 
1315; Melton, 1340; Bowes, 141^; Rotherham, 1500; 
MattheW^, and Monteigne, both in 1628. ^ 

At Clarb Hill, in the Saxon times, was held the " go- 
mote " or assembly of the people of the Wapentake. 

At Dbmton Casjkle died the celebrated Lord Fairfiix, No- 
vember 12, 1671. To him we owe the basis of Thoresby's 
museum, aJMl 4h« ooUections of Dodsworth, transcribed under 
his patronage, and bequeathed to the University of Oxford. 
It was tibe lady'of the Parliamentarian general who« in the 
High Court of Justice, on the reading of the indictment 
.against Charles ^l.4if> the name of the people of Engluid, 
called out thatit^was <*'aliel the tenth part of the people 
was not gmky'of that villainy, but that it was the contri- 
vance of the traitor Cromwell.'* 

At Dbwsbury, Paulinus, the Northumbrian Apostle, 
preached the Christian truths to the Subjects of King Edwin, 
and performed in theHver Calder the initiatory rite of baptism. 
This event was eommemorated by a sculptured cross in the 
churchyard, for oentiiries. destroyed, but remaifis of which, 



eihibiting sculptures of s^ very early d^t«» vfw^ 4ug ^P '^^ 
1766 and 1767, and are engravod in ^Y^iit^er's « I^idis 
and Ehnete/* A B:\odem croBs, with ^e inscription, 

PATLINVS HIG PBBDICAVIT BT CB];>BBBAVIT 

pf rpetuM^s the tradition,— Jn the Church, Ues interred the 
unfortunate Henry Tilson, Bishop of Elphin. (Se^ p. 98.) 

At DoNCASTBB resided Dr. Edwmtl MiUer, organist and 
historiaii of his native town. Th^ gentlemaii^ has the credit 
of having drawn from obscurity the ext^i^ordinary genius of 
Hbbschel the astronomer. 

At Fbbby Fbtston, ip 1822, was dug up a massive stone 
ooffin, conU^ining the bones of a strong athletic m^n, who 
had evidently been beheaded; supposed to b^ Thomas £arl 
of Lancaster, beheaded 1321 . 

At GiSBUBNB House is a portrait of Oliver Cromwell, by 
Sir Peter Lely, with the expressive word " Now I " on the 
C2|i^as, alluding to his peremptory order fo|r the in^nediate 
e^iecution of the King. 

At Gbbb^hb4I>9 Benjamin llaigh Allen* esq, erected & 
handsome gpthic church ^ his pole exp^sf , which was con- 
secrated in 1819 ; thus em^la^ng ^e^ spirit of devotion and 
Uhfurality which pe^v^ed our (iDfesiorp pc^vi(kuslj tp the 
neign of the d^urch-de^troyiug ^^ry VIII. 

At Halifax, the ** Gibbet Law '' has beefi Iftng d^scon- 
til^led. F'om this ms^shine, the French seeip to have copied 
tibeir guillotine. The .E^xl of Morton i^tro4i^d it into 
Scptland, and suffered by it in 1581L Ii\ tl)f gaol helongp- 
ing to the lord of the manor ip presecved-^hegibbeti a^e. — 
Daniel Defoe here wrote his <* Robipson Crusoe,'' f Pe 
J^re Divino,'' &c. — John Watson, author of the History of 
](Ialifax was Curafe of this, place. 

Of H ALTON piLL was ; Cerate t;)ia^ ^pg^iJlar . gh 
JlJr, Wil80i\, author of a scarce tr}|c1;,^?nti|iad *^.The 
tihpMoon.'' ....(.; 



liM COUNTY HI6TORT— T0RK8HIRB (WBST RIDING). 

At Ham POL Bl resided Richard Role, a hermit, who made 
one of the first attempts to translate the Bible, and died 1349. 

Habbvtood Church contains the relics of the spirited 
judge Sir William Gascoig^e. 

At HippBRHOLMB, near Halifax, died Nor. 10, 1721, 
aged 1 14, John Roberts. 

At HoLBECK died, December 22, 1828, Betty Jackson, 
aged 106, having resided in the village all her life, and ac- 
companied the packhorses with rations to General Waders 
army (then at Tadcaster) in the rebellion of 1745. 

At HoLOATB, near York, died February 16, 1826, Lind- 
ley Murray, the grammarian, and author of many valuable 
elementary school books. He was a native of Pennsylvania, 
came to England in 1784, and died in his 81st year. 

At LiTTLB HoRTON resided Abraham Sharpe, the inde- 
fatigable mathematician. 

At Keighlbt was born Feb. 20, 1781, Isaac Butterfield, 
who at the age of twenty months, was three feet in height, 
and weighed nearly eight stone. He was exhibited as a 
gigantic child in London, and died Feb. 1, 1783. 

At Kirk LEES, near Huddersfield, was buried the re- 
nowned archer and outlaw Robin Hood. In the Nunnery 
he is said to have been bled to death by the treachery of » 
nun, December 20, 1247. 

At Knarbsborough, in 1744, Was committed that mur- 
der on Daniel Clark, for which Eugene Aram was executed 
at York fourteen years after. The extraordinary attain- 
ments of this man, being versed in science and languages, 
his general good character while engaged as a teacher at 
Lynn, in Norfolk, and the ingenious subtilty of his defence, 
have rendered his history a matter of general notoriety, and 
havd given rise to a powerful novel by Edward Lytton 
Bulwer.-^Here died John Metcalfe, aged 93. Although be 
lost his sight in infancy, he was a tolerable proficient in 



' MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 105 

music; a well-known guide over the forest; a common 
carrier; a builder of bridges ; a contractor for making roads ; 
and a player at whist I 

At Ledsham was interred, in 1739, the charitable Lady 
Elizabeth Hastings, with a handsome monument to her 
memory. 

In Leeds Church is a beautiful cenotaph by Flaxman, to 
the memory of Captains Walker and Beckett, who fell at 
Talavera, July 28, 1809, erected at an expense of £600. 
7^he plumage in the half-expanded wings of the mourning 
Victory is singularly fine. — At the Grammar school were 
educated Sir Thomas Kerrison, judge of King's Bench; 
Bishop Wilson, of Bristol ; Ralph Thoresby, the antiquary ; 
John Berkenhout, the naturalist ; Dean Milner, and many 
other learned divines, &c. Samuel Pullen, Archbishop of 
Tuam, was first Master; and Samuel Brooke, the epigram- 
matist, was also Master. — ^The Red House was the first built 
of brick, in the time of Charles I. — Of Leeds was Vicar 
John Lake, afterward Bishop of Chichester, and one of the 
seven prelates committed to the Tower of London by James 
H. He also refused to take the oaths to William III., and 
died in August, 1689. — The origin of straw hats, &c. has 
been attributed to one Isabel Denton, who lived at Leeds in 
the time of Charles I., and having a large family and a 
worthless husband, found her living in the invention. 

Of Little Sandal was Rector John Rokeby, Archbishop 
of Dublin* 

At Newbt Hall is the best private collection of antient 
marbles in the kingdom. Here is the esteemed Barberini 
Venus. 

Newhall, in Otiey, was the favourite seat of Edward 
Fairfax, the poet. He led a retired life, and died here about 
1632. 



106 COUNTT HltTOaT-^TOEHSHlRB (VB8T miDINO). 

At OswurraoRPB raided Onrin the NortliuttilNrimn 
kiBf. 

In OwBTON is Robin Hood*8 well. 

RiBSTONB it remavkable for being the place, where that 
delicious apple eaUed %he ^ RilNitone I^pptn*' was first cul- 
tivated in Eng^land. 

Of Ai^BNBBN was minister the faithful antiquary Mr. 
Watson. 

At RipoN is a beautiful sepulchral memorial to W. Wed- 
dell, esq. of Newby Hall, copied from the Lanthom of De- 
mosthenes at Athens. In the Chapter House are sereral 
paintings on wooden pannels, well executed, representingf 
sixteen persons connected with the throne of England ; and 
some antique curiosities, found in different parts of the 
fabric* 

At Sandal Castle Richard III. resided some time after 
his accession. 

At Sahdbbck is a portnut of the incorruptible patriot 
Sir George Sarile, in a sitting posture, with a map of the 
Calder navigaUon before him. 

In Saxton Church and churchyard were interred the 
Earl of Westmorland, Lords Clifford tod Daero, and many 
of the unfortunate victims of the battle of Towton, 1461. 

SoROOBT was a Davourita hunting-«eat of Archbishop 
Savage, in the time of. Henry :VIL, and the oocasiosial Msi* 
dence of Cardinal Wolsey. 

At Sheffield Manor, Wolsey staid some days in his 
journey from Cawood, and there was. seized wttii> his last 
sickness.-<^In St. Peter's Church wece buried Eilzahetb Coun- 
tess of Lennox, mother of the ill-fated Arabella Stuart ; 
four of the Earls of Shrewsbuvj^ Rollet# the Fiench secre- 
tary of Mary Queen of Soots ; and in IfOQ William Walker, 
the supposed executioner of Charles 1. Here is a monu- 
ment to the Rev. J. Wilkinson, vicar, and the first attempt 



of Chai^trej, who i» ^ natiTe of the vieimty, tp ehisel 
joaarblel 

At SiLKSTON, wherQ he wa9 born, i»^ a« iiia$riptu>n to 
Mr. Joseph Bramah, ^^gii^eer and machinist, wka died 
Dec. 9, 181^ ii^his<66th^ear. 

At SasiiF, Bear Uaiaiv^ <lied in 1708^ aged 108,!Peter 
Ambler. 

At Sntd^ll, in Norm^nton, died, in 1699, James Torre, 
esq. who made extensive MS; collections on the ecclesiastical 
antiquities of this county. 

In SowERBT Chapel is a statue of Archbishop Tillotson» 
erected in compliance with the will of his grand«niece. 

At Stuplby Rotal, the tf^iestry fi^^iuret almost rival 
the finest efforts of the pencil. The pleasure gm>und8 ranl^ 
among the first in the kingdom. 

At SwiNTON are two farms which annually change their 
their parish from Mexborougfa to Wath-upon-Dearn, alter- 
nately. 

Of Thorne was Curate, Abraham de la Pryme, scientific 
illustrator and collector of antiquities, natural history, &c., 
and here he died in 1704.— ^At Double Bridge died July 20, 
1829, aged 103, Mrs. Caroline Gunby, widow. She married 
her second husband when she was 80 years of age. 

At Wakefield Free Grammar Schoal were educated » 
Dr. Bentley; Archbishop Potter; Doctors Ratcliffe and 
Zouch ; and the Rev. Joseph Bingham, author of ** Origi* 
nes Ecclesiasticse/" 

At Warmsworth the celebrated George Fox held meet" 
ings OB the first rise of quakerism. 

WbntWorth House, erected by the first Marquis, of 
Rockingham^ who died in 1750, has many splendid apart- 
ments, adorned with an excellent collection of paintings by 
Guido, Caracci, Titian, Vandyck, Lnca Giordano, Poussin* 
Reynolds, West, &c. In the library is the well-known paiot4 



l08 COUNTY HISTORt — T0EK6UIRB (WEST ^RIDING). 

ing of the first Earl of Strafford dictaling to his Secretary, 
by Vandyck. The old house at Wentworth was a favourite 
retreat of this Earl. From the bosom of the majestic woods 
rises a graceful Doric column, erected by the 2d Marquis of 
Rockingham, to commemorate the acquittal of his gallant 
friend Admiral Keppeh The beautiful mausoleum reared 
by Earl Fitz William in 1788, in honour of the Marquis of 
Rockingham, is 90 feet high. It contains a full-length 
of the noble patriot by Nolleken8,Rurrounded by busts of 
eight of his great political friends, Fox; Burke, Sir George 
Savile, Duke of Portland, Frederick Montague, Admiral 
Keppel, Lord John Cavendish, and John Lee. The in-^ 
scription on the Marquis of Rockingham was written, the 
poetry by Montague, the prose by Burke. 

At Walton Hall, near Wakefield, the seat of Charles 
Waterton, esq. is a fine collection of birds, beasts, and rep- 
tiles, accessible at all times to the public, with an interesting 
catalogue, and a copy of ''The Wanderings" of the pro- 
prietor. 

Wharncliffb is famous for being the scene of the old 
ballad of ** The Dragon of Wantley,'' and a cleft in the 
rock is now called **The Dragon's Den.'' 

In Whitkirk Church is an inscription to John Smeaton, 
the builder of the Eddystone lighthouse. 

In Woodkirk Church was interred Christopher Saxton, 
the first English chorographer. 

At WoRSBROUGH is a cabinet which belonged to Charles 
I., and was brought to the Edmunds family by the marriage 
of the relict of Sir Thomas Herbert, to whom the King 
gave it. To this Sir Thomas the original MS. of the 
"Eikon Basilike" is said to have been delivered. 

At York Constantius Emperor of Home was deified, and 
his sun Constantine the Great invested with the purple. — 
In the list of Archbishops we find the names of St. John of 



MISCELLANBOUS OBSERVATIONS. 109 

BeTerley, St William, Cardinal Wolsey, HerriDg, &c. — ^The 
Minster was fired February 2, 1829, by Jonathan Martin, a 
religious fanatic, brother to the distinguished painter and 
engraver. All the richly carved wood'Work of the choir, 
organ, and roof, with the delicately sculptured stone tracery, 
were entirely destroyed. They have been completely re- 
stored by Sir Robert Smlrke, and toward the expenses, 
upward of £50,000 were raised by public subscription. 
The new organ, which cost about £8,000, was the gift of 
the Hon. and Rev. John Lumley Saville, M.A., Prebendary 
of South Newbold, and subsequently Earl of Scarborough. 
The screen dividing the choir of the Cathedral from the nave, 
was adorned with a series of statues from William I. to 
Henry VI., inclusive. It was damaged by the fire in 1829, but 
has been restored. The east window *^ surpasses all tJiat pen 
can describe, or pencil portray;*' and presents in 117 com- 
partments an illustration of nearly the whole of scripture 
history . The inner vestry contains many objects of curiosity, 
among which are Ulphus's horn, originally surmounted with 
gold, but now with brass ; an antique chair ; and a superb 
pastoral staff. — In the wall of All Saints Church is a sculp- 
tured monument of conjugal affection, of Roman workman- 
ship, llie steeple has some Roman bricks mixed with the 
grit and pebbles. — In St. George's Churchyard were interred 
the remains of Richard Tnrpin, the notorious highwayman, 
executed in 1739. — In Petergate resided the eccentric 
printer and author, Thomas Gent, who here died May 19, 
.1778, aged 87.— From the St. Nicholas Priory Church, the 
curious old porch now at St. Margaret's was removed. — In 
the Church-yard of St. Olave lie the remains of Mr. Joseph 
Halfpenny, who published several works on the antiquities 
of York. — In this city died, in 1803, Tate Wilkinson, aged 
about 63, the celebrated tragedian and mimic, and theatrical 
proprietor. The theatres here and aX Hull were under his 
management for many years* 



no 



Litt of Work* emumUed. 

« 

li Hallmwkin :^-Tfae hiftorj and topognqpky of the paiuh of 
SheAeld, in the oonnty of York, &c. By the Rev. Joseph 
Huiter,F.aA,-r-foli|>, 1819. 

S. Sooth Yorkahtrei^-Thehiftory and topography of the Deanery 
of DoBcaater* in the diocese and comnty of York. By the 
Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A. &c.— 2 vols, folio, 1828-31. 

3. Monasticon Eboracense: and the ecclesiastical history of 
Yorkshire. By John Burton, M.D.— folio, 1758. 

4. The Yorkshire Gazetteer. By E. Hargrave. — 8^0, 1806. 

5. A topographical dictionary of Yorkshire. By Thomas 
Langdale. — 8yo. 

6. Eboracum : or the history and antiquities of the City of 
York. By Fronds Drake, F.R.S.— folio, 1736. 

7. The history and antiquities of liie City of York. — 3 vols. 
12mo, 1785. 

8. Eboracnm t or the history and antiquities of the City of 
York.— 2 vols. 8vo, 1788. 

9. An aocurate description and history of the Catbednd and 
MetropoUtical Church ct St^ Peter, York.— 2 Tola. 12mo, 
1768. 

10. Ducatus Iieodiensis : or the topography of the antient and 
populous town and parish of Leedes. By Ralph Thoresby, 
F.R.S. Edit.' by Rev. Thomas Dunham Mliitaker, LL.D. 
— foUo, 1816. 

11.^ Loidis and Elmete : or, an attempt to illustrate the districts 
described in those words by B'ede, and supposed to embrace 
the lower portions of Aredale and Wharfdale, together with 
the entire Yale of Calder, in the county of York. By Tliomai 
Dunham Whitaker, LL.D.^-^folio, 1816. 

12. Yicaria Leodiensis : or the history of the Church of Leedes. 
By Ralph Thoresby^-— 8to, 1724. 



WORKS- COmuLTBD. Ill 

13. Annala, iuttorj, and guide of Leedi and York, togcthra with 
all the townB uid viliagra of the clothing diatrict of Yottc- 
shire. By WiUiunParsonuidWilliam White.— 13iAo, 1831. 

14. The tkndquities of the tiiwn of Halifax. BjTbomaa Wright. 
— ISmo, 1738. 

15. The hiatorr and antiqaitiea of the parith of Haliiai. By 
the Her. John Wataon. — 4to, I7T5. 

16. The hiatory and aDtiqaitiea of the Deanery of Craven. By 
Thomaa D. Whitaker, LL.D.— Sd edit. 4to, ISIS. 

IT. The hiatory of the original pariib of Whalley and Honor of 
Clltheroe, ia the coantiea of Lancaater and York. By Thos. 
D. Whitoker, LL.D.^-4to, 1806, Sd edit. 

19. The history of Ripon.—l^mo, 1801. 

19. An historical acconnt of the borongh of PontefracL By 
Richard John TeOow.— 8*o, 1769. 

20. The hiatory of the anlieDt bwoagh of PonWfraet. By B. 
Boothroyd.— 8to, 1807. 

31. The hiatory of Pontefi«ct in YoricAire. By George Poi.— 

8yo, 1BS7. 
23. The biMory and antiqnitieR of Doncaster. By Edward Mil- 
ler, Mna. Doc. — 4to> 1B04. 
S3. A topogr^hieal history and description of Bawtry and 

Thome. By W. Peek. — «o, 1B13. 
84. The hiatory of Selby. By James Motintain.— 12mo, 1800. 
35. Thehiatory of thecastle, town.andforestof Knaresbonnigh, 

with Harrogate. By E. HargroTc— flth edit. 12mo, 1B09. 
86. Description of Browaholme Hall. — Ito, 1815. 
ST. A new and complete history of the town an^ connty of the 

town of Kingston-upcn-HoIl. By George Hadley. — Ito, 

1T8B. 
'2e. The history of the town and coonty of Kingaton-npg' 

By the IUt. John Tickell.— 4to, 1798. 

29. Notices relative to the early history ol the town tai 
HnlL By Charles Frost, F.S.A. — 4to, 1>^'27. 

30. Oreenwood's Picture ofHoIl.— 8to, 1B3S. 

31. Th<hi«toi7of BiGhuond.--l3mo, 1814. 



112 WORKS CONSULTED. 

32. The history of Cleveland. By R«y. John GraveB. — 4to, 1808. 

33. The history of Whitby and of Whitby Abbey. By Lionel 
Charlton.— 4to, 1779. 

34. The history of Northallerton. By Miss A. Crosfield.— 8vo, 
1791. 

35. Tha history and antiquities of Scarborough. By Thos. Hin- 
derwell.— 4to, 1798« 3d edit. 8vo, 1832. 

36. The Scarborough Tour in 1803. By W. Hutton, F.A.S.— 
8vo, 1804. 

37. The Scarborough Album of history and poetry. — 8to, 1835. 

38. A trip to Coatham. By W. Button, F.A.S.— 8vo, 1810. 

39. A tour in Teesdale ; including Rokeby and its environs. — 
12mo, 1813. 

40. The history and antiquities of the town and minster of Be- 
verley, CO. York. By Rev. Geo. Oliver. — 4to, 1829. 

41 . Historical sketches of Scalby, Bumiston, &c. By John Cole. 
— 8vo, 1829. 

42. CasteUum Huttonicum : some account of Sheriff Hutton 
Castle, &c. [By the late Mr. George Todd.]— 8vo, 1834. 

43. An historical, antiquarian, and picturesque account of Kirk- 
stall Abbey.— 8 vo, 1827. 

44« The history and antiquities of Filey, in the county of York. 
By John Cole.-^8vo, 1828. 

45. An historical and architectural description of the Priory 
Church of Bridlington. By the Rev. Marmaduke Prickett, 
M.A.— 8vo, 1831. 

46. OcellumPromontorium: or short observations on the antient 
state of Holdemess, with historic facts relative to Raven- 
spume.— 8vo, 1824. [By Thomas Thompson, esq. F.A.S.] 

47. A history of the church and priory of Swine, in Holdemess. 
By Thomas Thompson, esq. F.A.S.— 8vo, 1824. 

48. Illustrations of the scenery on the line of the Whitby and 
Pickering Railway. By Henry Belcher.— 8vo, 1836. 



PRINTED BY J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, 26, PARLIAMENT STREET. 



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